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BANCROFT 


BRARY 


THE  LIBRARY 

OF 

THE  UNIVERSITY 
OF  CALIFORNIA 


ST.  LOUIS 


The  Fourth  City 


1764-1911 


By   WALTER    B.    STEVENS 


"lie  said  he  had  found  a  situation  where  he  was  going  to  form  a 
settlement  which  might  become  one  of  the  finest  cities  of  America." — 
Laclede's  prophecy,  from  the  narrative  of  the  settlement  of  St.  Louis 
by  Auguste  Chouteau. 


ILLUSTRATED 
VOL.  II 


St.  Louis     Chicago 

THE  S.  J.  CLARKE  PUBLISHING  CO. 
1911 


svsv 


COPYRIGHT,  1911 

BY 
THE  S.  J.  CLARKE  PUBLISHING  COMPANY 


MADAME  CHOUTEAU  LA  MERE  DE  ST.  LOUIS 
(Marie  Therese  Bourgeois) 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 


CHAPTER  XVII. 

THE  MEDICAL  PROFESSION 417 

Doctor  Conde's  Ethics  and  Debtors — High  Standards  Maintained  146  Years — Surgeon 
Valleau's  Estate — A  Hospital  and  a  Government  Physician  in  1801 — The  First  Scientist 
of  St.  Louis — Free  Vaccination  for  the  Poor — The  Saugrain  Family — Father  Didier's 
Homely  Remedies — The  First  Mayor's  Appeal  for  Sanitary  Precautions — Bathing  Advo- 
cated as  Protection  Against  Sickness — Miraculous  Surgery  by  Dr.  Farrar — Patent  Medi- 
cines Came  with  the  American  Flag — The  First  Drug  Store  and  the  First  Medical  Student 
— Beaumont 's  Book  of  Worldwide  Fame — Some  St.  Louis  Doctors  Who  Prospered  Notably 
— Medical  Lectures  at  Kemper  College — Heroism  in  the  Cholera  Epidemics — A  Graphic 
Description  of  Dr.  McDowell — The  Colleges  and  Their  Rivalry  Before  the  Civil  War — 
Strange  Fancies  About  Disposition  of  the  Dead — Dr  Charles  Alexander  Pope,  the  Perfect 
Gentleman — Philanthropies  of  the  Profession — Distinguished  Writers  and  Specialists — 
John  Thompson  Hodgen,  the  Beloved — Dr.  Moses  M.  Fallen  on  Duty  to  the  Woman  in 
Travail — Eleven  Medical  Colleges  at  One  Time — Graduates  Who  Won  National  Reputa- 
tions— Progressiveness  of  Medical  Education — Washington  University  Reorganization — 
The  Hospitals — Homeopathy  in  St.  Louis — The  Dental  Profession — "Extracting,  Clean- 
ing, Plugging  and  Strengthening"  in  1809 — The  Barnard  Hospital. 

CHAPTER  XVIII. 

THE  PRODUCTIVE  COMMERCE  439 

A  Century  of  Manufacturing — The  Earliest  Mills — Oxen  and  Water  the  Power  Before 
Steam — Chouteau's  Pond  and  Roy's  Tower — "The  First  Batch"  of  Crackers — 
Grimsley's  Saddle  Factory — Tobacco  Industry  in  1817 — The  Catlins,  the  Liggetts  and 
the  Drummonds — How  Sam  Gaty  Turned  a  Shaft — Early  Workers  in  Metals — A  St.  Louis 
Made  Steamboat  in  1842 — What  ' '  Westward  Ho !  "  Meant  to  the  Four  Schaeffers— The 
Garrisons,  Builders  of  Engines — Days  of  Mechanic  Princes — A  St.  Louis  Stove  the  Sur- 
prise of  the  Fair — An  Industry  Founded  by  the  Bridges — Stove  Manufacture  Revolu- 
tionized by  Giles  F.  Filley — Great  Expectations  of  Vineyards — The  Brewing  of  Beer — 
Forty  Breweries  Before  the  War — Cotton  Manufacturing  Experiments — Stephen  A. 
Douglas  on  St.  Louis  Opportunities — ' '  The  Largest  Beef  and  Pork  Packers  in  the 
Union" — Francis  Whittaker,  the  Ames  Brothers  and  John  J.  Roe — Cheapness  of  Food 
Encouraged  Early  Industries — Audubon  on  This  Land  of  Plenty — An  Expert's  Forecast 
in  1881 — Steamboat  Profits  Turned  Into  Industries — Competition  in  Wooden- ware  Dis- 
tanced— Flour  and  Furniture — First  Among  Cities  in  Many  Specialties — Amazing  Growth 
of  Shoe  Manufacturing — The  Wise  Policy  of  Many  Young  Partners. 

CHAPTER  XIX. 

THE  DISTRIBUTIVE  COMMERCE  463 

A  St.  Louis  Merchant  of  1790 — When  Catfish  Was  Circulating  Medium — Soulard  's  Trade 
Review  of  1805 — Dressed  Deerskins  the  Leading  Article  of  Commerce — "Incalculable 
Riches  Along  the  Missouri" — Prices  of  Staples  in  1815 — The  First  Bookstore — "Heavy 
Groceries" — Henry  Von  Phul,  the  Oldest  Merchant — Collier's  Luck — The  "Dry  Grocery" 
of  Greeley  &  Gale — The  Jaccards — How  Jacob  S.  Merrell  Won  Success — Robert  M. 
Funkhouser's  Start  in  a  Notable  Career — The  Orthweins'  Grain  Experiments — St.  Louis 
Commerce  in  1851 — Era  of  Elevators — Senter  and  the  Cotton  Trade — Pioneer  Incorpora- 
tion— Edward  C.  Simmons  and  His  Pocket  Knife — The  First  Illustrated  Trade  Catalogue 
— Isaac  Wyman  Morton's  Activities — When  Samuel  Cupples  Came  to  St.  Louis — Evolu- 
tion of  Cupples  Station — Shopping  Districts  of  Four  Generations — The  Branch  House 
Policy — Chamber  of  Commerce  and  Merchant's  Exchange — High  Standards  of  Business 
Honor — A  Wonderful  Record  of  Cheerful  Giving — Master  Mechanics  of  St.  Louis  in  1839 
— Arbitration  Substituted  for  Litigation  in  1856 — The  Board  of  Trade  Which  Preceded 
the  Business  Men's  League — The  City's  Importance  Not  Measured  by  Local  Statistics — 
What  St.  Louis  Men  and  Money  Have  Done  in  the  Southwest. 

3 


YKMUM.i    i    iiM; 
iv  TABLE   OF    CONTENTS 

CHAPTER  XX. 

THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 489 

Pastors  and  Citizens — Long  and  Notable  Careers  of  Truman  M.  Post  and  James  H. 
Brookes — How  Montgomery  Schuyler  Faced  the  War  Issue — Archbishop  Kenrick's  Busy 
Days — Thomas  Morrison 's  Sixty  Years  of  Religious  Heroism — The  First  Mass  Under  the 
Trees — The  First  Church — Civic  Proclamations  on  the  Door — Church  and  State  Under 
the  Spanish  Governors — The  First  Protestant  Preacher— How  Trudeau  Winked  at  Baptist 
Meetings — The  Pioneer  of  Presbyterian  ism — Rev.  Salmon  Giddings'  Ride  of  1,200  Miles 
—Contributors  to  the  First  Presbyterian  Meeting  House — Coming  of  Bishop  Dubourg — 
Cathedral  Treasures  of  1821 — Rosati,  First  Bishop  of  St.  Louis — When  Rev.  Mr.  Potts 
was  "the  Rage" — Mormons  in  St.  Louis — Hero  of  the  Cholera  of  1835 — Baptism  of 
Sixteen  Hollanders — The  Religious  Life  as  Charles  Dickens  Saw  It — Close  Association 
of  Kenrick  and  Ryan — The  Walthers  and  the  Lutherans — Religious  Journalism — Bishop 
Tuttle's  Missionary  Experience — New  Churches  of  1900-10 — The  New  Cathedral — An 
Imposing  Ceremonial — The  Issue  of  Sabbath  Observance — Father  Matthew 's  Visit  to  St. 
Louis — ' '  The  Great  Controversy ' ' — Rise  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A. — Evolution  of  the  Provident 
Association — The  Character  of  St.  Louis  Philanthropy. 

CHAPTER  XXI. 

THE  GROWING  OF  ST.  Louis 523 

Laclede's  Landing  Place — Market  Street  the  Dividing  Line — Law  of  the  City's  Develop- 
ment— Francis  P.  Blair's  Prophecy  in  1872 — Earliest  Land  Titles — Improvement  Within 
a  Year  and  a  Day  the  Condition — Deed  of  Mill  Creek  Valley — Auction  Sales  at  the  Church 
Door  on  Sunday — The  Livre  Terrien — St.  Ange's  Land  System  Accepted  by  Spanish 
Governors — Inchoate  Titles  in  1804 — Rights  of  Settlers  Confirmed  by  Congress — Houses 
of  Posts — Southern  Exposure  vs.  East  Piazza — The  Universal  Gallery  of  Colonial  Times — 
American  Mistakes  in  Architecture — "Laclede's  House" — Stone  Mansions — Wooden 
Pegs  for  Nails — Suburban  Estates  Below  Chouteau  Avenue — The  Founder's  Plan  of 
Streets — A  Place  Public  on  the  River  Front — The  Towpath  Custom — After  the  Fire  of 
1849 — Sales  Based  on  Laclede's  Assignments — The  First  Addition — "The  Hill" — 
Enterprise  of  James  H.  Lucas — Jeremiah  Conner's  Plan  for  Washington  Avenue — St. 
Louis  as  Flagg  Saw  it  in  1836 — George  R.  Taylor's  Skyscraper — Yeatman's  Row — The 
American  Street — Newman 's  Folly — Quality  Row — Henry  Clay 's  St.  Louis  Speculation — 
Stoddard  Addition — Conception  of  Grand  Avenue — The  Lindells — Henry  Shaw's  Garden 
— Growth  of  the  Park  System — The  Financial  Street— Separation  of  City  and  County — 
Local  Nomenclature. 

CHAPTER  XXII. 

IN  THE  LIFE  OF  THE  NATION 561 

St.  Louis  and  the  American  Revolution — George  Rogers  Clark 's  Tribute — Francis  Vigo  's 
Part  in  the  Taking  of  Vincennes — Patriotic  Father  Gibault — The  Republican  Spirit  of 
St.  Louis — Bishop  Robertson's  Historical  Researches — The  British  Attack  of  1780 — The 
Haldimand-Sinclair  Correspondence — Pascal  Cerre's  Recollections — Revelations  from 
Canadian  Archives — Beausoleil's  Midwinter  Expedition  to  Michigan — Jefferson's  Secret 
Investigation  at  St.  Louis  Before  the  Cession — Lucas  Chosen  for  a  Delicate  Mission — 
Aaron  Burr 's  Advances  Repulsed  by  St.  Louisans — Deciding  Vote  in  Election  of  President 
Adams — To  the  Everglades — St.  Louis'  Help  for  William  Henry  Harrison — In  the  Mexi- 
can War — Wonderful  Deeds  of  the  Laclede  Rangers — Zachary  Taylor 's  Newspaper  Nomi- 
nation— The  Dred  Scott  Case — St.  Louisans  in  the  Civil  War — An  Army  of  Home  Guards 
Besides  15,310  Volunteers  in  the  Field — Price's  Vanguard  Within  Present  City  Limits — 
Careers  of  Lyon  and  Frost — A  Dream  of  Border  Neutrality — Camp  Jackson — ' '  The  Last 
Man  and  the  Last  Dollar"  for  the  Union — St.  Louis  Radicals  at  the  White  House — Recol- 
lections of  Enos  Clarke — The  Twentieth  Century  Club — Genesis  of  the  Liberal  Republican 
Movement — Gratz  Brown's  Leadership — The  Mistake  of  1872. 

CHAPTER  XXIII. 

ST.  LOUISANS  IN  THE  PUBLIC  EYE 593 

Laclede's  Settlement  as  Pitman  Saw  it  About  1766 — Exploited  by  Charles  Gratiot — The 
First  St.  Louis  Millionaire — John  Mullanphy,  Shrewd,  Eccentric  and  Philanthropic — 
Battle  of  New  Orleans  and  a  Cotton  Corner — A  Political  Center  in  1820 — John  Shack- 
ford's  River  Improvement  Plan — Characteristics  and  Sayings  of  Benton — A  Tribute  to 
Edward  Hempstead — How  Death  Came  to  the  Old  Roman — Bacon,  the  Financial  Leader 
in  3854 — General  E.  D.  Baker's  Humble  Boyhood — Benton 's  Dying  Protest  Against  Anti- 
Slavery  Agitation — Lincoln's  St.  Louis  Newspaper  Alliance — Edward  Bates  in  National 
Politics — Grant,  Sherman,  Schofield  and  Sigel — Captain  Grant 's  Application  to  be  County 
Engineer — Francis  P.  Blair,  Jr. — The  Famous  Broadhead  Letter — Blair  to  Frost  on  Camp 
Jackson — St.  Louisans  in  the  Cabinets  of  Harrison,  Cleveland,  McKinley,  Roosevelt  and 
Taft — Career  of  Ethan  Allen  Hitchcock— Growth  of  Richard  Bartholdt  to  International 
Stature — The  National  Prosperity  Association  of  1908 — Benjamin  F.  Yoakum's  Timely 
Suggestion— E.  C.  Simmons '  Call  Upon  President  Roosevelt — A  Movement  Which  Swept 
the  Country — St.  Louis  "the  Nerve  Center  of  the  United  States." 


TABLE   OF   CONTENTS  v 

CHAPTER  XXIV. 

THE  EDUCATIONAL  LIFE  613 

Maria  Josepha  Rigauche,  Schoolmistress  and  Heroine — Trudeau,  Schoolmaster  and  Patriot 
— The  Song  of  1780 — George  Tompkins '  Debating  Society — Riddick  's  Ride  to  Washington 
to  Save  the  School  Lands — Mother  Duchesne  and  the  Sacred  Heart  Academy — Bishop 
Dubourg's  College  of  1820 — Coming  of  Father  Quickenborne  and  the  Band  of  Jesuits — 
Inception  of  St.  Louis  University — Educational  Work  of  Father  DeSmet  Among  the 
Indians— Captain  Elihu  Hotchkiss  Shepard's  "Boys"— The  First  Public  School  in  1838 
— Wyman's  Cadets — The  Original  High  School — Beginning  of  the  Kindergarten — Stal- 
wart German  Support  of  Free  Education — Evolution  of  Manual  Training — Woodward  and 
His  Ideas  Borrowed  by  Other  Nations — Samuel  Cupples  on  Negro  Education — When 
Wayman  Crow  Wrote  the  Washington  University  Charter — The  Non-Sectarian  Spirit 
Boldly  Emphasized — Edward  Everett  at  the  Inauguration — Dr.  Post's  Forecast  of  the 
University's  Success — Education  as  Self  Made  Men  Idealized  It — Secret  of  Robert  S. 
Brookings'  Success — Life  Work  of  William  Greenleaf  Eliot — Gifts  of  the  "Mechanic 
Princes" — Fifty  Years  of  Development. 

CHAPTER  XXV. 

THE  CULTURE  OF  ST.  Louis 637 

Auguste  Chouteau's  Scientific  Theories — The  Story  of  the  Prehistoric  Footprints — Dr. 
Saugrain's  Laboratory — Sulphur  Springs,  Near  the  River  des  Peres — John  Bradbury's 
Animal  Stories — Varied  Vocations  of  Dr.  Shewe — Lilliput  on  the  Meramec — An  Explora- 
tion for  a  Lost  Race — Discovery  of  Gold  in  the  Illinois  Bluffs — Les  Mamelles,  Near  St. 
Charles — Movement  to  Preserve  "the  Big  Mound" — Early  Mound  Theories  Disputed  by 
Modern  Science — The  Barkis  Club — Henry  Shaw 's  Reminiscences — The  Eden  of  St.  Louis 
— Wyman's  Museum — Dr.  Engelmann's  Meteorological  Record — Adventurous  Career  of 
Adolph  Wislizenus — The  St.  Louis  Philosophic  Movement — William  T.  Harris,  Henry  C. 
Brockmeyer  and  Denton  J.  Snider — Foreign  Guests  and  St.  Louis  Hospitality — Jubilee  of 
Archbishop  Kenrick — Origin  of  Mercantile  Library — The  Public  Library — Houdon's 
Washington  in  Lafayette  Park — The  St.  Louis  Fair — Lottery  Privileges  and  a  Moral 
Uplift — When  Jenny  Lind  Came — Seventy  Years  of  Musical  Interest — Old  Salt  Theater — 
Playhouses  Before  the  Civil  War — Sol  Smith's  Epitaph — Ben  DeBar — The  Reign  of  the 
Veiled  Prophet — A  Third  of  a  Century  of  Popular  Pageants. 

CHAPTER  XXVI. 

THE  MEN  OF  ST.  Louis 665 

Early  Blending  of  Population — Weimar's  Painting  of  "The  Landing" — St.  Louis  the 
Converging  Point  of  Migration — First  Families  of  St.  Louis — Ortes,  the  Companion  of 
Laclede — Four  Sarpy  Brothers — The  Papins — Spanish  Officers  Who  Became  St.  Louisans 
— The  Yostis  and  the  Vigos — Founder  of  the  House  of  Soulard — William  Bissette  's  Gen- 
erous Will — Why  Guipn  Wouldn  't  Wear  a  Uniform — Personal  Honor  of  a  Century  Ago — 
Americans  Who  Came  Before  the  Flag — The  Easton  Family — Major  William  Christy  and 
His  Seven  Daughters — The  Father  of  North  St.  Louis — Coming  of  the  McKnights  .and 
Bradys — Refugees  of  the  French  Revolution — Connecticut's  Notable  Contribution — Erin 
Benevolent  Society  of  1818 — The  Farrars — The  Gratiots — Missouri  Lodge  in  1815 — The 
Billons — The  Morrisons — St.  Louis  Sociologically  in  1835 — German  Immigration — The 
Blow  Family — Emigres  from  the  West  Indies — Friendships  Kossuth  Renewed  in  St.  Louis 
— When  One-third  of  the  Population  Was  of  German  Birth — Census  Returns  Analyzed — 
' '  Most  American  of  Cities ' ' — The  Marylanders — Army  and  Navy  Influences — The  Group 
of  Octogenarians  in  1895 — Moral  Fibre  of  St.  Louisans  Tested  in  Several  Generations. 

CHAPTER  XXVII. 

ST.  Louis  WOMANHOOD  707 

Madame  Marie  Therese  Chouteau — La  Mere  de  St.  Louis — The  Laclede  Family — Heroic 
Qualities  Developed  in  the  Convent-bred  Girl — The  Whole  Settlement  Mothered — Madame 
Chouteau's  Business  Capacity — A  Thousand  Descendants — The  Three  Daughters  and 
Their  Thirty-two  Children — Seven  Daughters  of  the  First  Madame  Sanguinet — Courtesy 
and  Respect  for  Women  Early  Enforced — Marriage  Contracts  Under  the  Spanish  Gover- 
nors— Social  Life  in  1810 — The  Four  Daughters  of  Ichabod  Camp  of  Connecticut — Meet- 
ing of  Manuel  Liza  and  Mary  Hempstead  Keeney — "The  Lone  Woman"  Who  Became 
Madame  Berthold — Kind  Treatment  of  Servants — Organized  Charity  in  1824 — "Enter- 
tainment by  Joseph  Charless ' ' — The  Five  Coalter  Sisters — Ruf  us  Easton 's  Seven  Daugh- 
ters— The  Silk  Culture  Craze  of  1839 — Mrs.  Anne  Lucas  Hunt's  Philanthropies — A 
Woman 's  Influence  in  the  Creation  of  a  Great  Estate — The  Interesting  Mullanphy  Family 
— Loveliest  of  Her  Sex  in  1812 — Virginia  Brides  of  St.  Louis  Pioneers — Heroic  Charac- 
ters of  the  Civil  War  Period — The  Sneed  Sisters  as  Educators — St.  Louis  Newspaper 
Women — The  Wednesday  Club  and  Public  Recreation — A  Traveler's  Tribute  to  St.  Louis 
Business  Women — A  Scholar 's  Estimate  of  St.  Louis  Domestic  Life. 


vi  TABLE   OF   CONTENTS 

CHAPTEE  XXVIII. 

THE  USEFUL  CITIZEN  737 

Laclede's  Sound  Judgment — The  Crisis  of  Organization — A  Plan  of  Settlement  Which 
Endured — St.  Ange  and  the  Government  He  Headed — The  First  Labor  Issue  in  the  Com- 
munity— Thornton  Grimsley,  the  Wise  Man  of  the  Hour — How  St.  Louis  Dealt  with  a 
Cholera  Epidemic — Masterful  Treatment  of  Know  Nothing  Eiots — John  O'Fallon,  Apostle 
of  Civic  Spirit — O.  D.  Filley  and  the  Committee  of  Public  Safety — The  Feverish  Winter 
and  Spring  of  1861 — Formation  of  the  Union  Eegiments — A  Secret  Mission  to  Jefferson 
Davis — Cannon  with  Which  to  Bombard  the  Arsenal — Arrival  of  "Tamaroa  Marble" — 
Lyon's  Council  of  War — A  Divided  Committee — The  March  on  Camp  Jackson — City's 
Baptism  of  Blood — Eioting  Suppressed  by  Mayor  Daniel  G.  Taylor — The  Panic  of  Sunday 
— Harney  Eelieved  and  Lyon  Promoted — Moral  Courage  of  William  G.  Eliot — The  Pro- 
test Against  Assessment  of  Southern  Sympathizers — Sudden  and  Peremptory  Instructions 
from  Washington — Western  Sanitary  Commission — James  E.  Yeatman's  Great  Work  of 
Belief — Author  of  the  Plan  of  the  Freedmen  's  Bureau — Mr.  Yeatman  Asked  to  Solve 
"the  Cotton  and  Negro  Questions" — The  Safety  Committee  of  1877 — Dictation  to  State 
and  City  by  Workingmen's  Associations — The  Great  Eailroad  Strike — Settled  Without 
Loss  of  Life  in  St.  Louis — The  Police  Eeserves — Business  Men's  League  and  Civic  Fed- 
eration— The  Eight  Years  of  the  World's  Fair  Mayor. 

CHAPTEE  XXIX. 

THE  WORLD  's  FAIR 765 

Centennial  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase — Pierre  Chouteau's  Suggestion — Initial  Action  by 
the  Missouri  Historical  Society — The  Committee  of  Fifty — ' '  Design  and  Form  of  Cele- 
bration" Long  Considered — "Some  Form  of  Exposition"  Eecommended — Convention  of 
State  and  Territorial  Delegates — Preliminary  Organization  of  Two  Hundred — Capital 
Stock,  City  Bonds  and  Government  Appropriation — Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  Com- 
pany Formed — Heavy  Financial  Obligations  Assumed — The  Clean  Work  Done  at  Wash- 
ington— Stockholders  Classified — William  H.  Thompson,  "the  Hitching  Post" — Unpre- 
cedented Becord  of  Collections — High  Ideals  of  the  Exposition  Management — President 
McKinley's  Proclamation — Eadical  Departure  in  Exposition  Organization — President 
and  Four  Directors  of  Divisions — Man  of  the  World 's  Fair  Hour — The  Devoted  Executive 
Committee — Foreign  Participation  That  Broke  Precedents — Bepresenation  from  Forty- 
three  States  and  Five  Territories — Processes  Bather  Than  Products,  the  Plan  and  Scope — 
New  Wants  Born  to  Millions — The  Educational  Motive — Admissions,  19,694,855 — A  Besi- 
dent  Population  of  20,000 — Analysis  of  the  Attendance — Exposition  Life — The  428  Con- 
ventions— Eevenues  and  Expenditures — World's  Fair  and  the  Press — The  University 
Belationship — Material  Gains  of  St.  Louis — Jefferson  Monument. 

CHAPTEB  XXX. 

CENTENNIAL  WEEK  801 

The  Century  of  Incorporation — Seven  Days  of  Celebration — Organization  and  Prepara- 
tion— Policy  of  the  Executive  Committee — The  Coliseum  Dressed — A  Court  of  Honor — 
Decorations  and  Illumination — Music  Day  and  Night — Historical  Tablets — Planning  the 
Pageants — The  Torpedo  Flotilla — Church  Day — Archbishop  Glennon  on  the  City's  Indi- 
viduality— The  444  Beligious  Organizations — Dr.  Niccolls'  Historical  Sermon— Sunday 
Schools  at  the  Coliseum — The  Parishes  on  Art  Hill — Welcome  to  400  Mayors — The  Civic 
League  Luncheon — Flight  of  the  Sphericals — Welcome  Mass  Meeting — Centennial  Water 
Pageant — Beception  on  'Change  and  Luncheon  by  Merchants — Veiled  Prophet,  Pageant 
and  Ball — Municipal  Parade — Corner  Stone  Ceremonies — Police  Beview — The  Dirigibles 
in  Forest  Park — Three  Miles  of  Industries  on  Floats — First  Flight  of  Curtiss — Ball  of 
All  Nations — Historic  Floats — March  of  the  Educational  Brigades — Twilight  Flight  by 
Curtiss — German-American  Entertainment — Automobile  Parade — Dedication  of  Fair- 
ground— Curtiss  at  Forest  Park — Get-together  Banquet — Eeview  of  Centennial  Week — 
Visitors  Numbered  150,000 — A  Statue  of  Laclede,  the  Founder. 


CHAPTER  XVII. 
THE  MEDICAL  PROFESSION 

Doctor  Conde's  Ethics  and  Debtors — High  Standards  Maintained  146  Tears — Surgeon  Val- 
leau's  Estate — A  Hospital  and  a  Government  Physician  in  1801 — The  First  Scientist  of 
St.  Louis — Free  Vaccination  for  the  Poor — The  Saugrain  Family — Father  Didier's 
Homely  Remedies — The  First  Mayor's  Appeal  for  Sanitary  Precautions — Bathing  Advo- 
cated as  Protection  Against  Sickness — Miraculous  Surgery  by  Dr.  Farrar — Patent  Medi- 
cines Came  with  the  American  Flag — The  First  Drug  Store  and  the  First  Medical  Student 
• — Beaumont 's  Book  of  Worldwide  Fame — Some  St.  Louis  Doctors  Who  Prospered  Notably 
— Medical  Lectures  at  Kemper  College — Heroism  in  the  Cholera  Epidemics — A  Graphic 
Description  of  Dr.  McDowell — The  Colleges  and  Their  Rivalry  Before  the  Civil  War — 
Strange  Fancies  About  Disposition  of  the  Dead — Dr.  Charles  Alexander  Pope,  the  Perfect 
Gentleman — Philanthropies  of  the  Profession — Distinguished  Writers  and  Specialists — 
John  Thompson  Hodgen,  the  Beloved — Dr.  Moses  M.  Fallen  on  Duty  to  the  Woman  in 
Travail — Eleven  Medical  Colleges  at  One  Time — Graduates  Who  Won  National  Reputations 
— Progressiveness  of  Medical  Education — Washington  University  Reorganization — The 
Hospitals — Homeopathy  in  St.  Louis — The  Dental  Profession — "Extracting,  Cleaning, 
Plugging  and  Strengthening"  in  1809 — The  Barnard  Hospital. 

Doctor  Saugrain  gives  notice  of  the  first  vaccine  matter  brought  to  St.  Louis.  Indigent 
persons  vaccinated  gratuitously. — Missouri  Gazette,  March  26,  1809. 

Science  and  humanity  have  gone  hand-in-hand  with  the  medical  profession 
of  St.  Louis.  When  the  first  doctor  died,  it  was  found  that  232  people  owed 
him  for  services.  The  doctor  was  Andre  Auguste  Conde.  He  came  to  St. 
Louis  from  Fort  Chartres  the  year  after  Laclede  founded  the  settlement.  He 
established  a  high  standard  of  ethics  and  the  doctors  of  St.  Louis  have  lived 
up  to  it  146  years.  Frederic  L.  Billon,  the  authority  on  St.  Louis  antiquities, 
concluded,  after  some  investigation,  that  Conde's  list  of  debtors  was  almost  a 
directory  of  the  families  of  St.  Louis  and  Cahokia  for  the  ten  years  the  good 
doctor  lived  here. 

The  second  doctor  that  came  to  St.  Louis  was  Jean  Baptiste  Valleau. 
He  was  French  but  was  in  the  Spanish  service,  being  surgeon  of  the  force  which 
Ulloa  sent  to  build  forts  at  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  in  1768.  Dr.  Valleau, 
evidently,  intended  to  stay;  he  applied  to  St.  Ange  to  assign  him  a  lot  and 
entered  into  a  contract  for  the  building  of  a  house.  The  site  given  him  was 
on  Second  and  Pine  streets  where  the  Gay  building  was  erected  long  after- 
wards. Dr.  Valleau  furnished  the  iron  and  nails.  Tousignau,  the  carpenter, 
agreed  to  supply  the  posts  and  do  all  of  the  work  on  a  house  eighteen  feet  long 
by  fourteen  feet  wide  for  $60.  In  the  performance  of  his  professional  duties 
Valleau  made  frequent  trips  to  Bellefontaine  on  the  Missouri  where  the  Span- 
iards were  building  the  forts.  Exposure  to  the  hot  sun  brought  on  sickness. 
Within  a  year  after  his  coming,  Dr.  Valleau  made  his  will  and  died.  One 
of  the  principal  assets  of  his  estate  was  a  box  of  playing  cards,  a  gross  of 
packs.  Martin  Duralde,  the  executor,  had  considerable  trouble  in  disposing  of 
the  cards.  The  number  of  packs  depressed  the  market.  He  waited  two  or 

417 
1  I  VOL.  II. 


418  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

three  years  and  held  an  auction.  In  the  history  of  St.  Louis  Dr.  Valleau's  will 
is  the  first  recorded.  The  village  was  four  and  a  half  years  old  when  he  died. 

After  Valleau  came  Doctors  Antoine  Reynal,  Bernard  Gibkins,  Claudio 
Mercier  and  Joachim  Gingembre.  These  were  residents  for  varying  periods 
under  the  Spanish  governors.  When  Doctor  Mercier  died,  he  freed  his  slave 
and  gave  $100  to  the  poor. 

In  1801,  responding  to  several  successive  appeals,  the  Spanish  authority 
at  New  Orleans,  concluded  that  St.  Louis  had  attained  the  importance  justi- 
fying a  hospital  and  a  government  physician.  Morales  wrote  to  Delassus: 

In  accordance  with  what  the  Marquis  of  Casa  Calvo  agreed  with  my  predecessor 
regarding  a  hospital  and  physician  for  the  town  of  San  Luis  de  Illinois,  it  is  determined 
that  a  physician  shall  be  appointed  and  that  he  shall  have  a  salary  of  $30  a  month.  The 
appointment  shall  be  given  to  Don  Antonio  Saugrain.  A  comfortable  room  shall  be 
arranged  in  the  quarters  designed  for  a  hospital.  This  accountant's  office  is  to  supply  every- 
thing necessary  for  twelve  beds  and  from  this  capital  (New  Orleans)  all  of  the  medicines 
that  will  be  required  will  be  sent.  Don  Antonio  Saugrain  will  not  get  his  salary  until  you 
have  appointed  him.  He  must  keep  account  of  all  of  the  medicines  used  annually  and  the 
statement  must  be  sent  to  this  office  written  in  Spanish.  The  medicines  will  be  used  only 
by  the  troop  and  marine  of  the  king  who  may  enter  the  hospital.  If  other  people  should  be 
admitted  to  the  hospital  they  must  pay  for  the  medicines  at  the  existing  prices  in  the  market. 

To  St.  Louis,  in  1800,  came  a  physician  and  scientist  who  was  to  leave 
his  impression  on  the  community.  Dr.  Antoine  Francois  Saugrain  may  be 
called  the  father  of  the  medical  profession  of  St.  Louis  and  the  profession 
may  feel  honored  thereby.  He  came  to  the  United  States  on  the  advice  of 
Benjamin  Franklin  when  the  latter  was  minister  to  France.  The  young 
Frenchman,  born  in  Versailles,  highly  educated  and  with  developed  taste 
for  scientific  investigation  impressed  Mr.  Franklin  as  the  kind  of  a  man  to 
make  a  valuable  American.  His  first  experience  in  this  country  was  rather 
disheartening.  After  living  nine  years  with  the  unfortunate  French  colony 
of  Gallipolis  on  the  Ohio  river,  Dr.  Saugrain  floated  down  the  Ohio  and  made 
his  way  to  St.  Louis  four  years  before  the  American  occupation.  With  the 
Saugrains  came  the  Michauds  of  Gallipolis.  Dr.  Saugrain  had  married  Genevieve 
Rosalie  Michaud,  eldest  of  the  daughters  of  John  Michaud.  Two  little  girls, 
Rosalie  and  Eliza  Saugrain,  made  the  journey.  They  became  the  wives  of  Henry 
Von  Phul  and  James  Kennerly,  the  merchants.  Other  daughters  of  Dr.  Saugrain 
married  Major  Thomas  O'Neil,  of  the  United  States  army,  and  John  W.  Reel, 
the  St.  Louis  merchant.  Descendants  of  the  Saugrains  and  Michauds  are 
numerous  in  this  generation  of  St.  Louisans. 

Possibly  the  reason  that  the  medical  profession  had  attracted  so  little 
attention  up  to  the  coming  of  the  Saugrains  was  because  of  the  good  health 
which  the  community  enjoyed.  The  eldest  daughter  of  the  doctor  remembered 
that  when  the  family  first  came  to  St.  Louis  there  were  few  cases  of  sickness. 
When  Dr.  Saugrain  came,  he  discovered  that  the  habitants  were  accustomed 
to  go  to  Father  Didier,  the  priest,  when  they  felt  bad.  Father  Didier  would 
fix  up  teas  from  herbs  and  give  simple  remedies,  without  professing  to  be 
educated  in  medicine.  Dr.  Saugrain  was  a  botanist.  He  depended  largely 
upon  vegetable  compounds  and  upon  brews  from  herbs  which  he  grew  in  a 
wonderful  garden  that  surrounded  his  house,  or  gathered  in  the  wild  state. 


THE    MEDICAL    PROFESSION  419 

The  first  case  of  smallpox  appeared  in  St.  Louis  the  year  after  Dr.  Sau- 
grain  came.  With  it  came  a  problem  that  appealed  to  the  scientific  mind. 
The  virtue  of  vaccination  was  accepted  by  Dr.  Saugrain.  As  soon  as  he  could 
supply  himself  with  the  material,  Dr.  Saugrain  began  a  campaign  of  educa- 
tion. He  published  cards  in  the  Gazette  explaining  the  preventive.  He  in- 
formed "such  physicians  and  other  intelligent  persons  as  reside  beyond  the 
limits  of  his  accustomed  practice  that  he  will  with  much  pleasure  upon  appli- 
cation furnish  them  with  vaccine  infection."  But  especially  noteworthy,  and 
characteristic  of  the  medical  profession  in  St.  Louis  in  all  its  history,  was 
the  philanthropic  position  taken  by  Dr.  Saugrain  toward  those  so  unfortunate  as 
to  be  unable  to  protect  themselves.  "Persons  in  indigent  circumstances,"  he 
wrote  to  the  Gazette,  "paupers  and  Indians  will  be  vaccinated  and  attended 
gratis." 

From  the  days  when  St.  Louis  chose  a  doctor  for  the  first  mayor  of  the 
new  city,  the  medical  profession  has  done  for  St.  Louis  far  more  than  to  pre- 
scribe for  physical  ails.  That  first  mayor,  Dr.  William  Carr  Lane,  in  his 
inaugural  message,  1823,  said:  "Health  is  a  primary  object,  and  there  is 
much  more  danger  of  disease  originating  at  home  than  of  its  seeds  coming 
from  abroad.  I  recommend  the  appointment  of  a  board  of  health  to  be  selected 
from  the  body  of  citizens,  with  ample  powers  to  search  out  and  remove  nui- 
sances, and  to  do  whatever  else  may  conduce  to  general  health.  This  place 
has  of  late  acquired  a  character  for  unhealthfulness  which  it  did  not  formerly 
bear  and  does  not  deserve.  I  am  credibly  informed  that  it  is  not  many. years 
since  a  fever  of  high  grade  was  rarely,  if  ever  seen.  To  what  is  the  distressing 
change  attributable?  May  we  not  say  principally  to  the  insufficiency  of  our 
police  regulations?  What  is  the  present  condition  of  yards,  drains,  etc.?  May 
we  not  dread  the  festering  heat  of  next  summer?  If  this  early  warning  had 
been  heeded,  St.  Louis  might  have  escaped  or  minimized  the  series  of  terrible 
cholera  epidemics  which  began  in  the  next  decade. 

Progress  in  sanitary  conveniences  was  shown  by  the  newspaper  announce- 
ment in  1829  that  "the  new  bathing  establishment  of  Mr.  J.  Sparks  &  Co.  has 
about  thirty-five  visitors,  and  of  that  number  not  one  has  experienced  an  hour's 
sickness  since  the  bathing  commenced ;  we  should,  for  the  benefit  of  the  city,  be 
glad  there  were  more  encouragement,  and,  as  the  season  is  partly  over,  tickets 
have  been  reduced  to  one  dollar  the  season." 

The  distinction  of  being  the  first  American  physician  and  surgeon  to  es- 
tablish himself  permanently  west  of  the  Mississippi  belongs  to  Bernard  Gaines 
Farrar.  Born  in  Virginia  and  reared  in  Kentucky,  young  Dr.  Farrar,  on  the 
advice  of  his  brother-in-law,  Judge  Coburn,  came  to  St.  Louis  to  live  two  years 
after  the  American  occupation.  He  was  just  of  age.  Dr.  Charles  Alexander 
Pope  described  Farrar  as  a  man  of  most  tender  sensibilities,  so  tender-hearted 
that  he  seemed  to  suffer  with  his  patients.  And  yet,  before  he  had  been  in  St. 
Louis  three  years,  Dr.  Farrar  performed  a  surgical  operation  which  for  a  gen- 
eration was  a  subject  of  marvel  in  the  settlements  and  along  the  trails  of  the 
Mississippi  valley.  The  patient  was  young  Shannon,  who  had  made  the  journey 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  with  Lewis  and  Clark.  Going  with  a  second  gov- 
ernment expedition  to  find  the  sources  of  the  Missouri,  Shannon  was  shot  by 


420  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

Blackfoot  Indians.  He  was  brought  down  the  river  to  St.  Louis,  arriving  in 
very  bad  condition.  Dr.  Farrar  amputated  the  leg  at  the  thigh.  Shannon  re- 
covered, went  to  school,  became  a  highly  educated  man  and  served  on  the  bench 
in  Kentucky.  He  never  failed  to  give  Dr.  Farrar  the  credit  of  saving  his  life. 
The  St.  Louis  surgeon  went  on  performing  what  in  those  days  were  surgical 
miracles.  Older  members  of  the  St.  Louis  profession  always  believed  that 
Farrar  antedated  Sansom  in  the  performance  of  a  very  delicate  operation  on 
the  bladder,  although  Sansom,  by  reason  of  making  publication  first,  is  given 
the  credit  in  medical  history.  Dr.  Farrar  died  of  the  cholera  in  the  epidemic 
of  1849.  He  was  the  man  universally  regarded  as  the  dean  of  the  medical  pro- 
fession of  St.  Louis  in  that  day.  It  was  said  of  Dr.  Farrar  that  he  was  the 
physician  and  surgeon  most  devoted  to  the  duties  of  his  profession ;  that  he  took' 
very  little  recreation ;  that  he  did  not  indulge  in  the  sports  of  fishing  and  hunting 
which  were  common.  Dr.  Charles  A.  Pope  pronounced  before  the  medical 
association  a  eulogy  in  which  he  declared  that  the  acts  of  benevolence  and  the 
charity  performed  by  Dr.  Farrar  at  the  time  when  there  was  no  hospital  or 
asylum  in  the  city  were  "unparalleled." 

"Patent  medicines"  followed  the  American  flag  into  St.  Louis.  They 
were  here  when  Colonel  Charless  began  to  publish  the  Gazette.  Within  a  month 
after  the  inaugural  number,  the  Gazette  was  advertising  cough  drops,  balsam  of 
honey,  British  oil,  bilious  pills,  essence  of  peppermint.  Four  years  later,  Dr. 
Robert  Simpson,  a  young  Marylander  who  had  come  to  St.  Louis  as  assistant 
surgeon  in  the  army,  opened  the  first  drug  store  in  St.  Louis,  associating  with 
himself  Dr.  Quarles.  Dr.  Simpson  became  postmaster  and  in  the  fifty  years  of 
his  life  in  St.  Louis  had  a  varied  experience.  He  went  into  local  politics  and 
held  the  offices  of  collector  and  of  sheriff.  In  his  more  active  years  it  was  said 
of  him  that  he  knew  personally  everybody  living  in  St.  Louis  and  most  of  the 
people  in  the  county.  He  engaged  in  mercantile  life,  was  cashier  of  the  first 
savings  bank,  the  Boatmen's,  was  chosen  comptroller  of  the  city  several  times 
and  went  to  the  Legislature. 

The  first  medical  student  west  of  the  Mississippi  was  Meredith  Martin. 
He  was  a  young  Kentuckian  who  came  to  St.  Louis  and  read  medical  books 
in  the  office  of  Dr.  Farrar  in  1828.  There  was  no  medical  school  here.  After 
he  had  read  the  books,  Martin  went  to  Philadelphia  and  took  a  degree.  He 
came  back  to  St.  Louis  to  practice  and  had  a  strenuous  beginning.  Almost  im- 
mediately he  was  given  a  commission  to  go  to  the  Indian  Territory  and  vaccinate 
the  Indians.  This  was  a  work  of  months.  Dr.  Martin  returned  to  St.  Louis  to 
find  the  city  passing  through  its  first  terrible  visitation  of  cholera.  He  lived  to 
be  one  of  the  oldest  physicians  in  St.  Louis  and  was  three  times  elected  president 
of  the  St.  Louis  Medical  society. 

A  highly  educated  son  of  Maryland  who  joined  the  medical  profession  in 
St.  Louis,  a  representative  of  one  of  the  families  of  Revolutionary  patriots, 
was  Dr.  Stephen  W.  Adreon.  He  came  in  1832.  After  some  years  of  practice 
he,  like  many  other  members  of  his  profession,  took  an  interest  in  civic  matters 
and  served  as  a  member  of  the  city  council  under  three  mayors,  Kennett,  King 
and  Filley.  As  president  of  the  board  of  health,  Dr.  Adreon  had  much  to  do 
with  the  development  of  that  department  of  the  municipal  government.  He 


DR.  CHARLES  W.  STEVENS 


A  DOCTOR'S  OFFICE  IN  1909 


DR.   JOHN    B.   JOHNSON 


McDOWELL'S   COLLEGE 
At  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  war 


DR.  PHILIP  WEIGEL  DR.    B.    G.    FARRAR 

THE  MEDICAL  PROFESSION 


THE   MEDICAL    PROFESSION  421 

was  also,  toward  the  close  of  his  active  career,  health  officer  and  one  of  the 
managers  of  the  House  of  Refuge. 

Connection  with  the  army  brought  to  St.  Louis  notable  members  of  the 
medical  profession.  The  most  distinguished  of  these,  probably,  was  a  surgeon 
of  Connecticut  birth.  Dr.  William  Beaumont  had  been  a  surgeon  in  the  regular 
army  about  twenty  years  when,  after  being  stationed  for  some  time  at  Jefferson 
Barracks  and  the  arsenal,  he  resigned  and  made  his  home  in  St.  Louis.  That 
was  about  1832.  While  he  was  living  here  Dr.  Beaumont  brought  out  a  book 
which  gave  him  worldwide  fame.  He  called  it  "Physiology  of  Digestion  and 
Experiments  on  the  Gastric  Juice."  That  wasn't  a  title  to  arouse  much  curiosity 
among  laymen,  but  when  the  story  got  into  circulation,  interest  was  not  confined 
to  the  profession.  During  the  time  that  Dr.  Beaumont  was  at  an  army  post  on 
the  Canadian  frontier  he  was  called  upon  to  attend  Alexis  St.  Martin,  a  boatman. 
Martin  had  been  shot  in  such  a  manner  as  to  leave  a  hole  in  his  stomach.  The 
wound  healed,  but  the  hole  did  not  close.  Dr.  Beaumont  carried  on  a  long 
series  of  experiments.  He  observed  the  operation  of  digestion  under  many 
conditions.  St.  Martin  ate  solids  and  drank  liquids  under  the  doctor's  direc- 
tions. The  doctor  looked  into  the  stomach,  watched  and  timed  the  progress. 
He  was  able  to  give  from  actual  observation  the  effects  produced  by  various  kinds 
of  foods  and  drinks  upon  the  stomach. 

Some  of  these  young  physicians  who  settled  in  St.  Louis  combined  sound 
business  qualifications  with  professional  standing.  Dr.  Alexander  Marshall, 
who  was  born  eight  miles  from  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  made  a  careful  tour  of 
observation  of  American  cities  before  he  decided  upon  St.  Louis  in  1840  as  his 
permanent  location.  He  had  $600  when  he  came  here  and  gave  himself  six 
months  to  live  on  that  while  making  acquaintances.  But  before  the  half  year 
of  probation  was  up,  Dr.  Marshall  had  not  only  become  self-supporting  on  his 
practice,  but  had  added  $600  to  his  nestegg.  He  continued  to  practice  in  St. 
Louis  and  accumulated  an  estate  of  $300,000. 

Henry  Van  Studdiford  was  intended  for  the  ministry  by  his  New  Jersey 
relatives,  but  his  natural  bent  and  education  took  him  into  the  profession  of 
medicine.  He  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1839,  invested  the  surplus  earnings  from  his 
practice  in  real  estate.  He  did  this  so  judiciously  that  he  became  one  of  the 
wealthiest  members  of  his  profession  in  this  city.  He  married  a  daughter  of 
Colonel  Martin  Thomas,  the  army  officer  who  established  and  commanded  the 
St.  Louis  arsenal. 

The  first  medical  lecture  delivered  west  of  the  Mississippi  was  by  Dr. 
John  S.  Moore,  from  North  Carolina.  On  the  basis  of  a  fine  classical  education 
he  started  for  Philadelphia,  at  that  early  day  the  center  of  medical  education  in 
the  United  States,  to  complete  his  studies  and  "get  a  diploma."  Meeting  Dr. 
McDowell,  he  was  induced  to  stop  in  Cincinnati,  and  became  a  member  of  the 
first  class  of  the  Cincinnati  Medical  college,  graduating  in  1832.  As  the  youngest 
member  of  the  faculty  of  the  medical  department  of  Kemper  college,  with 
which  medical  education  began  in  St.  Louis,  Dr.  Moore  delivered  that  first 
lecture. 

Charles  W.  Stevens  was  a  member  of  the  Kemper  college  medical  faculty. 
He  was  one  of  the  first  graduates  of  that  institution.  Coming  west  from  his 


422  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

New  York  home  to  be  a  civil  engineer  and  surveyor,  when  he  was  about  of 
age,  Stevens  found  that  profession  unpromising  and  took  up  the  study  of  medi- 
cine. Diseases  of  the  nervous  system  became  his  specialty  and  he  was  superin- 
tendent and  physician  of  the  St.  Louis  Insane  Asylum.  Kemper  college  was 
located  where  the  asylum  was  afterwards  built.  Dr.  Stevens  went  to  his  charge 
of  the  city's  wards  on  the  same  hilltop  in  southwest  St.  Louis  where  he  had 
studied  medicine  and  had  lectured  a  quarter  of  a  century  before.  The  first  class 
of  young  doctors  graduated  at  Kemper  included  Dr.  E.  S.  Frazier,  a  young  Ken- 
tuckian,  who  married  a  sister  of  Dr.  John  S.  Moore  and  joined  the  profession  in 
St.  Louis. 

Dr.  Edwin  Bathurst  Smith,  a  Virginian,  member  of  an  old  family  of  that 
state,  before  he  came  to  St.  Louis  had  been  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Louis- 
iana Medical  college.  He  had  been  the  first  physician  to  give  yellow  fever  pa- 
tients cold  drinks  to  allay  the  fever.  He  went  through  the  first  cholera  epidemic 
of  this  country,  that  of  1832,  and  won  high  reputation  as  an  authority.  After 
settling  in  St.  Louis  he  devoted  the  most  of  his  attention  to  the  sciences  and  was 
one  of  a  coterie  which  half  a  century  ago  gave  St.  Louis  worldwide  fame  in 
scientific  matters. 

The  cholera  epidemics  developed  heroic  qualities  in  the  medical  profes- 
sion of  St.  Louis.  Dr.  Hardage  Lane,  a  cousin  of  the  first  mayor  of  St.  Louis, 
Dr.  William  Carr  Lane,  devoted  himself  day  and  night  to  cholera  patients  in 
1849,  until  he  was  overcome  with  physical  exhaustion,  dying  after  a  brief  illness. 

In  the  fall  of  1838  Dr.  Joseph  N.  McDowell  began  to  lecture  to  the  students 
of  Kemper  college.  His  subject  was  the  history  of  man.  He  illustrated  his 
talks  with  skulls  of  the  different  races.  The  lectures  were  fascinating.  Students 
wanted  more.  Dr.  McDowell  built  a  medical  college,  not  the  great  pile  of 
masonry  which  looked  like  a  massive  fort ;  that  came  later.  The  first  McDowell 
college  was  a  small  brick  building.  There  the  young  men  of  St.  Louis  flocked 
to  him  for  medical  education.  Architecturally,  McDowell's  college  was  as 
original  as  the  founder.  A  large  stove  in  the  amphitheater  of  his  first  college 
building  gave  Dr.  McDowell  the  suggestion  of  an  octagon  building.  This  plan 
was  carried  out  as  far  as  means  would  permit.  The  octagon  building  was  to  be 
eight  stories  in  height.  It  was  started  with  foundations  eight  feet  thick  but 
never  reached  the  height  designed.  In  the  center  was  a  column  of  masonry 
which  was  to  form  the  peak  of  the  roof.  In  this  massive  column  Dr.  McDowell 
intended  to  have  niches  in  which  to  place  the  copper  cases  containing  the  bodies 
of  members  of  his  family. 

From  the  Christian  Brothers'  academy,  northward  toward  the  city  was  open 
space.  It  extended  toward  Mill  Creek  and  the  famous  mill.  The  creek  ran 
under  a  culvert  where  Seventh  street  crossed.  This  open  space  Dr.  McDowell 
appropriated  for  his  patriotic  celebrations.  He  encouraged  his  devoted  medical 
students  to  make  much  of  Washington's  Birthday  and  of  the  Fourth  of  July. 
Several  cannon  were  included  in  the  equipment  of  McDowell's  Medical  college. 
They  had  been  obtained  originally  for  moral  effect  at  a  time  when  popular 
prejudice  was  easily  inflamed  against  dissecting  rooms.  And  when  a  national 
holiday  came  around,  the  head  of  the  institution  took  evident  satisfaction  in 
showing  the  community  that  he  and  his  constituency  knew  how  to  shoot  them. 


THE    MEDICAL    PROFESSION  423 

The  cannon  were  not  mounted  upon  wheeled  carriages  but  that  did  not  deter 
Dr.  McDowell.  Wearing  a  three-cornered  hat  of  the  continentals,  with  feathers 
bristling  from  it,  having  a  large  cavalry  sabre  strapped  to  his  waist,  McDowell 
would  lead  his  students  carrying  the  cannon  to  the  vacant  space.  The  guns  were 
placed  on  sawbucks  for  support.  Dr.  McDowell  superintended  the  loading  and 
firing.  In  loud  and  emphatic  language  he  gave  his  orders,  encouraging  much 
cheering  and  telling  his  followers  to  "make  Rome  howl."  That  was  one  of 
the  doctor's  favorite  forms  of  appeal.  J 

Those  days  of  patriotic  outburst  by  Dr.  McDowell  and  the  medical  students 
were  observed  in  very  different  spirit  by  the  Christian  Brothers  and  their  pupils. 
Brother  Jasper  was  in  charge  of  the  playground.  The  coming  of  the  medical 
body  was  the  signal  for  Brother  Jasper  to  assemble  the  students  of  the  academy 
and  to  marshal  them  to  a  place  of  safety.  The  Brothers,  viewing  the  reckless 
manner  in  which  Dr.  McDowell  conducted  the  salutes  in  honor  of  the  day,  had 
no  doubt  there  would  sometime  be  an  explosion,  with  loss  of  life  or  limb.  There 
was  strong  suspicion  that  the  evident  apprehension  of  the  Brothers  stimulated 
Dr.  McDowell  to  louder  and  more  violent  language  and  to  greater  demonstrations 
on  his  holidays.  The  more  marked  the  disturbance  of  the  Brothers  became,  the 
greater  seemed  the  satisfaction  of  the  doctor.  And  yet  it  was  not  malevolence, 
for  Dr.  McDowell  would  speak  well  of  his  neighbors.  One  day  returning  from 
the  celebration  on  the  vacant  space,  the  doctor  thrust  his  head  in  at  an  open 
window  of  the  academy  and  loudly  declared  with  unquotable  emphasis  that  if 
he  had  a  boy  young  enough  to  go  to  school  he  would  send  him  to  the  Brothers. 

Dr.  Warren  B.  Outten,  the  surgeon,  was  a  boy  student  at  the  Christian 
Brothers'  academy,  as  it  was  called  in  the  decade  of  1850-60.  His  recollection 
of  the  militant  head  of  McDowell's  Medical  college  remained  vivid  through  all 
of  the  years  that  followed: 

He  was  a  tall,  slim  man,  with  clean  cut  features  and  cleanly  shaven  face.  His  hair 
was  gray  and  combed  straight  back  from  his  forehead  after  the  manner  of  Calhoun.  Dr. 
McDowell  was  to  each  and  every  student  of  the  academy  a  marked  and  wonderful  character. 
His  intensity  and  tendency  toward  profanity,  his  high  pitched  voice,  his  swaggering  and 
independent  bearing  made  him  always  interesting,  awesome  and  peculiar.  I  can  well  re- 
member how  the  brothers  viewed  him.  To  them  he  was  a  vice  regnant  deputy  of  His  Satanic 
Majesty.  Brother  Valgen,  who  was  master  of  dormitory  for  fifty  years,  a  man  of  mild, 
timid  character,  if  he  could  see  Dr.  McDowell  a  square  off,  would  cross  himself  and  hunt 
for  cover. 

Great  reputation  locally  as  an  orator,  had  Dr.  McDowell.  His  language 
was  always  picturesque  and  often  lurid.  His  commencement  addresses  drew  to 
his  college  large  audiences.  The  late  Dr.  Montrose  A.  Fallen  could  describe 
graphically  one  of  these  commencement  days  at  McDowell's  college,  for  he  was 
present  although  a  student  of  another  institution.  The  manner  and  words  of 
McDowell  made  a  lasting  impression  on  Fallen's  memory.  On  that  commence- 
ment day,  Dr.  McDowell  came  down  the  center  aisle  of  the  amphitheater,  carry- 
ing his  violin  and  bow.  When  he  reached  the  amphitheater  table  he  turned  and 
facing  the  expectant  throng  began  to  play.  After  several  tunes,  he  laid  down 
the  violin  and  spoke  in  his  high  pitched  voice: 

Now,  gentlemen,  we  have  been  together  five  long  months.  Doubtless,  some  of  these 
months  have  been  very  happy  months,  and  doubtless  some  have  been  very  perplexing  ones. 


424  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

Such  is  the  eternal  fate  of  workers  and  students.  But  now,  gentlemen,  the  saddest  of  all 
sad  words  must  be  uttered,  namely,  farewell!  Here  retrospection  takes  her  sway,  either  glad- 
dened or  saddened,  as  idiosyncrasies  hold  the  mind.  We  have  wandered  in  the  labyrinthian 
way  of  anatomy.  We  have  floated  in  the  ethereal  atmosphere  of  physiology.  We  have  waded 
knee  deep,  nay,  neck  deep,  into  a  sea  of  theory  and  practice;  ground,  filtered,  pounded  and 
inspected  elements  of  materia  medica,  and  slowly  pounded  in  the  endless  crucible  of  chem- 
istry. As  we  say  farewell!  it  is  needless  for  me  to  say  that  I  hope  God  may,  in  His  infinite 
mercy,  bless  you  as  you  deserve.  But  remember  that  labor  omnia  vincit.  No  man  under 
God's  blue  sky  need  hope  that  success  can,  or  will  come  without  labor,  for  God  has  ordained 
that  all  of  us  must  earn  our  living  by  the  sweat  of  our  brow.  Nature  only  recognizes  the 
laborer,  and  eternally  damns  the  rich  man,  by  satiety  and  disease. 

Doubtless  one  of  your  number,  in  this  class,  will  come  back  to  the  great  city  of  St. 
Louis  with  the  snow  of  many  winters  upon  his  hair  and  walking  upon  three  legs  instead 
of  two,  as  Sphinx  has  it.  As  he  wanders  here  and  there  upon  its  streets  amidst  the  crowded 
and  eager  throng,  noting  the  wondrous  improvement  here  and  the  change  there,  suddenly, 
gentlemen,  it  will  occur  to  him  to  ask  of  one  of  the  eager  passers-by,  "Where  is  Dr. 
McDowell?"  "Dr.  McDowell?  Dr.  McDowell?"  he  will  say,  "what  Dr.  McDowell f" 
"Why,"  he  will  tell  him,  "Dr.  McDowell,  the  surgeon?"  "Oh,  yes,  Dr.  McDowell,  the 
surgeon.  Why!  He  lies  buried  close  to  Belief ontaine. " 

Slowly,  gentlemen,  he  will  wend  his  way  thither,  and  there  amidst  the  rank  weeds,  he 
will  find  a  plain  marble  slab  inscribed,  "J.  McDowell,  Surgeon."  While  he  stands  there 
contemplating  the  rare  virtues  and  eccentricities  of  this  old  man,  suddenly,  gentlemen,  the 
spirit  of  Dr.  McDowell  will  arise  on  ethereal  wings  and  bless  him,  aye!  thrice  bless  him. 
Then,  suddenly,  gentlemen,  this  spirit  will  take  a  swoop  and  as  he  passes  McDowell's  college 
he  will  drop  a  parting  tear.  But,  gentlemen,  when  he  gets  to  Pope's  college,  he  will  spit 
upon  it.  Yes,  I  say,  he  will  spit  upon  it. 

Into  his  peroration  Dr.  McDowell  would  throw  almost  frenzied  emphasis. 
When  he  concluded  there  would  be  a  hurricane  of  cheers  and  yells.  Dr.  Fallen 
was  a  student  at  Pope's  college,  but,  as  did  many  of  the  students  of  the  rival 
institution,  he  went  to  hear  Dr.  McDowell's  address  to  his  graduates. 

Very  strange  were  the  ideas  Dr.  McDowell  had  about  the  disposition  of 
the  dead.  When  Dr.  McDowell  thought  he  was  going  to  die,  he  called  to  his 
bedside  Dr.  Charles  W.  Stevens  and  Dr.  Drake  McDowell,  his  son.  He  exacted 
from  them  a  solemn  promise  that  they  would  place  his  body  in  a  copper  receptacle 
and  fill  the  space  with  alcohol.  The  receptacle,  they  were  to  suspend  in  Mam- 
moth Cave,  Kentucky.  Permission  to  do  this,  the  doctor  claimed  he  had  already 
obtained.  This  eccentric  demand  was  not  a  great  surprise  to  Dr.  Stevens.  Com- 
ing to  McDowell's  college  to  study  medicine,  Stevens  had  learned  quickly  some- 
thing of  his  preceptor's  strange  fancies.  A  child  of  Dr.  McDowell  died  a  few 
days  after  Stevens  entered  the  college.  The  coffin  was  lined  with  metal.  The 
body  was  placed  in  the  coffin.  All  space  remaining  was  filled  with  alcohol  and 
the  coffin  was  sealed  tightly.  A  year  or  so  later,  the  body  of  the  child  was  re- 
moved from  the  coffin,  and  placed  in  a  large  copper  case.  This  was  Dr.  Mc- 
Dowell's method  of  treating  the  bodies  of  his  children.  No  religious  service  of 
any  kind  was  performed.  The  copper  cases  were  carried  at  night  attended  by  a 
procession  formed  by  the  medical  students  and  friends  of  the  family.  Each 
person  carried  a  torch.  The  place  of  disposition  was  a  vault  in  the  rear  of  the 
residence.  The  thought  of  a  natural  cave  as  a  final  resting  place  was  a  favorite 
one.  Dr.  McDowell  bought  a  cave  near  Hannibal.  He  had  a  wall  built  across 
the  opening  and  placed  in  it  an  iron  door.  The  vase  or  case  containing  one  of 
the  children  in  alcohol  was  taken  from  St.  Louis  to  this  cave  and  suspended 


DR.   THOMAS  O'REILLY 


DR.  JOHN   P.  BRYSON 


MISSOURI   MEDICAL   COLLEGE   AND   CHRISTIAN    BROTHERS'    COLLEGE  ON 
EIGHTH  STREET  BEFORE  THE  WAR 


THE  MEDICAL  PROEESSION 


THE   MEDICAL    PROFESSION  425 

from  the  roof.  Vandals  broke  open  the  iron  door  and  the  vault  became  ac- 
cessible to  the  curious  public.  Dr.  McDowell  gave  up  the  notion  and  made  no 
further  use  of  the  cave.  He  purchased  a  knoll  or  mound  across  the  river,  not 
far  from  Cahokia,  in  view  with  a  glass  from  the  cupola  of  the  college.  There 
he  constructed  a  vault  in  which  he  placed  the  body  of  his  wife.  Years  after- 
ward Dr.  McDowell  and  his  wife  were  buried  in  Bellefontaine. 

McDowell  wore  his  hair  in  an  iron  gray  mane  thrown  back  and  falling 
almost  to  the  shoulder.  He  had  great  natural  power  as  an  orator,  but  he  culti- 
vated rather  familiarity  than  dignity.  Standing  at  the  front  of  the  courthouse 
to  address  a  public  gathering  he  was  greeted  by  some  one  in  the  crowd  as  "old 
sawbones."  "Yes,"  he  answered  back,  in  his  high  pitched  voice,  "I  am  'old 
sawbones'  and  look  out  that  I  don't  saw  your  bones." 

Dr.  McDowell  was  a  fascinating  lecturer.  He  had  stories  to  illustrate 
every  assertion.  His  students  were  in  the  habit  of  saying  that  Dr.  McDowell 
could  tell  a  story  to  go  with  every  bone,  muscle,  nerve  and  vessel  of  the  human 
body.  Dr.  McDowell  was  not  a  successful  business  man.  The  college  passed 
through  financial  straits.  The  doctor  held  St.  Louis  University  responsible  for 
his  money  troubles  because  the  faculty  permitted  another  medical  college  to  be 
organized  under  the  auspices  of  the  University.  He  lectured  against  the  Jesuits. 
And  then  he  professed  to  feel  that  he  and  his  college  were  in  danger  of  attack. 
Wearing  a  brass  breastplate  made  according  to  his  own  design  and  carrying  arms, 
Dr.  McDowell  turned  his  medical  college  into  a  fortress.  He  bought  1,400 
condemned  muskets  from  the  United  States  government,  paying  $2.50  apiece 
for  them.  These  he  stored  in  the  basement  of  the  college.  From  old  brass, 
which  he  bought,  and  from  the  college  bell  Dr.  McDowell  had  cast  for  him  six 
cannon.  He  talked  of  recruiting  from  his  students  a  force  to  march  across  the 
plains  and  capture  some  Mexican  territory.  When  the  Civil  war  came  Dr.  Mc- 
Dowell went  south  and  gave  his  cannon  to  the  Confederacy.  He  died  in  1868. 

Altogether  unlike  McDowell  was  that  other  dominant  figure  of  early  medical 
education  in  St.  Louis,  Charles  Alexander  Pope.  In  leisure  hours,  Dr.  Warren 
B.  Outten  attained  marked  facility  with  the  brush.  He  painted  a  portrait  of 
Dr.  Pope,  under  whom  he  had  been  a  student  when  Pope's  college  was  known 
throughout  the  country.  Dr.  Outten  has  given  a  pen  picture  of  Dr.  Pope.  He 
describes  him  as  "a  very  handsome  man,  about  five  feet,  nine  inches  tall,  hav- 
ing a  well  shaped  head  with  dark  blue  eyes,  well  turned  eyebrows,  an  expression 
of  thoughtful  gentleness  about  the  eyes.  It  was  a  face  such  as  to  win  anyone 
on  first  sight.  Dr.  Pope  had  a  general  appearance  of  elegance  and  culture.  His 
voice  was  quick,  incisive  and  agreeable  in  tone.  His  movements  were  quick  and 
graceful.  Dr.  Pope  was  unconsciously  polite  and  courteous.  He  was  in  my 
estimation,  in  every  respect,  a  most  perfect  gentleman.  He  never  descended  to 
anything  little,  petty  or  mean.  No  one  ever  heard  a  vulgar  or  profane  word 
come  from  his  lips,  nor  did  he  ever  utter  abuse  or  gossip  about  a  professional 
confrere.  Always  eager  to  commend  and  always  full  of  good  advice  and  en- 
couragement, he  made  the  world  around  him  better  for  his  having  been  in  it." 

From  such  a  picture  of  Dr.  Pope  it  is  not  difficult  to  understand  the 
strong  and  lasting  impression  he  made  upon  his  profession  in  St.  Louis.  Dr. 
Pope  was  from  Alabama.  He  had  studied  under  Drake  at  Cincinnati,  had 


426  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

graduated  from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  had  spent  several  years  in 
medical  schools  in  France,  in  England  and  in  Ireland,  coming  to  St.  Louis  in 
1842.  Within  a  year  he  entered  the  faculty  of  the  St.  Louis  Medical  college 
as  professor  of  anatomy.  In  1846,  Dr.  Pope  married  Caroline  O'Fallon,  the 
daughter  of  John  O'Fallon.  Proud  of  his  brilliant  son-in-law,  John  O'Fallon 
built  on  Seventh  and  Spruce  streets  the  medical  college  which  in  its  architecture 
and  appointments  was  without  equal  in  the  United  States,  outside  of  New  York 
and  Philadelphia.  Around  him  Dr.  Pope  drew  a  faculty  of  great  strength.  In 
1854  he  was  elected  president  of  the  American  Medical  association. 

Coming  back  to  St.  Louis  from  Europe  in  1870,  Dr.  Pope  received  a  re- 
ception such  as  has  been  given  to  few  citizens  after  an  absence.  To  the  faculty, 
newly  organized,  of  the  St.  Louis  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  at  a 
banquet,  Dr.  Pope  made  an  address  in  March,  1870.  Four  months  later,  this 
man  of  splendid  faculties,  with  a  record  of  inestimable  usefulness  to  his  pro- 
fession in  St.  Louis,  was  dead  by  his  own  hand.  It  was  one  of  St.  Louis' 
mysteries. 

Pope's  College  survives,  with  its  strenuous  traditions  and  its  honorable 
record  in  the  history  of  medical  education  of  St.  Louis.  It  has  been,  in  its 
lifetime,  the  medical  department  of  two  universities.  It  has  stood  alone  as  the 
St.  Louis  Medical  college.  Uniting  with  the  Missouri  Medical  college,  it  was 
merged  in  the  Washington  University  medical  department. 

The  decade  1840-50  gave  to  the  medical  profession  of  St.  Louis  notable 
characters.  These  men  were  not  only  strong  personalities  but  they  brought 
to  their  practice  and  to  the  educational  work  in  which  they  engaged  the  ad- 
vantages of  study  and  observation  far  beyond  the  ordinary.  And  this  in- 
heritance of  knowledge  and  thought  they  passed  down  to  the  thousands  of 
young  men  who  came  to  the  medical  schools  of  St.  Louis.  To  these  physicians 
and  surgeons,  coming  from  other  countries  and  from  various  states,  St.  Louis 
owes  much  for  her  foremost  position  among  cities  in  the  philanthropy  which 
has  to  do  with  physical  ails. 

S.  Gratz  Moses,  born  in  Philadelphia,  had  enjoyed  classical  education  and 
medical  training  before  he  went  to  Europe  as  physician  to  Joseph  Bonaparte, 
the  eldest  brother  of  Napoleon.  His  connection  with  the  Bonaparte  family 
brought  him  into  friendly  relations  with  the  great  men  of  his  profession  in 
Paris.  Returning  to  this  country,  Dr.  Moses  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1841.  The 
next  year  he,  with  half  a  dozen  young  men  in  his  profession,  started  something 
that  was  new  in  this  city  and  one  of  the  first  of  its  class  in  the  United  States. 
That  institution  was  a  dispensary  for  treatment  of  those  unable  to  employ  phy- 
sicians. Mrs.  Vital  M.  Garesche  suggested  this  dispensary  and  worked  zealously 
for  its  establishment.  The  support  came  from  churches  and  private  subscrip- 
tions. The  Mullanphy  family  gave  generously  toward  this  as  they  did  toward 
other  movements  to  relieve  the  unfortunate.  At  that  time  the  Unitarian  church 
was  on  Fourth  and  Pine  streets.  With  his  spirit  of  cooperation  in  all  public 
spirited  enterprise,  Rev.  Dr.  William  G.  Eliot  gave  rooms  to  the  dispensary 
office  in  the  basement  of  his  church.  Associated  with  Dr.  Moses  in  this  work 
were  Dr.  William  M.  McPheeters,  Dr.  J.  B.  Johnson,  Dr.  Charles  A.  Pope, 
Dr.  J.  L.  Clark,  Dr.  George  Johnson  and  others.  These  men  carried  on  the 


THE   MEDICAL    PROFESSION  427 

dispensary  for  seven  years  until  the  city  assumed  this  as  a  municipal  function 
and  opened  a  public  dispensary. 

Those  were  primitive  times.  It  is  said  that  the  only  one  of  these  practi- 
tioners in  the  early  forties  who  rode  in  a  buggy  to  visit  his  patients  was  Dr. 
Clark.  The  others  rode  horseback.  Dr.  John  B.  Johnson  was  of  Massachusetts 
birth  and  of  Harvard  education.  He  came  from  the  position  of  house  surgeon 
of  the  Massachusetts  General  hospital  to  enter  practice  at  St.  Louis.  A  man  of 
splendid  appearance  and  fine  manners,  Dr.  Johnson  obtained  almost  imme- 
diately a  professional  standing  among  the  leading  families.  One  of  his  earliest 
friends  was  Theron  Barnum,  who  kept  the  City  hotel  in  the  days  when  the  lead- 
ing hotelkeeper  of  St.  Louis  ranked  close  to  the  mayor  in  public  estimation.  It 
was  said  of  Dr.  Johnson  that  for  many  years  he  did  not  send  a  bill  for  services, 
relying  upon  his  patients  to  come  around  and  settle  when  they  felt  so  disposed. 

Dr.  Moses  M.  Fallen,  the  head  of  the  Fallen  family  in  St.  Louis,  was 
a  Virginian  by  birth,  educated  at  the  University  of  Virginia.  He  practiced  in 
Vicksburg  several  years  before  coming  to  St.  Louis  in  1842.  He  was  a  student 
of  the  sciences  as  well  as  a  physician  and  was  one  of  the  coterie  which  gave  high 
character  to  the  St.  Louis  Academy  of  Science  in  its  early  days. 

From  Prague,  in  Bohemia,  came  to  St.  Louis,  in  1845,  a  highly  educated 
specialist  in  the  person  of  Dr.  Simon  Pollak.  He  had  already  given  study  to 
the  branch  of  medicine  which  was  to  place  him  among  the  leaders  in  ophthal- 
mology. Joining  the  coterie  of  physicians  and  surgeons  who  had  established 
the  dispensary,  Dr.  Pollak  pioneered  the  way  for  what  has  become  one  of  the 
city's  most  beneficial  institutions.  In  1852,  Dr.  Pollak  started  the  movement 
which  by  private  subscriptions  founded  the  Missouri  Institution  for  the  Educa- 
tion of  the  Blind.  This  was  supported  five  years  by  the  contributions  of  citizens 
and  was  then  made  a  State  institution. 

In  1845,  according  to  the  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal  published  here, 
St.  Louis  had  146  "persons  who  are  endeavoring  to  obtain  a  livelihood  by  the 
practice  of  the  healing  art  in  this  city,  which  includes  the  homeopathists,  botanies, 
Thompsonians,  etc."  The  population  was  40,000.  There  was  a  doctor  of  some 
kind  for  274  people.  The  Journal  stated  that  about  one-third  of  these  doctors 
enjoyed  lucrative  practice  and  that  many  of  the  others  were  leaving  and  set- 
tling in  surrounding  towns. 

Distinguished  among  the  writers  on  medical  subjects  in  this  country  was 
Dr.  R.  S.  Holmes,  a  native  of  Pittsburg,  who  left  the  position  of  army  surgeon 
to  make  his  home  in  St.  Louis  about  1849.  Dr.  Holmes  not  only  contributed 
a  great  deal  that  attracted  attention  in  medical  literature  but  he  became  widely 
known  as  a  magazine  and  newspaper  contributor.  He  popularized  subjects  more 
or  less  connected  with  his  profession.  He  wrote  on  "Beauty,"  "Use  of  the  Hair 
Among  the  Ancients,"  and  like  topics.  He  contributed  "Sketches  of  American 
Character."  His  great  work  in  his  profession  was  his  study  and  treatment  of 
malignant,  climatic  fevers.  He  led  in  the  use  of  large  doses  of  quinine  to  over- 
come malaria.  Visiting  Europe  he  brought  home  to  St.  Louis  the  finest  micro- 
scope that  had  been  seen  here  and  entered  upon  minute  researches  with  the 
powerful  lens. 


428  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

The  medical  profession  of  St.  Louis  early  became  composite  as  to  nationality 
and  as  to  education.  One  of  the  German  patriots  of  1848  who  became  promi- 
nent in  the  medical  profession  of  St.  Louis  was  Dr.  G.  Fischer.  Edward  Mont- 
gomery from  near  Belfast,  Ireland,  settled  in  St.  Louis  in  1849  to  practice 
medicine.  He  became  widely  known  as  a  writer  on  medical  subjects.  About 
the  same  time,  three  other  young  men  established  themselves  as  physicians  in 
St.  Louis,  coming  from  widely  separated  parts  of  the  world.  Louis  Ch.  Bois- 
liniere  was  from  the  Island  of  Guadeloupe,  descended  from  one  of  the  oldest 
families  of  that  West  Indian  paradise.  He  had  been  educated  in  France,  had 
traveled  extensively  in  South  America  and  had  been  for  some  time  a  guest  of 
Henry  Clay  and  other  eminent  Kentuckians  before  he  chose  St.  Louis  as  his 
permanent  home.  Under  the  auspices  of  the  Sisters  of  Charity  Dr.  Boisliniere 
took  prominent  part  in  giving  St.  Louis  the  honor  of  establishing  the  first  lying-in 
hospital  and  foundling  asylum  in  the  United  States.  He  was  the  first  physician 
to  hold  the  office  of  coroner  in  St.  Louis.  That  was  in  1858.  Dr.  Boisliniere's 
recreation  was  singing.  He  delighted  in  classical  music  and  those  who  heard 
him  in  the  rendition  of  church  masses  never  forgot  the  fervor  with  which  he 
sang.  Dr.  F.  Ernst.  Baumgarten  began  to  practice  in  St.  Louis  contempo- 
raneously with  Dr.  Boisliniere.  He  was  from  the  kingdom  of  Hanover  and 
had  edited  a  surgical  journal  in  German  before  he  came  to  St.  Louis.  He 
became  one  of  the  founders  of  the  German  Medical  society  of  St.  Louis,  a 
very  strong  professional  organization.  The  third  of  these  young  doctors  was 
Thomas  O'Reilly,  who  came  from  County  Cavan,  Ireland,  with  the  best  medical 
education  that  Dublin  could  give  him.  All  of  his  life  in  St.  Louis  he  was  devoted 
to  the  political  advancement  of  his  native  island. 

The  Hotel  for  Invalids  was  the  name  chosen  for  a  private  hospital  started 
in  the  Paul  house  at  Second  and  Walnut  streets  in  the  summer  of  1848.  The 
institution  was  short  lived. 

Strikingly  unlike  his  preceptor,  McDowell,  was  John  Thompson  Hodgen. 
who  was  born  in  a  rugged  part  of  Kentucky  near  the  birthplace  of  Abraham 
Lincoln.  After  he  graduated  under  McDowell,  Dr.  Hodgen  became  first  demon- 
strator and  then  professor  in  the  institution.  When  the  war  came  and  Mc- 
Dowell's college  was  turned  into  a  military  prison,  Hodgen  was  chosen  sur- 
geon-general for  the  Western  Sanitary  commission.  Later  he  was  surgeon- 
general  for  the  state  of  Missouri.  He  tried  to  keep  alive  the  old  medical  school 
but  finally  joined  the  faculty  of  the  St.  Louis  Medical  college.  The  American 
Medical  association  drew  upon  the  St.  Louis  profession  repeatedly  to  fill  the 
office  of  president.  One  of  those  drafted  was  Dr.  Hodgen. 

The  beloved  surgeon  of  St.  Louis  in  1870-80  was  John  T.  Hodgen.  He 
used  but  few  words.  He  accepted  no  familiarity.  Addressed  as  "Doc,"  he 
would  respond,  "If  you  want  me  to  answer  you  politely,  don't  call  me  'Doc/ 
There  is  no  such  word.  Call  me  'Doctor'  and  there  will  be  no  trouble,  but  I 
will  not  answer  to  the  call  of  'Doc.'  "  And  no  man  once  receiving  this  rebuke 
required  another  warning.  Dr.  Hodgen  could  put  an  astonishing  effect  into  his 
few  words.  His  assertions  uttered  before  his  students  were  remembered  and 
quoted  for  years  afterwards.  One  who  studied  under  him,  said :  "He  could  say 
'I  don't  know,'  in  such  a  manner  as  to  convey  the  idea  that  there  was  a  pro- 
fundity of  knowledge  back  of  it." 


DR.   EDWIN  B.   SMITH 


DR.  HENRY  VAN  STUDDIFORD 


DR.    CHARLES    A.    POPE 


DR.  RICHARD  F.  BARRETT  DR.    S.    GRATZ    MOSES 

THE  MEDICAL  PROFESSION 


THE   MEDICAL    PROFESSION  429 

Men  of  strong  sympathy,  fine  sensibilities  and  great  charity  have  ennobled 
the  medical  profession  of  St.  Louis.  It  is  told  of  Dr.  Hodgen  that  in  driving 
up  to  the  residence  of  a  patient,  where  the  case  was  desperate,  he  would  some- 
times say  to  the  one  with  him :  "Look  out  and  see  if  crape  is  on  the  door.  I  am 
afraid  to  look."  If  crape  was  on  the  door  the  doctor  drove  on  quickly;  if  not, 
Dr.  Hodgen  was  out  of  the  buggy  in  a  hurry  and  with  a  bright  face,  his  lips 
forming  for  a  pleasant  little  whistle  showing  the  pleasure  he  felt,  he  went  into 
the  house. 

Students  of  Dr.  Moses  M.  Fallen,  a  member  of  an  old  Virginia  family, 
who  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1842,  were  given  an  impression  of  professional  obliga- 
tion which  was  far  more  than  scientific.  Dr.  Fallen  held  the  professorship  of 
obstetrics  for  more  than  twenty  years.  He  taught  thousands  of  students  "that 
the  doctor  when  at  the  bedside  of  the  woman  in  labor  almost  meets  his  God, 
and  that  duty,  the  stern  daughter  of  God,  must  be  evoked  every  moment  and 
hour  in  her  travail.  Give  your  strength  to  the  laboring  mother.  Fill  her  with 
hope;  it  may  be  light  diet  but  it  will  be  very  stimulating;  it  awakens  courage. 
If  the  doctor  ever  is  at  the  service  of  any  one  he  must  be  at  the  absolute  service 
of  the  lying-in  woman.  Be  thoughtful  of  her  in  her  agony  of  pain.  Encourage- 
ment is  everything.  It  well  becomes  God's  most  exalted  creature.  To  relieve 
distress  is  not  only  human  but  it  is  Godlike ;  and  thrice  blessed  is  that  man  who 
relieves  a  single  maternal  pain."  That  was  the  character  of  Dr.  Fallen's  teaching 
as  one  of  his  pupils,  Dr.  Warren  B.  Outten,  described  it  long  years  after  his 
own  graduation. 

The  medical  profession  of  St.  Louis  before  the  Civil  war  drew  upon  Ken- 
tucky born  men  for  some  of  its  strongest  characters.  Besides  Joseph  Nash 
McDowell  and  M.  L.  Linton,  John  T.  Hodgen,  E.  H.  Gregory  and  E.  S.  Frazier 
were  from  Kentucky  stock.  Dr.  Moses  L.  Linton  came  from  Kentucky  in 
k  1842.  A  graduate  of  Transylvania  University,  perfected  in  his  profession  by 
study  abroad,  he  had  a  short  time  before  moving  to  St.  Louis  announced  his 
conversion  to  the  Roman  Catholic  faith.  Then  had  ensued  a  sharp  controversy 
between  Rev.  Robert  Grundy,  a  distinguished  Presbyterian  minister,  and  Dr. 
Linton,  running  through  a  series  of  pamphlets  and  attracting  a  great  deal  of 
attention.  Dr.  Linton  wrote  with  much  spirit  and  in  an  attractive  style.  The 
high  standard  of  medical  education  in  St.  Louis  owes  a  great  deal  to  that 
farmer's  son  in  Kentucky.  Dr.  Linton  took  a  course  in  Europe  at  a  time  when 
few  American  doctors  did  that.  He  was  associated  in  his  studies  abroad  part  of 
the  time  with  Dr.  Charles  A.  Pope.  That  association  had  much  to  do  with  Dr. 
Linton's  decision  to  settle  in  St.  Louis,  where  he  was  invited  to  take  a  chair 
in  the  faculty  of  the  medical  department  of  St.  Louis  University.  The  St. 
Louis  Medical  Journal,  established  in  1843,  owed  its  beginning  to  Dr.  Linton 
more  than  to  any  one  else.  Dr.  McPheeters  was  associated  with  Dr.  Linton  in 
the  editorial  management  of  the  Journal.  "Outlines  of  Pathology"  was  the 
title  of  one  of  the  first  medical  books  published  by  an  author  west  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi. In  that  book  Dr.  Linton  gave  to  the  profession  what  served  for  students 
in  the  way  of  general  instruction  many  years. 

Between  1850  and  1860  St.  Louis  began  to  produce  her  own  professors. 
One  of  the  first  of  these  was  Dr.  T.  L.  Papin,  a  descendant  of  the  founder  of 


430  ST.    LOUIS,   THE    FOURTH    CITY 

the  settlement.  In  1852  he  became  a  member  of  the  faculty  in  the  Missouri 
Medical  college.  The  greater  part  of  his  career  he  was  a  teacher  of  medicine. 
St.  John's  Hospital  owed  its  origin  to  Dr.  Papin  and  the  connection  of  the 
medical  college  with  the  hospital  was  largely  brought  about  by  him.  The 
Nidelets,  James  C.  and  Sylvester,  were  descended  from  the  Pratte  family.  They 
completed  their  education  in  St.  Louis  and  entered  the  medical  profession  here. 
The  father  of  the  Nidelets  was  of  San  Domingo  birth,  but  of  French  descent. 
He  was  Stephen  F.  Nidelet.  He  came  to  this  country  while  a  boy  and  became 
a  merchant  of  Philadelphia.  While  on  a  visit  to  St.  Louis  he  made  the  ac- 
quaintance of  Celeste  E.  Pratte,  a  daughter  of  General  Bernard  Pratte  and  a 
belle  of  the  decade  of  1820-1830.  Marriage  followed.  Some  years  afterwards 
the  Nidelets  removed  from  Philadelphia  to  St.  Louis  and  made  this  their  home. 

Dr.  E.  H.  Gregory,  born,  bred  and  educated  in  Kentucky,  joined  the  pro- 
fession at  St.  Louis  in  1852.  He  became  the  surgeon-in-chief  of  the  Sisters' 
Hospital.  That  was  the  first  hospital  west  of  the  Mississippi.  Sister  Francis 
Xavier,  with  three  other  members  of  the  order  of  Sisters  of  Charity,  which 
had  been  founded  at  Emmitsburg,  Maryland,  in  1809,  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1828 
and  started  the  hospital  in  a  modest  way  on  a  strip  of  ground  100  feet  wide 
running  from  Fourth  to  Third  street  along  the  south  side  of  Spruce.  The  lot 
was  a  donation  for  the  purpose  by  John  Mullanphy,  who  set  a  fine  pace  for 
philanthropy  in  St.  Louis  soon  after  the  American  flag  was  hoisted.  The  first 
building  was  small.  It  left  room  for  an  orchard  and  a  garden.  The  institution 
grew  until  crowding  commerce  prompted  removal,  July,  1874,  to  a  large  block 
of  ground  on  Montgomery  street  east  of  Grand  avenue.  Around  him  Dr. 
Gregory  gathered  a  staff  composed  of  such  specialists  as  N.  B.  Carson,  Paul  Y. 
Tupper,  S.  Pollak,  W.  C.  Glasgow,  L.  L.  McCabe. 

The  German  patriots,  who  added  elements  of  great  influence  to  the  popula- 
tion of  St.  Louis,  included  some  characters  born  to  make  war  on  the  existing 
order  whether  in  politics  or  in  the  professions.  One  of  these  was  Dr.  Adam 
Hammer.  He  was  a  man  of  medium  height,  slender,  sallow.  Below  a  high 
round  forehead  were  a  long  sharp  thin  nose  and  a  pointed  chin,  emphasized 
by  chin  whiskers.  Dr.  Hammer  had  keen  black  eyes.  Members  of  the  pro- 
fession said  Dr.  Hammer  looked  like  the  pictures  of  Harvey,  who  discovered 
the  circulation  of  the  blood.  Hammer  had  been  well  educated  in  German  uni- 
versities. He  came  here  with  considerable  reputation  as  a  surgeon.  He  had 
performed  some  wonderful  operations.  So  long  as  he  resided  in  St.  Louis 
he  was  the  chief  figure  in  frequent  professional  disputes.  At  the  meetings  of 
the  Medical  society,  Dr.  Hammer  could  be  depended  upon  to  start  something 
before  the  evening  was  over.  These  scenes  at  last  became  so  disagreeable  to 
the  other  members  that  the  presence  of  the  reporters  was  dispensed  with.  Dr. 
Hammer  was  for  a  time  the  dean  of  the  Humboldt  Medical  college,  which  was 
located  opposite  the  city  hospital.  Afterwards  he  was  offered  a  chair  in  the 
faculty  of  the  Missouri  Medical  college.  It  was  something  of  a  relief  to  the  pro- 
fession in  St.  Louis  when  Dr.  Hammer,  after  dividing  his  time  between  this 
country  and  Germany,  decided  to  take  up  his  permanent  residence  in  the 
fatherland. 


THE   MEDICAL    PROFESSION  431 

To  the  third  generation  of  a  family  of  medical  practitioners  in  St.  Louis 
belonged  Dr.  John  Charles  Lebrecht.  His  father  was  Dr.  John  Lebrecht.  The 
grandfather  on  the  maternal  side  was  Dr.  Valentine  Ludwig.  John  M.  Young- 
blood  was  of  Tennessee  birth.  He  was  southern  in  type  but  like  many  other 
St.  Louisans  who  came  from  Southern  states,  especially  Tennessee  and  Ken- 
tucky, he  took  the  Union  side.  When  he  went  back  to  his  native  state  during 
the  war,  he  was  the  surgeon  of  a  Missouri  regiment  of  United  States  volunteers. 
After  the  war  Dr.  Youngblood's  practice  included  free  service  to  a  great  many 
poor  people.  When  he  died  in  1879  there  was  presented  the  touching  scene  of 
his  office  thronged  with  men,  women  and  children  who  had  been  befriended 
by  him. 

The  grandfather  of  Dr.  Mordecai  Yarnall,  although  of  old  Quaker  stock, 
fought  under  Commodore  Perry  and  helped  to  gain  the  victory  on  Lake  Erie. 
For  his  gallantry  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  gave  Lieutenant  Yarnell  medals 
and  Virginia  bestowed  upon  him  a  sword.  After  service  in  the  Confederate 
army  with  Stonewall  Jackson,  Mordecai  Yarnall  came  to  St.  Louis  and  joined 
the  medical  profession.  Dr.  Adolphus  Schlossstein  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1867, 
with  not  only  the  classical  education  of  the  gymnasium,  but  after  having  taken 
courses  at  several  universities ;  he  was  fresh  from  study  in  the  hospitals  and 
practice  as  a  surgeon  in  the  German  army.  He  practiced  his  profession  and  at 
the  same  time  became  interested  with  his  brother,  George  Schlossstein,  in  the 
manufacture  of  window  glass.  The  Schlossstein  family  was  of  Bavarian  descent. 

In  the  decade  of  1880-1890  a  new  generation  took  up  the  traditions  and 
carried  forward  the  prestige  of  the  medical  profession  of  St.  Louis.  Medi- 
cal education  for  which  St.  Louis  had  won  widespread  fame  was  still  farther 
advanced.  The  St.  Louis  Post-Graduate  School  of  Medicine,  the  first  institu- 
tion of  the  kind  in  the  country,  was  established.  Its  purpose  was  to  encourage 
the  graduate  to  go  on  with  his  study  and  researches.  A  moving  spirit  in  this 
development  was  Herman  Tuholske,  who  had  come  from  his  home  in  Berlin, 
with  a  classical  education  in  the  gymnasium  to  enter  upon  professional  life  in 
St.  Louis  not  long  after  the  Civil  war.  Graduating  from  the  Missouri  Medical 
college,  Dr.  Tuholske  perfected  himself  by  study  in  the  schools  of  London  and 
the  European  capitals.  He  attracted  much  attention  by  the  reforms  he  insti- 
tuted as  the  physician  in  charge  of  the  St.  Louis  dispensary.  He  went  through 
epidemics  with  credit  for  his  personal  courage  and  professional  skill.  When 
he  began  to  agitate  the  movement  for  advance  in  the  standard  of  medical  edu- 
cation in  St.  Louis  he  was  joined  by  such  men  as  Robinson,  Michel,  Steele, 
Hardaway,  Glasgow,  Spencer,  Fischell  and  Engelmann.  In  response  to  this 
St.  Louis  movement  the  State  of  Missouri  required  three  years'  attendance  upon 
lectures  for  license  to  practice. 

St.  Louis  had  at  one  time  eleven  medical  colleges.  Going  east  in  1893 
to  address  the  alumni  of  a  medical  college,  the  then  chancellor  of  Washing- 
ton University,  Dr.  W.  S.  Chaplin,  gave  this  testimony  to  the  progressiveness 
of  medical  education  in  St.  Louis: 

Some  thirty  years  ago  the  faculty  of  one  of  these  medical  schools  formed  an  organ- 
ization which  was  a  hard  and  fast  agreement  that  they  would  turn  over  every  dollar  of 
profit  to  a  fund,  put  it  out  of  their  control  entirely  and  devote  that  fund  to  furthering  medi- 


432  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

cal  education.  As  a  result  of  this  they  built  one  of  the  very  best  educational  buildings  I 
know  of.  It  has  large  laboratories;  it  has  splendid  lecture  rooms.  It  has  every  feature  of 
the  most  modern  methods  of  teaching.  And  that  has  been  built  and  equipped  out  of  the 
self-sacrifice  of  members  of  the  medical  profession.  I  believe  it  is  a  lone  example  of  such 
self-sacrifice.  I  know  of  no  other  profession  that  can  boast  of  such  an  example;  nor  do  I 
know  of  any  other  school  in  the  medical  profession  that  can  show  it. 

Upon  Dr.  John  Green,  the  chancellor  bestowed,  in  large  measure,  the  credit 
or  the  movement. 

The  St.  Louis  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  came  into  existence 
in  1879.  The  movement  was  of  considerable  strength  and  resulted  in  the  erection 
of  a  modern  college  building.  The  Beaumont  Medical  college  cultivated  close 
relations  with  hospitals,  the  Alexian,  St.  Mary's  and  the  Missouri  Pacific.  It 
had  its  origin  with  a  group  of  younger  members  of  the  profession,  desiring  to 
spread  the  benefits  of  hospital  experience.  Marion-Sims  Medical  college  was 
Upstarted  in  1890  and  the  Rebecca  hospital  was  established  in  connection  with  it. 
The  Barnes  Medical  college  was  inaugurated  with  a  board  of  trustees  including 
some  of  the  most  prominent  citizens  of  St.  Louis.  For  this  institution  was 
erected  a  handsome  five-story  building  on  Garrison  avenue  and  Chestnut  street, 
very  complete  in  appointments.  The  medical  colleges  of  St.  Louis  have  for 
several  years  graduated  from  600  to  750  students  annually. 

Alfred  Heacock,  who  came  from  Pennsylvania,  after  a  few  years'  prac- 
tice in  Ohio  and  Indiana,  lived  to  be  the  oldest  practitioner  in  St.  Louis.  When 
he  was  eighty  years  of  age,  the  St.  Louis  Medical  society  made  him  a  member 
for  life  without  payment  of  dues.  In  earlier  years  before  the  days  of  railroads, 
Dr.  Heacock  crossed  the  Mississippi  by  the  upper  ferry  and  attended  patients 
in  the  American  bottom  and  as  far  east  as  Collinsville,  making  the  travel  on 
horseback. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Alumni  Association  of  the  Missouri  Medical  college, 
Professor  C.  O.  Curtman,  in  1895,  introduced  the  X-ray  discovery  to  the  medical 
profession  of  St.  Louis. 

The  surgeon-general  who  developed  the  Marine  Hospital  Service  into  its 
latter  day  importance  was  born  in  St.  Louis.  General  Walter  Wyman,  son  of 
Professor  Edward  Wyman,  graduated  at  Amherst  and  at  the  St.  Louis  Medical 
college.  He  entered  the  Marine  Hospital  service  as  an  assistant  surgeon  in 
charge  of  the  St.  Louis  Marine  hospital  in  1876  and  almost  immediately  began 
to  attract  more  than  local  attention  by  his  efforts  to  improve  the  conditions  of 
the  deck  hands  of  western  rivers.  Congress  was  prompted  by  the  movement 
which  General  Wyman  fostered  to  pass  a  law  for  the  better  treatment  of  deck- 
hands. Then  came  the  enlargement  of  the  Marine  Hospital  service  to  meet  the 
problems  of  epidemics  with  government  authority — first  cholera,  then  yellow 
fever  and  plague.  To  General  Wyman's  fearlessness  and  intelligence  the  country 
has  owed  its  escape  from  threatened  visitations  of  contagious  diseases.  The 
surgeon-general's  successful  conduct  of  the  service  encouraged  Congress  to 
transfer,  step  by  step,  to  this  department  the  various  government  functions  re- 
lating to  the  public  health.  The  quarantine  system  grew  into  its  effective  status 
under  General  Wyman's  investigations  and  recommendations.  With  the  Spanish- 
American  war,  the  service  came  into  greatly  increased  responsibilities.  It  was 
extended  over  Cuba  and  Porto  Rico.  General  Wyman  aimed  at  control  of  the 


DR.   GEORGE  J.   BERN  AYS 


DR.  L.  H.  LAIDLEY 


DR.  W.   M.  McPHEETERS 


DR.   A.    C.   BERN  AYS  DR.  JOHN   T.  HODGEN 

THE  MEDICAL  PROFESSION 


THE   MEDICAL    PROFESSION  433 

yellow  fever  situation  in  the  West  Indies  and  he  achieved  it.  He  promoted  the 
establishment  of  a  great  sanitarium  for  the  treatment  of  consumptives  on  the 
plains  of  New  Mexico.  The  extension  of  American  influence  in  the  Pacific 
brought  the  study  of  leprosy,  and  of  the  bubonic  plague  within  his  jurisdiction. 
The  greatest  public  health  officer  in  the  world  today  is  a  St.  Louisan,  born 
and  bred. 

The  first  successful  operation  of  the  Caesarean  section  performed  in  St. 
Louis  or  Missouri  is  credited  to  Dr.  A.  C.  Bernays.  This  was  in  1889.  Dr. 
Bernays  was  a  young  man,  in  the  thirties.  He  was  the  first  American  to  receive 
at  Heidelberg  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Medicine  "Summa  cum  laude."  He  be- 
came famous  internationally  for  the  originality  of  his  surgical  operations,  many 
of  which  were  classed  as  daring  by  the  profession.  His  surgical  experiences  he 
published  in  a  series  of  pamphlets  bearing  the  title,  "Chips  from  a  Surgeon's 
Workshop." 

"The  students'  friend,"  Dr.  Robert  Luedeking  was  called.  He  was  a 
native  St.  Louisan.  When  he  died  in  1908,  at  the  age  of  fifty-five,  he  had 
honored  his  profession  and  his  city.  The  title  bestowed  upon  him  had  been 
earned  by  his  devotion  to  the  cause  of  medical  education.  Dr.  Luedeking 
received  the  very  best  of  advantages  at  Heidelberg.  He  endeavored  to  advance 
the  standards  in  his  teaching  which  began  with  a  professorship  in  the  St.  Louis 
Medical  college  and  was  concluded  with  several  years  of  invaluable  service  as 
dean  of  the  medical  department  of  Washington  University.  Dr.  Luedeking  was 
more  than  an  instructor,  he  was  the  adviser  and  helper  of  the  young  men  who 
came  to  St.  Louis  to  prepare  themselves  for  the  profession.  Through  Dr. 
Luedeking's  efforts  and  influence,  Adolphus  Busch  was  inspired  to  lend  his  aid 
to  the  material  increase  of  facilities  for  instruction  in  St.  Louis — facilities  which 
placed  this  city  with  the  best  of  centers  of  medical  education. 

The  most  notable  forward  stride  in  medical  education  was  taken  by  St. 
Louis  in  1910.  Washington  University,  through  the  president,  Robert  S.  Brook- 
ings,  and  the  chancellor,  David  F.  Houston,  announced  the  reorganization  of 
the  Medical  Department  in  connection  with  a  group  of  new  hospitals.  The 
plans  contemplated  expenditure  of  $5,000,000  for  grounds,  buildings  and  en- 
dowments. The  initial  impetus  to  this  movement  was  given  by  contributions 
amounting  to  more  than  $2,000,000  by  W.  K.  Bixby,  Adolphus  Busch,  Edward 
Mallinckrodt  and  Robert  S.  Brookings.  The  inspiration  of  the  plans  was  suc- 
cinctly stated  in  this  paragraph  from  the  formal  announcement  by  the  Corpora- 
tion of  Washington  University :  t 

The  greatest  natural  resource  that  any  community  has  consists  of  its  men  and  women, 
and  there  is  no  resource  which  so  much  needs  conservation  or  whose  conservation  has  been 
so  much  neglected  in  its  larger  aspects.  It  is  difficult  to  see  how  any  other  educational  de- 
partment can  so  directly  and  profoundly  influence  the  welfare  of  a  great  community  as  an 
effective  medical  department;  and  while  other  departments,  such  as  agriculture,  college  and 
educational  divisions  have  been  fairly  well  developed,  medical  departments  everywhere,  not 
only  in  the  West,  but  throughout  the  nation,  have  been  comparatively  neglected. 

In  May,  1911,  the  sites  had  been  secured;  the  architects'  plans  for  the 
buildings  were  ready.  Chancellor  Houston  made  this  definite  announcement : 

St.  Louis  is  to  have  a  new,  thoroughly  efficient,  modern  general  hospital,  a  new  chil- 
dren 's  hospital  and  a  great,  modern  medical  school.  This  is  no  dream ;  it  is  a  reality.  The 

2- VOL.  II. 


434  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

school  is  in  operation,  with  its  reorganized  staff  and  largely  increased  facilities.  All 
obstacles  to  the  prosecution  of  the  hospital  plans  have  been  removed,  and  the  erection  of 
buildings  will  be  begun  as  soon  as  the  details  have  been  perfected.  The  three  institutions 
will  work  in  the  closest  affiliation  and,  as  far  as  service  goes,  will  be  one. 

The  three  institutions  will  occupy  adjoining  tracts  of  land  beautifully  located  at  the 
east  end  of  Forest  Park,  east  and  west  of  Euclid  avenue,  south  of  the  Wabash  railroad.  The 
tract  has  a  double  front  on  Forest  Park,  and  it  would  be  difficult  to  find  a  more  convenient 
or  beautiful  location  in  St.  Louis.  The  site  is  sufficiently  removed  from  the  smoke  of  the 
city,  yet  sufficiently  near  the  mass  of  population  to  make  access  easy. 

On  the  tract  will  be  erected  the  Robert  A.  Barnes  Memorial  General  Hospital,  with  a 
building  for  a  training  school  for  nurses,  the  new  building  for  the  St.  Louis  Children's  Hos- 
pital and  an  entirely  equipped  home  for  Washington  University  Medical  School,  consisting 
of  a  clinical  building  in  close  proximity  to  the  hospitals,  a  pathological  laboratory  building, 
a  laboratory  building  for  biological  chemistry,  physiology,  pharmacology  and  preventive 
medicine,  a  building  for  the  anatomical  department  and  a  power  plant  for  common  service. 

The  Robert  A.  Barnes  Memorial  Hospital,  facing  south,  will  at  the  outset  contain 
approximately  300  beds,  with  all  the  most  modern  arrangements  not  only  for  administrative 
service,  but  for  scientific  efficiency.  The  building  and  equipment  will  cost  about  a  million 
dollars,  and  the  hospital  will  begin  work  with  at  least  a  million  dollars  of  endowment. 
It  will  be  of  modern,  fireproof  construction  and  will  be  as  perfect  for  its  purpose  as  the  best 
architect  and  the  best  hospital  expert  in  America  can  make  it. 

The  St.  Louis  Children's  Hospital,  of  adequate  size  and  of  equally  modern  construc- 
tion, will  be  located  on  the  southwestern  corner  of  the  tract,  fronting  on  Forest  Park,  with 
a  southwestern  exposure.  When  completed  it  will  be  filled  with  patients  at  the  time  remain- 
ing in  the  present  Children's  Hospital,  which  is  now  working  in  affiliation  with  the  Wash- 
ington University  Medical  School. 

The  clinical  and  laboratory  buildings  of  Washington  University  Medical  School,  with' 
their  equipment,  will  cost  in  the  neighborhood  of  $1,000,000,  and  to  them,  when  they  are 
completed,  will  be  transferred  the  laboratories  and  the  recently  greatly  extended  equipment 
contained  in  the  present  university  medical  buildings. 

The  buildings  of  the  three  affiliated  institutions,  with  their  equipment,  will  therefore 
represent  an  investment  of  more  than  two  and  a  quarter  millions  of  dollars,  and  the  operating 
expenses  of  the  three  will  represent  the  income  of  a  capital  in  excess  of  three  million  dollars. 

The  Academy  of  Medical  and  Surgical  Sciences  was  one  of  the  forms  that 
the  motive  to  raise  the  standard  of  the  profession  of  medicine  took.  This  asso- 
ciation was  formed  in  1895  by  Drs.  James  M.  Hall,  Wellington  Adams,  Emory 
Lamphear  and  others. 

The  coming  of  the  Alexian  Brotherhood  to  St.  Louis  was  just  fifty  years 
ago.  Five  members  of  this  order  arrived  here  in  1869  to  establish  a  monastery 
and  a  hospital.  The  institution  has  grown  to  possess  buildings  which  cost 
$250,000,  in  which  1,500  patients  are  cared  for  yearly. 

Dr.  John  T.  Temple,  a  Virginian  by  birth,  a  graduate  in  medicine  of  the 
University  of  Maryland,  introduced  the  practice  of  Homeopathy  in  St.  Louis 
in  1844.  He  participated  in  the  founding  of  the  Homeopathic  Medical  college 
of  Missouri  in  1857.  Dr.  J.  T.  Vastine  came  from  Pennsylvania  in  1849.  His 
son,  Dr.  Charles  Vastine,  succeeded  him.  A  homeopathic  physician  who  early 
achieved  general  acquaintance  in  St.  Louis  was  Dr.  Thomas  Griswold  Comstock. 
He  was  descended  from  one  of  the  Mayflower  families  which  settled  in  Con- 
necticut. Dr.  Comstock  studied  and  graduated  in  1849  at  the  St.  Louis  Medical 
college.  In  1851  he  went  to  Philadelphia  and  studied  Homeopathy.  He  prac- 
ticed a  short  time  in  St.  Louis  and  then  went  to  Europe,  where  he  spent  several 
years  in  the  medical  schools  of  the  continent.  Returning  to  St.  Louis  in  1857 


THE   MEDICAL    PROFESSION  435 

Dr.  Comstock,  while  classed  as  a  homeopathic  physician,  was  an  independent 
practitioner.  He  was  early  recognized  as  one  of  the  most  learned  and  best  read 
men  in  the  medical  profession  of  the  city.  He  was  perhaps  the  most  proficient 
linguist  here  for  years.  The  Comstock  residence,  on  Fourteenth  and  Washing- 
ton avenue,  contained  some  of  the  choicest  works  of  art  as  well  as  one  of  the 
finest  private  libraries  in  St.  Louis.  Riding  behind  one  of  the  best  carriage 
teams  of  the  city  was  Dr.  Comstock's  recreation. 

Dr.  Augustus  H.  Schott  was  an  infant  in  arms  when  his  parents  left  Han- 
over, Germany,  in  1851,  to  come  to  America.  He  was  educated  at  Shurtleff 
college  and  at  the  Homeopathic  Medical  College  of  Missouri.  After  several 
years'  practice  at  Alton  he  came  to  St.  Louis  and  soon  after  took  a  professor- 
ship in  the  Homeopathic  Medical  college.  Dr.  E.  C.  Franklin  came  from 
Dubuque,  Iowa,  in  1857,  and  soon  after  joined  the  coterie  engaged  in  carrying 
on  the  Homeopathic  college.  About  the  same  time  Dr.  William  Tod  Helmuth 
came  from  Philadelphia.  Helmuth,  a  dozen  years  later,  went  from  St.  Louis 
to  become  famous  as  a  surgeon  in  New  York.  Franklin  joined  the  faculty  of 
the  Homeopathic  medical  department  of  the  University  of  Michigan.  Dr.  George 
S.  Walker  was  of  Pennsylvania  birth.  He  did  not  become  a  homeopathic  prac- 
titioner until  eight  years  after  he  made  his  residence  in  St.  Louis  in  1852. 

The  Eclectic  school  of  medicine  in  1873  founded  the  American  Medical 
college.  The  leaders  in  the  movement  were  George  C.  Pitzer,  John  W.  Thrail- 
kill,  Jacob  S.  Merrell,  Albert  Merrell  and  W.  V.  Rutledge.  The  college  grad- 
uated about  1,000  students. 

Dentists  began  to  announce  their  presence  in  St.  Louis  within  two  years 
after  the  first  newspaper  was  published.  One  of  them  advertised  in  1809  that 
he  was  prepared  to  do  "extracting,  cleaning,  plugging  and  strengthening  the 
teeth."  With  the  coming  of  Dr.  Isaiah  Forbes  in  1837  the  dental  profession 
took  on  a  new  character.  The  year  after  he  came  Dr.  Forbes  constructed  upon 
plans  of  his  own  a  dental  chair  which  was  a  great  improvement  on  those  in 
use.  A  dental  society  was  formed.  A  dental  journal  was  published.  St.  Louis 
dentists  advanced  new  ideas  and  invented  new  methods.  Dr.  John  S.  Clark  of 
St.  Louis  was  one  of  the  first,  if  not  the  first,  in  the  country  to  use  rolled 
cylinders  of  gold  foil  for  filling  teeth. 

One  of  the  most  noted  fathers  of  the  dental  profession  in  St.  Louis  was 
Henry  J.  McKellops,  a  New  Yorker,  who  came  here  in  1840.  He  was  a  page 
in  the  Missouri  Legislature  and  with  the  money  thus  earned  attended  the  State 
University  at  Columbia.  He  became  famous  in  his  profession  all  over  the  world 
as  the  introducer  of  that  instrument  of  torture — the  mallet — to  pound  into 
solidity  the  fillings.  That  was  over  fifty  years  ago.  At  the  time,  the  profession 
was  not  organized.  Dr.  McKellops  led  in  a  movement  which  established  na- 
tional, state  and  local  associations  of  dentists  throughout  the  country.  In  his 
years  of  travel  and  investigation  he  assembled  what  was  regarded  as  the  most 
complete  dental  library  in  the  world. 

The  Morrisons,  brothers,  became  noted  among  dentists  in  1870-80.  Dr. 
James  Morrison  invented  a  dental  chair  of  iron  with  a  wonderful  range  of 
motions,  which  came  into  quite  general  use.  He  devoted  a  great  deal  of  at- 
tention to  a  dental  engine.  William  N.  Morrison  contributed  to  the  science 
of  dentistry  some  valuable  ideas  in  crown  work. 


436  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

The  Missouri  Dental  college  was  organized  in  1866.  It  required  the  stu- 
dents to  take  certain  regular  courses  of  study  in  a  medical  college  in  addition 
to  the  dental  course.  Other  dental  colleges  adopted  this  St.  Louis  idea.  Dr. 
Forbes  was  the  first  president  of  the  dental  college.  Down  to  the  present 
day  the  dental  profession  of  St.  Louis  has  maintained  the  progressive  spirit 
and  the  high  standards  which  characterized  these  pioneers.  In  1909  the  Amer- 
ican Dental  association,  the  organization  representing  the  profession  throughout 
the  country,  looked  to  St.  Louis  for  a  president — electing  to  that  high  position 
Dr.  Burton  Lee  Thorpe,  not  only  a  practitioner  of  repute  but  a  contributor  of 
national  reputation  to  the  literature  of  the  profession. 

Cancer  is  an  ailment  people  do  not  like  to  talk  about.  In  the  winter  of 
1905  a  St.  Louis  physician  who  was  shut  in  with  the  grippe  received  a  visit 
from  two  fellow  practitioners.  Conversation  rather  curiously  drifted  to  the 
depressing  topic  of  cancer.  All  three  doctors  were  men  with  wide  experience. 
They  knew  that  cancer  was  one  of  the  diseases  which  the  usual  hospital  manage- 
ment does  not  welcome  and  for  which  facilities  of  treatment  are  not  possessed 
by  many  institutions.  They  told  experiences  with  cases  where  cancer  patients 
were  poor  and  where  neglect  in  the  earlier  stages  had  meant  a  lingering  death. 
The  three  doctors  agreed  that  there  was  nothing  St.  Louis  needed  more,  with 
its  variety  of  eleemosynary  institutions,  than  a  free  cancer  hospital.  When 
the  case  of  grippe  reached  the  convalescent  stage,  these  doctors  got  together 
a  small  group  of  public  spirited  men  and  women  in  the  parlors  of  Mrs.  J.  M. 
Franciscus.  They  went  over  the  ground.  They  offered  all  of  the  medical  service 
free,  providing  the  laity  would  do  the  rest. 

The  next  step,  in  February,  1905,  was  a  little  gathering  in  the  offices  of 
the  Third  National  Bank.  Those  present  were  Charles  H.  Huttig,  who  became 
president  of  the  organization  formed,  W.  J.  Kinsella,  J.  M.  Franciscus,  John 
Schroers,  Doctors  W.  E.  Fischel,  H.  G.  Mudd,  M.  F.  Engman,  and  George 
Gellhorn. 

Then  followed  a  canvass  to  see  if  five  years  of  experiment  would  be  justi- 
fied. Some  people  gave  cash  contributions  and  others  pledged  themselves  to 
annual  payments  for  five  years.  It  was  agreed  that  "if  a  five  years'  test  of  our 
plans  proves  them  impracticable,  or  at  least  not  productive  of  the  results  de- 
sired, we  should  then  be  willing  to  close  the  establishment." 

In  1910  the  patients  in  the  rented  building  were  moved  into  a  building 
owned  by  the  association  and  equipped  with  facilities  not  only  for  treatment, 
but  for  research  work  upon  skin  and  cancer  diseases. 

There  is  no  other  skin  and  cancer  hospital  in  the  United  States  which  in 
laboratory,  in  wards,  in  operating  rooms,  in  provision  for  clinics  can  compare 
with  the  St.  Louis  institution.  Grounds  and  building  and  equipment  represent 
$175,000.  The  management  has  undertaken  to  provide  an  endowment  of  $500,- 
ooo  for  maintenance  and,  in  1911,  had  raised  more  than  one-third  of  the  amount. 

The  temporary  quarters  for  the  five  years'  experiment  provided  beds  for 
only  a  limited  number  of  patients.  Such  was  the  pressure  that  some  had  to 
be  accommodated  with  cots.  The  permanent  hospital  takes  care  of  more  than 
twice  the  number  who  could  be  accommodated  in  the  temporary  hospital.  Dur- 
ing* the  five  years  of  trial  no  patient  was  permitted  to  pay  anything.  The 


THE   MEDICAL    PROFESSION  437 

doctors  redeemed  at  par  their  promises  to  give  service  absolutely  free.  They 
agreed  to  continue  to  serve  in  the  new  hospital  at  the  same  rate,  and  the  man- 
agement proclaims  that  the  rule  of  no  pay  from  patients  will  be  adhered  to. 
Grounds  and  building  were  the  gift  of  one  man — George  D.  Barnard.  The 
new  hospital  is  known  as  "the  George  D.  Barnard  Free  Skin  and  Cancer 
Hospital." 

No  institution  in  the  world  is  better  prepared  than  the  new  Barnard  hospital 
to  do  pathological  work.  Even  during  the  experimental  or  temporary  period 
of  five  years  the  hospital  accomplished  results  which  attracted  attention  not 
only  in  this  country  but  abroad.  Notably  has  this  been  the  case  in  the  acetone 
treatment,  which  originated  with  a  member  of  the  staff  of  the  St.  Louis  in- 
stitution. This  treatment  is  now  generally  accepted  by  the  medical  profession 
in  the  United  States  and  in  other  countries  as  the  best  method  of  treating  a 
certain  class  of  cases. 

When  representatives  of  the  Barnard  Hospital  went  abroad  they  were  wel- 
comed and  shown  great  consideration  by  such  men  as  Dr.  Basham  of  the 
London  Cancer  Hospital,  which  is  the  largest  institution  of  the  kind,  and  by 
Professor  Czerny,  who  has  given  up  a  professorship  of  surgery  at  Heidelberg 
to  devote  himself  to  cancer  research,  endowing  the  hospital  for  cancer  treat- 
ment at  Heidelberg  with  $100,000.  At  Berlin  the  representatives  of  the  Barnard 
Hospital  were  shown  special  courtesies  and  their  work  commented  upon.  One 
of  the  new  ideas  which  has  been  tried  with  remarkable  results  in  the  St.  Louis 
institution  is  the  "fulguration"  treatment.  This  consists  in  the  application  of 
a  direct  spark  of  electricity  upon  the  surface  of  the  cancer.  The  apparatus  for 
the  application  was  obtained  in  Europe  by  Doctor  Frank  J.  Lutz,  and  was 
presented  by  him  to  the  x-ray  department  of  the  Barnard  Hospital. 


CHAPTER   XVIII 
THE  PRODUCTIVE  COMMERCE 

A  Century  of  Manufacturing — The  Earliest  Mills — Oxen  and  Water  the  Power  Before 
Steam — Chouteau's  Pond  and  Boy's  Tower — "The  First  Batch"  of  Crackers — 
Grimsley's  Saddle  Factory — Tobacco  Industry  in  1817 — The  Catlins,  the  Liggetts  and 
the  Drummonds — How  Sam  Gaty  Turned  a  Shaft — Early  Workers  in  Metals — A  St.  Louis 
Made  Steamboat  in  1842 — What  "Westward  Ho!"  Meant  to  the  Four  Schaeffers — The 
Garrisons,  Builders  of  Engines — Days  of  Mechanic  Princes — A  St.  Louis  Stove  the  Sur- 
prise of  the  Fair — An  Industry  Founded  by  the  Bridges — Stove  Manufacture  Revolution- 
ized by  Giles  F.  Filley — Great  Expectations  of  Vineyards — The  Brewing  of  Beer — Forty 
Breweries  Before  the  War — Cotton  Manufacturing  Experiments — Stephen  A.  Douglas  on 
St.  Louis  Opportunities — ' '  The  Largest  Beef  and  Pork  Packers  in  the  Union ' ' — Francis 
Whittaker,  the  Ames  Brothers  and  John  J.  Eoe — Cheapness  of  Food  Encouraged  Early 
Industries — Audubon  on  This  Land  of  Plenty — An  Expert's  Forecast  in  1881 — Steamboat 
Profits  Turned  Into  Industries — Competition  in  Wooden-ware  Distanced — Flour  and 
Furniture — First  Among  Cities  in  Many  Specialties — Amazing  Growth  of  Shoe  Manufac- 
turing— The  Wise  Policy  of  Many  Young  Partners. 

"The  culture  of  hemp  has  occupied  the  attention  of  our  farmers,  and  a  rope-walk  will 
shortly  be  erected  in  this  town.  Thus  we  have  commenced  the  manufacture  of  such  articles 
as  will  attract  thousands  of  dollars  to  our  territory ;  thus  we  will  progress  in  freeing  John 
Bull  and  Jack  Ass  of  the  trouble  of  manufacturing  for  us." — Missouri  Gazette,  March,  1809. 

A  century  ago  the  first  newspaper,  when  not  nine  months  old,  began  to  urge 
the  importance  of  home  manufactures  upon  St.  Louis.  "Manifest  destiny"  was 
a  favorite  theme  with  writers,  but  the  men  who  made  St.  Louis  never  overlooked 
the  importance  of  supplementing  natural  advantages  with  enterprise.  In  the 
early  days  the  supremacy  of  the  settlement,  town  and  city  depended  upon  dis- 
tributive commerce.  St.  Louis  was  a  distributing  center.  Fortunes  were  made 
and  the  city  waxed  rich  and  powerful  through  the  bringing  of  all  kinds  of  manu- 
factured products  and  their  distribution  to  great  and  growing  sections  of  the 
country.  But  the  permanence  of  St.  Louis'  prosperity,  the  enduring  growth 
of  traffic,  came  with  a  new  character.  As  productive  commerce  became  more 
and  more  important  St.  Louis  was  builded  for  the  generations  to  come. 

In  its  issue  of  January  31,  1811,  the  Missouri  Gazette  announced:  "An 
event  not  viewed  as  of  public  importance  itself  may  yet  be  highly  interesting 
from  the  reflections  to  which  it  gives  rise.  An  English  gentleman,  Mr.  Bridge, 
of  considerable  capital,  arrived  here  on  Tuesday  evening  last,  with  his  family, 
for  the  purpose  of  establishing  himself  in  this  place.  We  understand  he  has 
brought  with  him  the  machinery  of  a  cotton  factory  and  two  merino  rams. 
Such  an  immigrant  is  an  important  acquisition  to  the  country." 

The  water  power  mill  on  Chouteau's  pond  ran  without  competition  for  years. 
A  saw  mill  was  established  at  the  foot  of  Ashley  street,  on  the  ground  overlook- 
ing the  river.  It  was  the  first  saw  mill  west  of  the  Mississippi.  In  connection 
with  it  the  owner,  Sylvester  Labbadie,  operated  a  grist  mill.  The  power  was  a 
tread  mill  on  which  patient  oxen  walked  slowly,  by  their  weight  making  the 
wheel  go  around.  The  age  of  steam  had  not  arrived  for  St.  Louis.  Manuel 

439 


440  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

Lisa,  at  a  later  period,  ventured  some  of  his  profits,  made  at  fur  trading,  in  a 
mill  on  the  river  bank.  Slowly  but  surely  St.  Louisans  of  the  old  and  new 
stock  felt  their  way  into  the  industrial  field. 

When  St.  Louis  became  a  town  the  north  boundary  was  described  as  "be- 
ginning at  Antoine  Roy's  mill,  on  the  bank  of  the  Mississippi."  Years  after- 
wards the  landmark  was  called  "Roy's  tower."  Tradition  had  it  that  the  tower 
was  built  as  part  of  the  fortification  of  St.  Louis.  The  great,  circular,  stone 
tower  stood  on  the  river  bank,  above  high  water,  at  a  point  between  Morgan 
and  Ashley  streets.  The  tradition  that  the  tower  was  built  for  military  purposes 
seems  to  rest  on  the  similarity  to  Spanish  construction  of  that  character.  Truth 
of  history  seems  to  be  that  the  tower  was  inspired  by  industrial  activity  in  St. 
Louis.  Antoine  Roy  was  one  of  the  pioneer  millers.  He  operated  by  wind 
power.  His  was  probably  the  first  wind-mill  built  in  St.  Louis.  The  great  arms 
projected  from  the  stone  tower  in  such  a  manner  as  to  catch  the  full  strength  of 
the  wind  blowing  up  the  river.  St.  Louis  had  two  other  mills  at  that  time — 
Auguste  Chouteau's  and  Gregoire  Sarpy's — but  they  were  run  by  water.  An- 
toine Roy  was  one  of  the  well-to-do  citizens  of  St.  Louis.  His  name  appears  on 
the  first  tax  list  made  after  the  American  flag  was  raised.  The  valuation  put 
upon  his  holdings  was  $3,000.  The  tower  was  still  standing  in  the  days  of  the 
daguerreotype,  forty  years  after  it  was  first  listed  by  an  American  assessor.  It 
was  one  of  the  most  interesting  relics  of  St.  Louis  when  the  picture  was  taken, 
about  1847.  Antoine  Roy  was  also  known  as  Roi.  He  was  twice  married,  first 
to  Felicite  Vasquez  and  later  to  Mary  Louise  Papin. 

In  1815,  the  nth  of  November,  Christian  Smith  informed  the  people  of  St. 
Louis  that  on  the  next  evening  "the  first  batch"  of  crackers  and  biscuits  would 
be  "drawn"  from  his  "bake  shop,"  and  the  citizens  were  "invited  to  send  and 
make  trial."  The  town  had  been  incorporated  about  six  years  when  the  trustees 
passed  an  ordinance  that  "no  loaf  of  bread  shall  be  vended  at  a  price  greater 
than  twelve  and  one-half  cents." 

The  Grimsleys  were  Virginia  people,  a  large  family  of  them.  Nimrod 
Grimsley,  the  head  of  the  Kentucky  branch,  moved  to  that  state.  Thornton 
Grimsley  was  not  born  until  after  the  family  settled  in  Kentucky.  He  came  out 
to  St.  Louis  in  charge  of  a  stock  of  goods  while  he  was  still  apprenticed  to  a 
saddlery  manufacturer  at  home.  That  was  in  1816,  when  Thornton  Grimsley 
was  eighteen  years  of  age.  When  he  reached  the  age  of  twenty-one  and  the  end 
of  his  apprenticeship  he  took  six  months  of  schooling  with  the  proceeds  of  extra 
work  done  by  him  during  his  apprenticeship.  At  the  end  of  that  time  he  became 
the  representative  of  his  employer  in  charge  of  the  St.  Louis  branch,  and  three 
years  later  he  went  into  business  here  for  himself.  Recognizing  the  demand 
which  must  come  in  the  southwest  for  what  he  knew  most  about,  Grimsley 
opened  a  small  saddlery  shop.  He  invented  the  dragoon  saddle.  The  govern- 
ment adopted  the  Grimsley  saddle,  and  for  many  years  would  have  no  other. 
Grimsley's  saddle  factory  became  one  of  the  institutions  of  the  west.  It  did 
more  government  work  than  any  other  factory  in  the  country.  Thornton 
Grimsley  was  of  striking  appearance.  He  was  of  large  frame  and  wore  side 
whiskers  at  a  time  when  that  style  was  exceptional.  In  the  brilliant  militia  uni- 
forms of  the  period  his  figure  was  imposing.  There  was  rarely  a  great  celebra- 


WILLIAM     SCHOTTEN 


THE  OLD  ROY  TOWER  AND  LEVEE  IN  1850 
From    a    Daguerreotype,    Missouri  "Historical   Society 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  441 

tion  in  St.  Louis  during  the  second  quarter  of  the  century,  with  which  Thornton 
Grimsley  was  not  associated  as  grand  marshal. 

James  Richardson,  who  came  from  Virginia  much  earlier  than  Grimsley's 
arrival,  and  settled  north  of  the  city,  was  a  saddler.  He  constructed  a  side 
saddle  and  presented  it  to  one  of  the  Spanish  governors  for  his  wife.  The 
governor  was  so  well  pleased  that  he  gave  Richardson  a  grant  of  a  thousand 
arpents  of  land. 

The  French  habitants  of  St.  Louis  raised  tobacco  in  their  common  fields. 
Tobacco  was  manufactured  in  only  crude  forms  until  after  the  American  oc- 
cupation. In  1817  Richards  &  Quarles  had  "a  tobacco  manufactory"  on  the 
cross  street  nearly  opposite  the  postoffice.  About  1840  the  newspapers  spoke 
of  tobacco  as  "another  item  of  our  trade  which  is  swelling  every  year  into  much 
greater  importance."  Missouri  was  raising  9,000  hogsheads  of  tobacco  in  1841 
and  sending  all  but  500  hogsheads  to  St.  Louis.  As  a  tobacco  market  St.  Louis 
grew  until  the  receipts  in  1876  reached  29,204  hogsheads. 

The  Catlin  family  had  much  to  do  with  the  development  of  the  tobacco  in- 
dustry. The  first  of  the  St.  Louis  Catlins  came  from  Connecticut  and  brought 
with  him  a  valuable  knowledge  about  the  manufacture.  He  was  Dan  Catlin.  He 
established  in  North  St.  Louis  a  factory  which  was  one  of  the  most  important 
local  industries  of  its  day,  1840.  Dan  Catlin  had  two  sons,  Daniel  and  Ephron, 
both  children  when  the  family  moved  from  Litchfield.  Daniel  Catlin  grew  into 
the  management  of  the  tobacco  manufacturing,  and  taught  other  St.  Louis  manu- 
facturers how  much  there  is  in  putting  products  with  attractive  brands  on  the 
market.  The  Catlin  tobacco  company  expanded  into  an  institution  giving  em- 
ployment to  more  than  400  people.  Ephron  Catlin,  three  years  younger  than 
Daniel,  chose  the  drug  business  in  preference  to  tobacco  manufacturing.  The 
brothers,  both  men  of  splendid  physiques,  were  conspicuous  in  a  community 
where  stalwart  young  manhood  was  not  exceptional.  They  married  sisters, 
Misses  Justina  and  Camilla  Kayser,  daughters  of  Henry  Kayser,  one  of  the  fore- 
most civil  engineers  of  the  west. 

Christopher  Foulks  came  from  New  Jersey  about  1820,  with  a  knowledge  of 
tobacco  manufacture.  He  became  one  of  the  pioneers  in  that  industry.  Joseph 
Liggett  was  a  Londonderry  man  who  settled  in  St.  Louis  and  married  Elizabeth 
Foulks,  daughter  of  the  pioneer  tobacco  manufacturer.  The  son,  John  Edmund 
Liggett,  was  born  in  St.  Louis  in  1826.  He  was  one  of  the  pupils  of  David  H. 
Armstrong  in  the  first  public  school  of  St.  Louis,  and  afterwards  attended  Kern- 
per  college  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the  city.  At  eighteen,  John  E.  Liggett 
left  school  to  go  into  the  tobacco  factory  of  Foulks  and  Shaw.  The  head  of  the 
house  was  his  grandfather.  The  junior  partner  was  his  stepfather.  When  the 
grandfather  retired,  the  grandson  became  a  partner,  and  the  firm  was  Hiram 
Shaw  &  Company.  A  brother,  W.  C.  L.  Liggett,  bought  out  Mr.  Shaw,  and  the 
new  style  was  J.  E.  Liggett  and  Brother.  Henry  Dausman  bought  out  the 
brother  after  five  years.  The  tobacco  manufacturing  went  on,  growing  under 
Liggett  and  Dausman.  In  1873  George  S.  Meyers  bought  out  Dausman.  Hiram 
Shaw  Liggett,  son  of  John  E.  Liggett,  grew  into  the  business.  Through  four 
generations  the  plant  grew  into  one  of  the  great  industries  not  alone  of  St.  Louis 
but  of  the  country.  A  vast  fortune  was  built  up  with  the  profits  of  carefully  con- 


442  ST.    LOUIS,   THE    FOURTH    CITY 

ducted  manufacturing.  In  the  family  through  the  generations  was  always  a  de- 
votion to  the  cause  of  education  which  found  expression  in  princely  gifts  to 
institutions. 

Before  the  Civil  war  St.  Louis  was  selling  manufactured  tobacco  in  every 
state  and  territory  of  the  United  States.  The  Lewis  brothers,  who  started  in 
Glasgow,  Missouri,  in  1837,  had  ten  years  later  removed  to  St.  Louis,  and  devel- 
oped greatly  their  business,  keeping  a  branch  at  Glasgow.  They  manufactured 
annually  millions  of  pounds  of  fine  cut  and  plug.  They  exported  to  Europe  as 
well  as  supplied  a  home  market,  which  included  all  of  this  country.  Twenty 
years  after  the  war  St.  Louis  had  become  the  second  largest  tobacco  manufactur- 
ing center,  being  surpassed  only  by  Jersey  City.  In  1908  St.  Louis  was  maintain- 
ing the  position  it  had  held  for  years  as  "the  place  where  more  tobacco  is  manu- 
factured annually  than  in  any  other  place  in  the  world."  That  year  of  depression 
in  some  industries  showed  an  increase  in  the  products  of  St.  Louis  tobacco  fac- 
tories to  75,750,000  pounds,  as  compared  with  the  65,980,000  pounds  of  1907. 
The  product  of  the  six  tobacco  manufacturing  establishments  of  St.  Louis  in 
1907  was  valued  at  $21,127,654.  In  1910  the  volume  of  the"  tobacco  business 
of  St.  Louis  was  reported  by  the  Business  Men's  league  to.  be  $50,000,000. 

The  Drummonds  were  of  Scotch  ancestry.  James  Drummond  was  born  in 
Scotland.  He  was  a  soldier  in  the  Revolution.  His  son  Harrison  moved  west 
from  Virginia  and  settled  on  a  farm  in  St.  Charles  county.  James  T.  Drummond 
was  born  in  St.  Louis  in  1834.  His  brother,  John  Newton  Drummond,  was  born 
on  the  St.  Charles  county  farm  two  years  later.  While  they  were  young  men, 
the  Drummonds  became  interested  in  tobacco  manufacture.  John  Newton  Drum- 
mond left  the  farm  to  work  in  a  factory.  James  T.  Drummond,  after  teaching 
school  and  after  being  a  traveling  salesman  for  his  father-in-law,  James  Tatum, 
put  his  savings  into  a  small  tobacco  factory  at  Alton  about  the  beginning  of  the 
Civil  war.  His  brother  joined  him.  After  the  removal  to  St.  Louis,  the  business 
grew  to  immense  proportions. 

Sam  Gaty  was  an  orphan  eleven  years  old  when,  taking  an  old  shot  gun 
which  had  been  his  father's,  he  left  the  people  with  whom  he  had  been  placed, 
made  his  way  to  Louisville  and  bound  himself  as  an  apprentice  in  a  foundry. 
When  he  had  learned  the  trade,  with  a  companion  named  Morton,  he  came  to 
St.  Louis.  That  was  in  1828.  Martin  Thomas  had  the  foundry  of  the  city  and 
James  Newell  was  the  expert  blacksmith.  McQueen  was  managing  the  foundry. 
Gaty  and  Morton  asked  for  work.  McQueen  refused  to  hire  them,  saying  he 
must  have  competent  men  and  was  going  to  get  them  from  New  York.  The 
steamboat  Jubilee,  fortunately  for  Sam  Gaty,  broke  a  shaft  about  that  time.  To 
make  a  new  one  seemed  to  be  beyond  the  mechanical  resources  of  St.  Louis. 
Newell,  the  blacksmith,  heard  about  the  trouble.  He  suggested  that  Gaty  might 
be  able  to  turn  out  a  steamboat  shaft.  McQueen  was  incredulous,  but  he  sent 
for  the  youth  from  Louisville.  Gaty  said  he  could  make  a  shaft.  "How  will  you 
do  it?"  asked  McQueen.  "That  is  my  business,"  replied  Gaty.  He  was  given 
the  opportunity  and  turned  out  the  shaft,  the  first  one  manufactured  in  St.  Louis. 
Later  Sam  Gaty  made  the  first  steam  engine  built  in  St.  Louis  or  west  of  the 
Mississippi.  His  fortune  after  that  was  a  matter  of  industry  and  persistent  at- 
tention to  business. 


AUGUST  GAST 


THOMAS   R.   PULL1S 


SA.MUKL    GATY 


FRENCH    RAYBURX  GILES  F.  FILLEY 

MECHANIC  PRINCES  OF  ST.  LOUIS 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  443 

The  way  in  which  Gaty  prepared  for  his  shaft-making  excited  great  interest 
in  St.  Louis.  There  wasn't  a  geared  lathe  in  the  place.  Hunting  up  two  cog- 
wheels of  different  sizes,  Gaty  bolted  the  larger  to  the  face  plate  of  the  lathe 
and  the  smaller  one  he  put  on  the  center  shaft.  He  arranged  his  machinery  in 
such  an  efficient  manner  that  he  turned  the  new  shaft  in  a  day  and  a  half.  There 
was  a  brief  controversy  over  the  price  of  the  job.  McQueen  asked  Gaty  before 
he  began  how  much  he  was  going  to  charge.  "One-half  of  your  whole  price," 
said  Gaty.  McQueen  demurred.  Gaty,  recalling  the  way  in  which  he  had  been 
refused  work,  said,  "Get  your  skilled  workmen  from  the  east  to  do  it."  McQueen 
thought  it  over  and  told  Gaty  to  go  ahead. 

On  the  reputation  acquired  in  the  steamboat  shaft  incident,  Gaty  started  a 
foundry.  The  three  partners  had  a  capital  of  $250.  The  money  was  absorbed 
before  the  business  was  well  established.  Mr.  Gaty  took  a  place  by  the  day  at 
$1.25.  He  went  into  partnership  with  his  employer  and  built  up  one  of  the  largest 
of  the  early  industries  of  St.  Louis.  In  his  old  age  he  was  very  wealthy,  his 
success  being  ascribed  to  the  fact  that  he  stuck  to  the  business  and  had  never 
risked  anything  in  speculation.  In  1840  Mr.  Gaty  married  Miss  Elizabeth  Bur- 
bridge.  He  was  the  father  of  thirteen  children. 

Philip  Kingsland  learned  the  manufacture  of  iron  in  his  father's  shop  at 
Pittsburg.  He  was  put  through  an  apprenticeship  which  was  not  only  thorough 
but  showed  him  no  favors  because  he  was  the  son  of  the  proprietor.  In  1835,  at 
the  age  of  twenty-six,  he  came  to  St.  Louis  and  started  a  foundry  and  machine 
shop.  His  brother  George  joined  him.  The  Kingslands  later  engaged  in  the 
manufacture  of  agricultural  machinery. 

The  160  foundry  and  machine  shops  of  St.  Louis  in  1910  showed  a  gain 
of  twenty-five  per  cent  in  product  since  1905.  They  were  employing  7,000  people 
and  the  output  was  valued  at  $15,000,000.  They  were  making  all  kinds  of  tools 
and  engines  and  iron  work  for  building.  They  were  sending  their  product  to 
the  Orient  and  all  parts  of  South  America. 

A  steamboat — hull,  engines,  tackle  and  all  of  St.  Louis  make — came  to  the 
wharf  on  the  25th  of  April,  1842.  Citizens  began  to  talk  of  a  manufacturing  city. 
Hundreds  of  boats  were  built  here  after  that.  Not  one  of  them  made  the  public 
impression  that  the  St.  Louis  Oak  did  when  she  steamed  down  from  Captain 
Irvine's  boatyard. 

To  the  Kentuckians  who  flocked  to  Missouri  about  1830  this  city  owes  the 
origin  and  the  rise  of  its  hemp  market.  Anjl  with  the  raw  material  came  the 
manufacture  of  rope  and  gunny  cloth  and  allied  products.  In  1853  the  63,450 
bales  of  hemp  received  here  were  worth  $300,000.  McClelland,  Scruggs  &  Co. 
and  Douglass  &  Bier  joined  with  others  in  the  manufacture  of  rope  and  hackled 
hemp  under  a  new  patent,  and  utilized  from  2,000  to  3,000  tons  of  the  raw  mate- 
rial yearly.  Near  the  shot  tower  on  north  levee  John  L.  Elaine  conducted  large 
rope  works.  Just  below  Park  avenue  Johnson,  Bartley  &  Lytle  had  a  large  rope 
manufactory.  R.  B.  Bowler  came  from  Cincinnati  and  organized  the  St.  Louis 
Rope  and  Bagging  company.  St.  Louis  came  to  the  front  in  manufacture  of 
wire  rope  and  aerial  tramways  in  a  phenomenal  manner,  sending  the  product 
to  all  parts  of  the  North  and  South  American  continents.  The  output  of  these 
plants,  including  rope  and  cable  of  fibre  with  metal,  in  1910  was  $6,000,000. 


444  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

St.  Louis  became  a  great  market  for  flaxseed  and  a  center  for  the  manu- 
facture of  oil.  This  was  a  development  promoted  by  the  white  lead  industry. 
As  Henry  T.  Blow  increased  the  manufacture  of  white  lead,  he  encouraged  the 
production  of  flaxseed  and  castor  beans  by  importing  the  seed  and  the  beans  and 
making  distribution  to  farmers  who  would  plant. 

Long  before  the  first  railroad  was  built  westward  St.  Louis  received  by 
wagon  haul  of  forty  miles  shipments  of  gunpowder.  The  place  of  manufacture 
was  Gallagher's  Mill  in  Franklin  county.  John  Stanton,  for  whom  a  town  was 
named  later,  was  the  pioneer  manufacturer.  He  utilized  the  nitrous  earth  found 
in  the  caves  of  the  foothills  of  the  Ozarks. 

Ellis  N.  Leeds,  the  son  of  a  New  Jersey  farmer,  laid  many  thousands  of  brick 
in  the  first  ten  years  he  had  lived  in  St.  Louis.  The  journeyman  became  a  direc- 
tor of  the  Merchants  bank,  of  the  St.  Louis  Gas  Light  company,  of  the  Chel- 
tenham Brick  company,  of  the  Vulcan  Iron  company,  and  retired  a  capitalist 
after  thirty  years  of  active  business  life. 

Nicholas  Schaeffer  with  his  three  brothers  walked  over  the  Alleghany  Moun- 
tains on  his  way  to  St.  Louis.  The  young  men  and  their  mother  came  to 
America  in  1832.  They  bought  a  horse  and  wagon  at  Baltimore  and  started  to 
drive  to  Cincinnati.  At  Hagerstown  the  horse  was  stolen.  The  mother  was 
given  a  place  to  ride  in  a  freight  wagon.  The  sons  walked  to  the  Ohio  river  at 
Wheeling.  Nicholas  Schaeffer  mixed  mortar  for  seventy-five  cents  a  day,  worked 
in  a  tannery  at  fifteen  dollars  a  month,  was  steward  in  a  hotel,  tried  flat  boating 
before  he  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1839  and  made  the  beginning  of  what  was  to 
be  for  forty  years  the  largest  soap  and  candle  manufactory  in  the  west.  He 
came  from  Alsace,  then  in  France,  now  a  German  province. 

Gerard  B.  Allen  was  the  son  of  a  manufacturer  in  Cork,  Ireland.  He  came 
to  St.  Louis  a  young  man  in  1837  and  engaged  in  contracting  and  building. 
From  manufacturing  lumber  he  went  into  iron  and  established  the  Fulton  Iron 
Works. 

The  Garrisons  were  New  Yorkers,  sons  of  Oliver  Garrison  who  ran  some 
of  the  earliest  packets  long  before  railroad  days  between  New  York  city  and 
West  Point  on  the  Hudson.  Daniel  R.  Garrison,  with  some  knowledge  of  steam 
engine  construction  gained  in  shops  at  Buffalo  and  Pittsburg,  came  to  St. 
Louis  in  1835  and  was  put  in  charge  of  the  drafting  for  the  Kingsland,  Light- 
ner  &  Co.  foundry  and  engine  works.  He  was  just  of  age.  In  1840  Daniel  R. 
Garrison  and  his  brother  Oliver  began  to  manufacture  St.  Louis  steam  engines. 
With  the  rush  to  the  gold  diggings  Daniel  R.  Garrison  went  to  California. 
Oliver  Garrison  remained  in  St.  Louis  building  steam  engines  and  shipping 
them  to  his  brother.  Of  the  first  lot  of  three  engines  Daniel  R.  Garrison 
sold  one  to  the  Hudson  Bay  company.  He  went  to  Oregon  to  deliver  it.  The 
main  couplings  were  lost  overboard.  There  was  no  time  to  send  back  to  St. 
Louis  for  new  parts.  Daniel  R.  Garrison,  with  Indian  guides,  went  100  miles 
into  the  Willamette  wilderness,  dug  some  iron  ore,  built  a  temporary  furnace, 
smelted  the  ore  and  made  new  couplings.  This  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
manufacture  of  iron  on  the  Pacific  coast.  The  engine  which  Daniel  R.  Gar- 
rison built  for  the  boat  is  said  to  have  been  used  on  the  first  steamboat  con- 
structed on  Pacific  waters.  The  Garrisons  retired  with  fortunes  from  the 


ALBERT  HARIG 


TOBIAS  SPENGLER 


THE  BELCHER  SUGAR  REFINERY 
BUILDERS  OF  INDUSTRIAL  ST.  LOUIS 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  445 

foundry  business.  Daniel  R.  Garrison  took  up  railroad  building  and  manage- 
ment first  with  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi,  now  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio,  in 
the  fifties,  and  then  with  the  Missouri  Pacific  during  the  war.  After  the  war 
the  Garrisons  took  up  and  for  ten  years  carried  on  the  great  iron  manufactur- 
ing industry,  the  Vulcan  and  Jupiter  works,  at  the  south  end  of  Carondelet. 

The  original  Plymouth  Rock  stock  sent  its  representatives  to  the  upbuild- 
ing of  St.  Louis.  Warren  A.  Souther  and  E.  E.  Souther,  who  established  a 
house  dealing  in  iron,  about  the  Civil  war  period,  descended  from  Nathaniel 
Souther,  the  first  secretary  of  the  Plymouth  colony.  A  branch  of  this  numer- 
ous New  England  family  settled  in  Alton  in  1842.  From  Alton  the  Southers 
came  to  St.  Louis.  Out  of  the  iron  business  established  by  the  Southers  grew 
the  Souther  Iron  company  and  later  the  Missouri  Bolt  and  Nut  company. 

One  of  the  chief  surprises  of  a  fair  held  in  1842  was  "a  St.  Louis  manu- 
factured stove."  This  was  the  initial  effort  of  the  Empire  Stove  Works  es- 
tablished by  the  Bridges.  Hudson  E.  Bridge  and  his  brother  began  the  man- 
ufacture of  stoves  in  a  modest  plant  up  town.  By  1848  they  were  occupying 
half  a  block  at  Main  and  Almond.  Six  years  later  they  had  spread  to  the 
levee.  They  were  melting  ten  tons  of  iron  a  day  and  turning  out  11,000  stoves 
a  year.  That  was  in  1854.  The  Empire  was  one  of  four  stove-making  es- 
tablishments in  St.  Louis  at  the  time. 

The  Excelsior  Stove  Works  of  Giles  F.  Filley  &  Co.  had  been  in  opera- 
tion since  1850.  This  establishment  had  finished  20,000  in  the  third  year  of 
operation,  using  4,000  tons  of  iron.  These  stoves  had  been  shipped  to  all  parts 
of  St.  Louis  trade  territory.  They  had  given  the  stove  manufacturing  center 
of  the  country,  Albany,  its  fatal  shock.  A  fireproof  pattern  safe  assured  the 
community  that  the  Excelsior  Works  had  come  to  stay.  This  safe  was  like 
no  other  in  the  United  States.  It  had  massive  brick  walls  without  windows, 
three  stories,  an  iron  roof  with  an  iron  shutter  which  could  be  opened  to  let 
in  the  light  and  air.  There  the  patterns  of  the  many  varieties  of  stoves  were 
kept  secure  from  fire. 

In  1910  St.  Louis  was  manufacturing  twice  as  many  stoves  as  any  other 
city  in  the  United  States.  The  product  that  year  was  847,000  stoves,  which 
sold  for  $8,800,000. 

A  scientific  discovery  which  revolutionized  stove  manufacture  is  credited 
to  Giles  Franklin  Filley.  It  was  of  the  useful,  homely  character  which  might 
be  properly  associated  with  Mr.  Filley 's  middle  name.  The  discovery  came 
about  through  Mr.  Filley's  experiments  to  find  something  better  than  the  close 
iron  door  which  covered  the  feedhole  to  his  iron  furnace.  The  iron  of  the 
door  became  so  hot  when  the  cupola  was  fired  that  it  soon  burned  out.  The 
workmen  couldn't  stand  in  front  of  it.  Mr.  Filley  tried  a  wire  screen  cov- 
ering. Rather  to  his  surprise  this  held  the  heat  within  the  furnace,  did  not 
become  so  hot  as  the  iron  door  and  lessened  the  amount  of  fuel  necessary 
for  smelting.  It  was  a  saving  of  expense  in  the  operation  of  the  cupola  fur- 
nace. At  that  time  the  stove  manufacturers  of  the  country  claimed  great 
improvement  in  the  construction  of  oven  doors  which  were  close-fitting  on 
cookstoves.  They  went  so  far  as  to  make  double  doors  with  non-conducting 
material  between  the  plates.  The  object  was  to  keep  all  of  the  heat  in  the 


446  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

oven.  Having  observed  the  efficiency  of  the  wire  screen  over  the  cupola  door, 
Mr.  Filley  tried  a  gauze  wire  door  to  the  cooking  stove.  He  discovered  it 
gave  a  more  even  temperature;  that  baking  and  roasting  could  be  done  with 
less  fuel.  But  perhaps  more  than  all,  the  cooking  with  the  gauze  wire  door 
did  not  burn  and  destroy  the  savory  odors. 

For  a  full  generation  after  the  cooking  stove  became  general  in  St.  Louis 
homes,  lament  was  loud  and  universal  that  things  did  not  taste  as  well  as  they 
did  when  done  in  the  old  way.  The  local  scientists  wrestled  wfth  the  problem. 
John  H.  Tice,  who  was  known  locally  as  the  philosopher  of  Cheltenham,  stated 
the  indictment  against  the  cooking  stove: 

Those  whose  remembrance  runs  back  half  a  century,  when  cooking  stoves  began  to  come 
into  use,  will  recall  the  fact  that  their  sainted  mothers,  while  lavish  in  praises  of  the  handiness, 
convenience  and  general  performance  of  the  innovation,  uniformly  made  one  objection  to  it, 
namely,  that  in  baking  and  roasting  it  did  not  come  up  to  the  old  standard.  All  persons 
who  have  passed  the  meridian  of  life  recall  with  zest  the  fine  and  delicious  flavor  of  the 
tender  beef,  pork,  lamb,  turkey,  etc.,  roasted  before  the  open  fire,  and  hence  their  own 
experience  can  bear  testimony  to  the  maternal  objection. 

The  gauze  doors  determined  that  it  was  far  better  that  the  ovens  should 
not  be  airtight  for  baking;  that  excessive  heat  meant  annihilation  of  the  dis- 
tinctive odors  of  meats  and  other  things.  The  local  scientists  agreed  that  212 
degrees  was  about  the  proper  standard  to  accomplish  the  best  oven  results 
and  that  Giles  F.  Filley's  gauze  wire  doors  operated  to  maintain  such  a  stan- 
dard with  a  saving  of  wood  or  coal.  A  higher  range  of  heat,  it  was  agreed 
injured  the  baking. 

Hitchcock  &  Co.,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  city,  also  made  stoves,  and 
by  way  of  variety  turned  out  3,000  plows  a  year.  The  south  as  well  as  the 
west,  before  the  Civil  war,  was  looking  to  St.  Louis  for  agricultural  ma- 
chinery. 

The  immediate  vicinity  of  St.  Louis  became  famous  for  its  fruit.  Pom- 
ology had  its  professors  seventy  years  ago.  In  1837  the  wife  of  Peregrine 
Tippet,  a  Marylander,  who  called  his  farm  in  St.  Louis  county  Cedar  Grove, 
planted  apple  seeds.  She  was  Susanna  Lee,  the  mother  of  Mrs.  Martrom  D. 
Lewis.  From  that  seed  planting  came  the  apple  popular  several  generations 
ago  as  "Aunt  Susan's  Favorite."  Norman  J.  Colman,  after  much  investiga- 
tion, decided  that  no  part  of  the  United  States  offered  such  encouragement 
to  fruit  growing  as  the  vicinity  of  St.  Louis.  When  the  Civil  war  came  Mr. 
Colman  had  the  greater  part  of  what  is  now  known  as  the  Cabanne  section 
covered  with  a  young  nursery.  He  had  planned  to  supply  young  trees  for  the 
starting  of  thousands  of  orchards  in  Missouri  and  Southern  Illinois.  The 
war  paralyzed  the  industry.  Mr.  Colman  was  the  first  Secretary  of  Agricul- 
ture. 

As  early  as  1835-40  several  St.  Louisans  became  deeply  interested  in  the 
subject  of  wine  growing.  One  of  them  was  Kenneth  McKenzie.  He  made  a 
trip  to  Europe  for  the  purpose  of  getting  information  as  to  vineyards  and  as 
to  wine  making. 

Amadee  Berthold  brought  over  from  France  while  he  was  there  a  cutting 
of  a  celebrated  grape.  He  placed  it  in  a  tin  pan  with  earth.  At  that  time  a 
certain  allotment  of  water  was  made  to  each  passenger  crossing  the  ocean. 


ELLIS   N.  LEEDS 


PHILIP  KINGSLAND 


HUDSON  E.  BRIDGE 


JAMES    A.    WRIGHT  GERARD    B.    ALLEN 

MECHANIC  PRINCES  OF  ST.  LOUIS 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  447 

Mr.  Berthold  cut  down  his  allotment  until  he  actually  went  thirsty  in  order 
that  he  might  use  the  water  to  nourish  the  cutting.  That  vine,  for  it  had 
rooted  when  Mr.  Berthold  reached  St.  Louis,  was  planted  back  of  the  Ber- 
thold mansion  on  Fifth  and  Pine  streets.  It  grew  to  very  large  size  and 
bore  enormously. 

Thomas  Allen,  afterwards  the  railroad  builder,  took  up  grape  culture 
and  established  a  vineyard  on  the  Russell  place,  near  where  the  McKinley 
high  school  is  located.  Mr.  Allen  had  made  for  him  a  gray  blouse,  such 
as  was  worn  in  the  vineyards  of  Germany.  He  donned  this  blouse,  and  at- 
tended -to  his  grapes  daily.  He  wrote  charmingly  of  the  opportunities  St. 
Louis  presented  for  horticulture.  In  a  St.  Louis  newspaper  of  September  29, 
1846,  appeared  this  acknowledgment:  "Thomas  Allen  of  Crystal  Springs 
farm,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  city,  has  presented  us  with  ten  varieties  of 
peaches  raised  this  season  on  his  grounds.  Mr.  Allen  has  a  heavy  crop  of 
apples,  of  which  there  are  thirty  varieties;  also  a  large  crop  of  grapes,  of 
which  he  has  twenty  varieties." 

There  were  great  expectations  from  1845  to  1860  that  St.  Louis  would 
become  one  of  the  principal  wine  markets  of  the  United  States.  Extensive 
vineyards  were  planted.  Much  careful  study  was  given  to  grape  culture  and 
wine  making.  One  of  the  experts  who  passed  upon  the  condition  here  was  a 
minister,  Rev.  Mr.  Peabody.  He  claimed  that  in  climate  and  soil  the  ad- 
vantages of  the  vicinity  of  St.  Louis  were  superior  to  any  part  of  the  United 
States,  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  An  estimate  gave  15,000,000  acres  in 
Missouri  tributary  to  St.  Louis  suitable  for  vineyards. 

Alexander  Kayser  was  one  of  those  who  anticipated  great  development 
for  the  wine  industry  of  St.  Louis  and  vicinity.  In  1848  he  offered  three 
premiums  of  $100  each  for  "the  best  specimens  of  Missouri  wines,  the  vintage 
of  three  consecutive  years."  The  competitors  numbered  twenty-seven  for  the 
third  year.  The  premium  went  to  Jacob  Romel  of  Hermann  on  "a  wine  of 
pure  Catawba  grapes." 

Gustave  Edward  Meissner  joined  the  viticulturists  of  St.  Louis.  He  was 
a  relative  of  the  Roeblings,  the  famous  bridge  builders  of  New  York,  and 
before  coming  to  St.  Louis  had  given  a  great  deal  of  study  and  investigation 
to  grape  growing.  Finding  the  vicinity  of  St.  Louis  ideal  in  respect  to  soil 
and  climate  for  viticulture,  Mr.  Meissner  made  this  his  home.  He  acquired 
an  island  in  the  Mississippi  a  few  miles  below  the  city,  called  Meissner's  Island. 
There  he  established  a  vineyard  of  600  acres.  At  one  time  his  vines  were 
producing  100  varieties  of  grapes. 

A  fact  that  encouraged  the  St.  Louis  wine-makers  was  the  discovery 
of  six  fine  varieties  of  grapes  that  seemed  to  be  native  to  the  soil  of  Missouri, 
and  proof  against  disease.  These  early  experiments  produced  wines  which  ex- 
perts pronounced  excellent  in  flavor  and  keeping  quality.  The  grapes  grown  in 
the  vicinity  of  St.  Louis  were  declared  to  yield  a  "must  full  of  body  and  having 
saccharine  enough  to  prevent  acetic  fermentation." 

But  notwithstanding  all  of  the  natural  encouragement  for  grape  growing 
and  wine  making  the  St.  Louis  market  in  1853  received  of  native  wine  only 
nine  casks,  seven  barrels  and  eight  boxes.  A  hundred  years  before  Cahokia 


448  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

and  Kaskaskia  across  the  river  were  making  more  wine  than  that.  The  wine 
product  of  St.  Louis  in  1870  was  $800,000. 

The  brewing  of  lager  beer  in  St.  Louis  began  in  1840.  Adam  Lemp  came 
to  this  country  from  Germany.  Two  years  after  settling  in  St.  Louis  he  started 
a  small  establishment  on  Second  street  between  Walnut  and  Elm.  Twenty 
years  later  "Lemp's"  had  become  one  of  the  institutions  of  the  city.  Upon 
Second  street  was  a  large  public  hall  where  people  gathered  and  drank  their 
"lager,"  as  they  called  it.  In  the  rear  of  the  hall  were  the  manufacturing  de- 
partments and  the  vaults  where  the  beer  "lagered." 

St.  Louisans  commenced  drinking  beer  in  1810.  St.  Vrain  opened  a 
brewery  north  of  the  city  and  put  it  in  charge  of  a  German  brewer  named  Hab. 
He  made  two  kinds,  strong  and  table  beer.  Strong  beer  he  sold  for  ten  dol- 
lars a  barrel,  and  table  beer  for  five  dollars  a  barrel.  These  prices  were  cash. 
If  produce  was  taken,  St.  Vrain  charged  twelve  dollars  a  barrel.  About  the 
same  time  Jacob  Philipson  made  beer  which  was  retailed  "at  twelve  and  one- 
half  cents  a  quart  at  the  stores  of  Sylvester  Labbadie  and  Michel  Tesson,  and 
at  various  other  convenient  places."  Ezra  English  made  malt  beer  and  stored 
it  in  English  cave,  where  Benton  Park  is  now.  Then  the  firm  of  English  & 
McHose  was  formed  to  manufacture  beer  on  a  large  scale  for  that  day.  The 
rising  tide  of  German  immigration  made  lager  beer  familiar  to  St.  Louisans 
before  1850. 

In  1860  the  Mississippi  Handels-Zeitung  gave  a  list  of  forty  breweries 
in  operation  in  St.  Louis,  making  23,000  barrels  of  beer  a  year,  with  a  capital 
of  $600,000.  The  magnitude  of  the  business  seemed  amazing  to  the  American 
newspapers.  The  statistician  of  the  Missouri  Republican  figured  that  the  con- 
sumption in  St.  Louis  was  658  glasses  for  every  person  in  the  course  of  a  year. 
The  product  of  twenty-seven  St.  Louis  breweries  in  1910  was  $25,000,000,  giv- 
ing St.  Louis  second  place  among  the  beer  exporting  centers  of  the  United 
States.  The  employes  numbered  5,373  and  the  wages  paid  to  them  amounted 
to  $4,416,000.  The  supplies  purchased,  most  of  them  in  St.  Louis,  during  the 
year  amounted  to  $15,000,000.  The  factories  and  shops  furnishing  these  sup- 
plies gave  employment  to  20,000  people,  whose  wages  aggregated  $13,000,000. 

In  1854  St.  Louis  had  "a  cotton  factory,  the  thread  of  which  had  almost 
superseded  all  other  yarns  in  the  St.  Louis  market."  This  industry  had  not 
only  survived  the  fire  of  1849,  but  had  grown  from  a  little  shop  near  Main 
and  Chestnut  to  one  of  the  largest  plants  in  the  city.  It  was  located  on  Me- 
nard,  Soulard  and  Lafayette  streets.  It  was  working  up  from  1,500  to  1,800 
bales  of  cotton  a  year  and  turning  out  400,000  pounds  of  cotton  yarn,  90,000 
pounds  of  carpet  warp,  40,000  pounds  of  candlewick,  60,000  pounds  of  cotton 
twine,  740,000  yards  of  cotton  sheeting,  and  120,000  pounds  of  cotton  batting. 

Why  St.  Louis  did  not  become  a  cotton  manufacturing  center  has  never 
been  made  clear.  The  first  spinning  mill  west  of  the  Mississippi  was  started 
here  in  1844.  It  had  800  spindles.  A  new  building  was  erected.  The  number 
of  spindles  was  increased  to  1,600.  The  mill  ran  steadily  and  with  apparent 
success  until  1857,  when  it  was  entirely  destroyed  by  fire.  Adolphus  Meier 
inaugurated  the  industry.  He  had  come  from  Bremen  with  a  fine  education 
and  some  capital  in  1837.  His  father  was  a  man  of  high  standing  as  a  lawyer 


M.    M.    BUCK 


J.  K.  CUMMINGS 


ALVAH   MANSUR 


LUCAS  PLACE  IN   1859 
RESIDENCE  OF  WILLIAM  M.  MORRISON 


BUILDERS  OF  INDUSTRIAL  ST.  LOUIS 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  449 

and  held  the  office  of  secretary  of  the  Supreme  court.  After  seven  years  in 
other  business  in  St.  Louis,  Mr.  Meier  and  his  relatives  established  the  cotton- 
mill.  When  the  mill  burned,  a  charter  was  obtained  from  the  state  and  the  St. 
Louis  cotton  factory  was  built,  Mr.  Meier  becoming  the  president.  Most  of 
the  stock  was  taken  by  his  firm. 

Adolphus  Meier  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  manufacturing  in  St.  Louis. 
He  did  much  more  than  start  the  first  cotton  factory  west  of  the  Mississippi. 
He  inspired  extensive  and  expensive  experiments  to  make  coke  from  soft  coal 
in  the  Belleville  district.  He  established  the  Meier  iron  works  of  East  Caron- 
delet.  He  assisted  in  building  at  St.  Louis  the  largest  tobacco  warehouse  in 
the  United  States.  The  Peper  cotton  press  was  equipped  with  hydraulic, 
presses,  in  part  the  invention  of  Edwin  D.  Meier,  the  son  of  Adolphus  Meier. 
This  revolutionized  the  handling  of  cotton  bales.  Christian  Peper  backed  the 
working  out  of  this  problem  liberally.  There  was  almost  no  manufacturing 
problem  to  which  Adolphus  Meier  did  not  lend  his  aid.  The  fact  that  his  in- 
vestments were  not  always  profitable  did  not  dishearten  him.  One  thing  Mr. 
Meier  did  for  manufacturing  in  St.  Louis  was  of  great  consequence.  He  made 
evident  to  those  who  came  after  that  fuel  could  be  laid  down  cheaper  at  St. 
Louis  than  at  any  other  manufacturing  center  in  the  country.  A  part  of  this 
demonstration  Mr.  Meier  brought  about  by  the  construction  of  a  turnpike  in 
Illinois  from  the  mines  to  the  bank  of  the  river  opposite  St.  Louis.  This  was 
done  in  1848.  It  made  possible  the  transportation  of  coal  to  St.  Louis  through 
the  winter  and  spring  months  in  which,  previously,  the  supply  had  run  short, 
with  the  result  that  prices  soared.  Later  Mr.  Meier  headed  a  company  which 
built  and  operated  the  Illinois  &  St.  Louis  railroad  for  the  purpose  of  carrying 
coal  to  St.  Louis. 

In  a  little  shop  on  Walnut  street,  across  from  the  Cathedral,  William 
Schotten  ground  out  spices  with  a  hand  mill.  That  was  in  1847.  Under  thirty 
years  of  age,  he  had  come  from  Nuess,  near  Duesseldorf.  St.  Louis  was  a 
Mecca  for  the  Germans  coming  to  America  in  that  period.  Schotten  came 
because  others  of  his  countrymen  were  en  route  here.  The  little  factory  he 
established  was  a  beginning.  The  founder  with  his  own  hands  turned  the 
crank  of  the  mill.  Then  he  went  out  and  made  the  rounds  of  the  grocers, 
selling  his  stock.  Before  he  died  in  1874  he  saw  his  business  grown  to  $200,- 
ooo  a  year.  In  1897,  the  house  he  had  established  celebrated  a  semi-centennial 
anniversary  when  the  annual  business  amounted  to  a  volume  of  which  the 
founder  had  never  dreamed. 

The  development  of  the  sugar  refining  industry  of  St.  Louis  in  1850-60 
was  enormous.  In  1851  the  refined  sugars  shipped  away  from  St.  Louis  had 
reached  21,893  barrels,  according  to  the  government  report.  Within  four  years 
after  that  time  the  amount  of  sugar  refined  and  shipped  from  St.  Louis  was 
over  100,000  barrels.  In  three  months  of  1854  the  sales  of  sugar,  molasses  and 
syrups  at  the  St.  Louis  refinery  were  over  $800,000.  In  1850-5  St.  Louis  im- 
ported five  times  as  much  sugar  as  Cincinnati  did.  St.  Louis  refined  sugars 
were  famous.  In  1853  St.  Louis  imported  50,774  hogsheads,  13,993  barrels 
and  40,217  boxes  and  bags.  The  refining  of  sugar  was  one  of  the  principal 
industries.  Of  the  entire  Louisiana  sugar  crop  St.  Louis  received  more  than 

3- VOL.  II. 


450  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

went  to  all  of  the  Atlantic  ports  from  Maine  to  Florida.  This  was  the  sugar 
manufacturing  and  distributing  point  for  the  interior  of  the  country. 

One  manufacturing  industry  meant  others.  As  the  refining  of  sugar  grew 
in  magnitude  cooperage  became  important  in  St.  Louis.  The  cooper  shop 
was  an  adjunct  of  the  Belcher  refinery.  It  employed  125  men  and  occupied 
a  large  stone  building.  In  1853  this  shop  turned  out  -121, ooo  pieces,  chiefly 
barrels  and  half  barrels,  to  carry  the  sugars  and  syrups  refined  and  manufac- 
tured by  the  refinery.  This  product  required  2,000,000  staves,  lumber  for 
headings  and  800,000  hoop  poles  and  twenty  tons  of  hoop  iron.  The  city  that 
year  had  a  coopers'  society  with  600  members.  So  rapidly  did  the  business 
of  the  refinery  develop  that  a  considerable  proportion  of  the  cooperage  work 
was  given  to  outside  shops.  There  were  times  when  the  coopers  of  St.  Louis 
working  ten  hours  a  day  could  not  keep  up  with  the  demand  for  barrels  and 
other  pieces  of  cooperage. 

The  first  type  foundry  in  St.  Louis  was  established  by  A.  P.  Ladew, 
the  son  of  an  Albany,  New  York,  merchant,  who  came  here  in  1838.  August 
Cast  landed  in  St.  Louis  in  1852,  without  a  penny  in  his  pocket.  Leopold  Cast 
brought  over  with  him  a  press  and  a  limited  lithographic  outfit.  The  Casts 
were  natives  of  Lippe-Detmold,  Germany.  They  had  learned  the  trade  of 
lithography  in  Germany.  They  started  a  little  shop  on  Fourth  street  where 
the  Southern  hotel  is.  In  1854  St.  Louis  had  a  type  foundry  and  St.  Louis 
papers  were  printed  with  St.  Louis  type  which  sold  at  New  York  prices.  An 
entire  newspaper  outfit  could  be  furnished  in  St.  Louis  in  twenty-four  hours. 
The  city  had  six  lithographic,  printing  and  engraving  establishments,  four  steel 
and  copper  engraving  and  three  wood  engraving.  There  were  six  book  bind- 
eries and  eight  book  and  job  offices.  The  art  preservative  was  worthily  and 
strongly  represented.  Much  of  the  reputation  of  St.  Louis  gained  as  a  center  of 
type  manufacturing,  the  city  owes  to  a  German  who  came  from  Dresden.  He 
had  served  a  six  years'  apprenticeship  with  a  great  printing  and  publishing 
house  in  his  native  city;  he  had  worked  in  the  foremost  type  making  shops  of 
Prague,  Munich  and  Frankfort-on-the-Main ;  he  spent  some  time  in  England ; 
he  came  to  this  country  and  studied  in  Boston.  In  1874  Carl  S.  Schraubstatter 
came  to  St.  Louis  and  with  James  A.  St.  John  established  a  type  foundry  which 
became  famous  throughout  the  country  for  the  excellence  of  the  product. 

When  the  St.  Louis  Ice  Company  was  organized  in  September,  1854,  the 
capital  consisted  of  1,000  shares  of  $25  each.  The  plan  of  organization  con- 
tained the  following  provision:  "No  one  person  to  be  allowed  more  thai* 
eight  shares."  This  met  with  great  popularity.  In  six  days  all  of  the  stock  was 
subscribed.  When  the  stockholders  organized  they  chose  for  trustees  such 
prominent  citizens  as  Asa  Wilgus,  Kenneth  McKenzie,  William  M.  McPher- 
son,  John  J.  Anderson,  William  W.  Greene,  W.  Patrick,  Edward  Brooks,  John 
McNeil,  T.  E.  Courtenay,  L.  Dorsheimer,  John  B.  Carson,  George  Knapp  and 
B.  F.  Stout.  The  company  located  an  ice  house  on  the  Levee  between  Plum 
And  Cedar  streets. 

Stephen  A.  Douglas  came  to  St.  Louis  shortly  before  the  presidential 
campaign  of  1860.  He  emphasized  in  an  impressive  way  the  opportunities  for 
manufacturing  development  presented  to  St.  Louis: 


J.    T.    DRUMMOND  FRANCIS    WHITTAKER  W.   H.   WOODWARD 


A.   W.    FAGIN  HENRY  AMES 


J.    E.   LIGGETT 


WILLIS  J.   POWELL  JOSEPH   SCHLANGE  JOSEPH    UHRIG 

BUILDERS  OF  INDUSTRIAL   ST.   LOUIS 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  451 

I  have  said  that  I  am  glad  to  be  here  in  your  great  state,  and  I  am  not  impolite  when 
I  say  you  are  unappreciative  of  your  powers  here  at  this  place.  I  have  considered  your 
natural  resources;  with  you  nature  has  been  more  than  lavish,  she  has  been  profligate.  Dear, 
precious  dame!  Take  your  southern  line  of  counties,  there  you  grow  as  beautiful  cotton  as 
any  section  of  this  world;  traverse  your  southeastern  counties  and  you  meet  that  prodigy  in 
the  world  of  mineralogy, — the  Iron  Mountain  married  to  the  Pilot  Knob,  about  the  base  of 
each  of  which  may  be  grown  any  cereal  of  the  states  of  the  great  northwest,  or  any  one  of 
our  broad,  outspread  western  territories.  In  your  central  counties  you  produce  hemp  and 
tobacco  together  with  these  same  cereals.  Along  your  eastern  border  traverses  the  great  Father 
of  Waters  like  a  silver  belt  about  a  maiden's  waist.  From  west  to  east  through  your  northern 
half  the  great  Missouri  pushes  her  way.  In  every  section  of  your  state  you  have  coal,  iron, 
lead  and  various  minerals  of  finest  quality.  Indeed,  fellow  citizens,  your  resources  are  such 
that  Missourians  might  arm  a  half  million  of  men  and  wall  themselves  within  the  borders  of 
their  own  state  and  withstand  the  siege  of  all  the  armies  of  this  present  world,  in  gradations 
of  three  years  each  between  armistices,  and  never  a  Missouri  soldier  stretch  his  hand  across 
that  wall  for  a  drink  of  water! 

About  1855  glass  works  went  into  operation  at  St.  Louis.  The  industry 
was  established  at  Broadway  and  Monroe  streets  by  G.  W.  Scolly  &  Co.  The 
sand  was  found  a  few  miles  from  the  city.  The  lead  was  here.  The  pearlash 
was  obtainable  from  asheries  on  the  Upper  Mississippi.  Only  the  clay  for 
pots  to  stand  the  intense  and  prolonged  heat  was  wanting.  About  that  time 
Charles  Semple  in  digging  a  well  on  his  farm  a  few  miles  out  on  the  Natural 
Bridge  road  found  just  the  clay  that  was  required.  This  clay  was  made  into 
pots  and  put  to  the  severest  tests  at  the  glass  works  and  stood  them.  The 
products  of  the  works  began  at  once  to  cut  into  the  glass  trade  of  Boston  at 
St.  Louis.  St.  Louis  glass  was  added  to  St.  Louis  flour,  St.  Louis  sugar,  St. 
Louis  yarn,  St.  Louis  machinery. 

The  fair  fame  of  St.  Louis  has  made  the  name  of  the  city  a  household 
word  for  widely  varied  reasons.  In  the  earlier  years  of  his  career  Denton 
J.  Snider,  then  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  the  St.  Louis  high  school,  during 
a  lecture  before  a  parlor  audience,  made  the  assertion  that  the  name  of 
William  T.  Harris  was  known  to  more  people  than  the  name  of  any  other  St. 
Louisan.  Dr.  Harris  had  developed  his  theories  of  education  along  lines  which 
made  the  public  school  system  of  St.  Louis  the  object  of  interest  and  study 
by  educators  everywhere.  He  had  established  the  school  of  speculative  phil- 
osophy which  was  stimulating  the  minds  of  thinkers  in  many  countries.  Pro- 
fessor Snider  made  his  assertion  positively  and  for  a  few  moments  it  seemed 
as  if  it  would  be  accepted  by  all  who  heard  him  without  challenge.  Then 
James  A.  Waterworth,  not  long  over  from  County  Down,  Ireland,  of  wide 
mercantile  acquaintance  abroad,  engaged  in  the  insurance  business  of  St.  Louis, 
a  reader  and  a  writer  in  practical  fields,  questioned  the  accuracy  of  Professor 
Snider's  opinion.  Admitting  all  that  had  been  told  respecting  Dr.  Harris,  Mr. 
Waterworth  said  he  thought  there  was  another  St.  Louisan  whose  name  was 
known  to  more  people  in  this  and  other  countries.  Mr.  Snider  called  for  the 
name.  "  Whittaker,"  said  Mr.  Waterworth,  stoutly.  "I  believe  more  people 
know  the  name  of  the  St.  Louisan  associated  with  the  sugar  cured  ham  than 
have  heard  of  Dr.  Harris." 

The  first  Sunday  that  Francis  Whittaker  spent  in  St.  Louis  he  went  to 
the  Presbyterian  church  to  hear  Dr.  Potts.  After  the  service  he  walked  out 
to  the  high  ground  west  of  Jefferson  avenue,  and  turning  about  looked  long 


452  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

and  thoughtfully  at  the  St.  Louis  of  1848.  He  had  come  west  with  letters 
that  made  it  possible  to  choose  his  location.  A  brother,  Dr.  John  H.  Whit- 
taker,  was  president  of  the  New  York  Medical  college.  Before  he  left  the 
grove  of  trees  on  the  ridge,  Mr.  Whittaker  decided  that  St.  Louis  was  to  be 
his  American  home.  He  had  come  from  County  Leitrim,  Ireland,  where  his 
father,  of  good  birth,  had  held  the  office  of  sheriff.  Practical  knowledge  of 
two  kinds  of  business,  widely  separated,  had  prepared  Mr.  Whittaker  for  his 
St.  Louis  career.  There  was  an  apprenticeship  served  to  a  packer  in  Sligo. 
After  that  had  come  several  years  of  experience  in  a  bank.  Mr.  Whittaker 
became  a  pork  packer.  In  the  early  years  of  the  enterprise  he  was  his  own 
foreman  and  when  work  pressed  he  took  his  place  at  the  "cutter's  table." 
When  he  reached  home  in  the  evening  often  his  hands  were  too  tired  for  the 
knife  and  fork.  Direct  shipments  to  Europe  were  advocated  by  Mr.  Whittaker 
with  great  earnestness  as  long  as  he  lived.  Their  importance  to  the  develop- 
ment of  St.  Louis  were  in  his  opinion  very  great. 

In  1858  St.  Louis  claimed  confidently  "the  largest  beef  and  pork  packers 
in  the  Union."  The  Ames  family  moved  west  from  Oneida  county,  New  York. 
Nathan  Ames  and  his  two  sons,  Henry  and  Edgar,  were  pioneer  pork  packers 
in  Cincinnati  long  before  "the  Queen  City  of  the  West"  had  gained  the  sobri- 
quet of  "Porkopolis."  They  went  there  in  1828,  but  in  1841  they  decided  that 
St.  Louis  was  a  coming  center  of  commerce,  more  encouraging  than  Cincin- 
nati. Henry  Ames  added  to  knowledge  of  pork  packing  a  thorough  acquaint- 
ance with  the  river  transportation  business. 

Almost  the  only  industry  of  St.  Louis  which  the  Civil  war  did  not  mate- 
rially injure  was  pork  packing.  It  was  in  the  hands  of  a  group  of  men  devoted 
to  the  Union.  When  St.  Louis  began  to  organize  an  army,  before  there  was 
commissary  or  other  preparations  to  take  care  of  volunteers,  these  pork  pack- 
ers supplied  food  to  the  "Home  Guards."  Later,  when  the  troops  were  mus- 
tered in  faster  than  the  business  departments  of  the  army  could  be  organized, 
these  packers  supplied  food  in  great  quantities,  trusting  to  the  government 
to  straighten  out  the  irregularities  and  to  meet  the  bills.  Several  firms  pursued 
this  policy  of  doing  all  that  was  asked  in  emergencies  and  trusting  to  the  gov- 
ernment. They  gave  credit  to  the  government  to  the  extent  of  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  dollars.  The  patriotic  course  had  its  reward,  although  that  was 
hardly  foreseen.  The  War  Department  patronized  the  firms  which  had  acted 
promptly  and  liberally  in  1861.  When  the  war  ended  the  packing  industry  of 
St.  Louis  was  flourishing.  These  firms  were  Francis  Whittaker  &  Co.,  Henry 
and  Edgar  Ames  &  Co.,  and  John  J.  Roe  &  Co. 

The  Ames  Brothers  came  to  St.  Louis  with  their  father,  Nathan  Ames,  in 
1841.  Two  centuries  back  the  Ameses  were  an  old  colonial  family  of  Massa- 
chusetts. Henry  Ames  was  eight  years  the  older.  The  brothers  were  unlike 
physically  and  mentally,  but  between  them  existed  an  affection  of  extraord- 
inary character.  Henry  Ames  was  a  broad  shouldered,  square  faced  man. 
Edgar  Ames  was  not  so  heavily  built.  His  face  was  that  of  the  student  and 
thinker.  The  lineaments  of  Henry  Ames  were  those  of  the  intense  business 
man.  When  paralysis  made  it  impossible  for  Henry  Ames  to  walk  he  was 
carried  daily  to  his  counting  room,  and,  sitting  in  his  chair,  directed  the  busi- 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  453 

ness.  Edgar  Ames  suffered  from  gradual  paralysis  for  some  years  before 
his  brother  was  affected.  The  physicians  suggested  rattlesnake  poison  as  a 
medicine  to  check  the  disease.  Henry  Ames  insisted  that  the  effects  of  the 
poison  be  tried  upon  him  and  that  the  doctors  study  the  result  in  his  case 
before  they  experimented  \uth  his  brother  Edgar.  He  had  his  way  and  took 
six  doses,  although  warned  that  his  condition  was  entirely  different  from 
that  of  his  brother,  and  that  while  the  poison  might  be  of  benefit  or  harmless  to 
the  younger  man  it  might  operate  badly  with  him.  The  poison  did  make  Henry 
Ames  very  sick.  A  variety  of  business  enterprises  besides  the  pork  packing 
industry  claimed  the  attention  of  Henry  Ames.  Edgar  Ames  was  fond  of 
books  and  art.  He  did  much  for  St.  Louis  in  that  direction,  but  he  looked  for- 
ward to  the  accumulation  of  a  fortune  which  would  enable  him  to  do  a  great 
deal  more.  Some  one  asked  Edgar  Ames  why  he  continued  to  work  so  hard. 
His  reply  was,  "I  work  to  make  money  to  beautify  our  city."  While  he  was 
looking  forward  to  the  time  when  he  could  carry  out  the  plans  which  he  had 
in  mind  but  was  not  ready  to  make  public,  death  came  suddenly.  Henry  Ames 
and  Edgar  Ames  died  within  a  year  of  each  other.  Edgar  Ames  was  only  forty- 
three. 

One  of  the  cheeriest  of  the  business  magnates  of  St.  Louis  in  the  before- 
the-war  period  was  the  remaining  member  of  this  group  of  packers.  John  J. 
Roe  settled  here  about  the  same  time  that  the  Ames  family  did.  He  was  one 
of  the  Ohio  river  steamboatmen  who  came  to  St.  Louis  to  trade,  and  who  de- 
cided that  residence  in  St.  Louis  offered  the  best  opportunities.  The  devotion 
of  John  J.  Roe  to  the  Union  cause  was  perhaps  more  remarkable  than  the  patri- 
otic impulses  of  Whittaker  and  the  Ames  brothers.  Mr.  Roe  had  been  a  slave- 
holder, but  from  conscientious  belief  that  the  peculiar  institution  was  not  right 
he  had  freed  his  negroes.  He  was  of  New  York  birth.  His  parents  migrated 
to  the  Ohio  river  where,  at  Rising  Sun,  his  father  operated  a  ferry.  Roe  was  a 
genius  as  a  trader.  He  rose  in  steamboating  to  the  position  of  captain  with  a 
share  in  the  profits.  He  was  so  successful  that  in  two  years  he  had  become  sole 
owner  of  the  boat.  In  1840  he  landed  at  St.  Louis  with  a  boat  load  of  mer- 
chandise on  a  trading  expedition  to  the  Upper  Missouri.  The  prospects  of  the 
city  so  impressed  Mr.  Roe  that  he  remained  here  and  started  a  commission 
house.  This  grew  into  the  pork  packing  business  of  Hewitt,  Roe  &  Kerche- 
val.  James  Hewitt  &  Co.  of  New  York  had  branches  in  the  West.  A  few  years 
after  Mr.  Roe  started  in  St.  Louis,  the  community  saw  his  proverbial  good 
humor  tested.  A  fire  swept  away  the  pork  packing  house.  Mr.  Roe  settled  with 
everybody,  kept  his  cheerfulness  and  began  to  build  his  fortune  over  again.  He 
had  more  partners,  probably,  than  any  other  business  man  in  St.  Louis  in  that 
day.  He  went  into  all  kinds  of  business  enterprises.  He  had  investments  in 
steamboats.  He  was  a  director  in  steam  railroads  and  in  street  railroads,  in 
banks  and  in  insurance  companies.  And  all  of  the  time  he  was  calling  acquaint- 
ances by  their  first  names,  doing  helpful  acts,  bolstering  somebody's  credit,  giving 
instructions  in  his  business  and  seeing  anybody  who  wanted  to  see  him.  Thirty 
years  afterwards  St.  Louis  produced  another  business  man  with  like  capacity 
for  handling  multifarious  enterprises  and  with  similar  friendliness  of  manner 
toward  everybody — David  R.  Francis.  "Captain  Roe,"  those  best  acquainted 


454  ST.   LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

said,  was  one  of  the  last  of  St.  Louis  "captains."  There  came  a  day  when 
the  stockholders  who  were  building  the  Eads  bridge  were  pessimistic;  they 
tired  of  the  assessments  and  talked  of  stopping  the  work.  John  J.  Roe  came 
forward  with  $100,000  cash  to  continue  the  construction.  He  went  to  New 
York,  called  the  large  stockholders  together,  and  in  thirty  minutes  there  had 
been  subscribed  $1,200,000. 

On  Lafayette  avenue,  on  Compton  Hill,  Captain  Roe  laid  put  one  of  the 
show  places  of  St.  Louis  with  ten  acres  of  ground,  where  he  hoped  to  spend  his 
declining  years.  But  he  went  ahead  at  full  steam  down  town.  He  met  one  man 
and  asked  him  why  he  looked  so  blue.  "I  have  two  thousand  barrels  of  pork  to 
deliver  tomorrow,"  was  the  reply.  "The  railroad  people  say  they  cannot  reach 
here  for  three  days.  Pork  has  advanced  three  dollars  a  barrel."  "I'll  loan  them 
to  you,"  said  Captain  Roe,  and  he  wrote  the  order  for  delivery.  He  was  passing 
a  young  man  on  the  street  when  he  turned  back  and  asked:  "You  said  some 
weeks  ago  you  wanted  to  get  a  bookkeeper's  position;  have  you  succeeded?" 
"No,  Captain,"  was  the  reply.  "Well,"  said  Captain  Roe,  "go  up  to  Mr.  Blank's 
and  tell  him  that  you  are  the  young  man  I  spoke  about  several  days  ago.  If  the 
place  suits  you  he  will  give  it  to  you."  "The  bank  does  not  seem  to  like  this 
paper,"  a  business  man  said  as  he  met  Captain  Roe  near  the  cashier's  desk  in 
one  of  the  financial  institutions  of  the  city.  "Why,  what  is  the  matter  with 
it?"  asked  Captain  Roe.  "If  they  don't  want  it  I'll  take  it."  The  cashier 
reconsidered.  An  agent  of  the  packing  house  who  was  going  out  to  buy  to 
the  extent  of  $500,000,  came  into  the  presence  of  the  head  for  his  instructions. 
"All  you  have  to  do  is  to  take  care  of  your  money  and  see  that  you  get  all  the 
property  you  pay  for,"  said  Captain  Roe,  and  the  agent  passed  out.  He  was 
in  his  sixty-first  year  and  was  attending  a  meeting  of  one  of  the  many  cor- 
porations in  which  he  was  interested  one  day  of  February,  1870,  when  his 
voice  suddenly  failed,  the  smile  faded,  the  head  dropped  to  one  side  and  Captain 
Roe  was  dead. 

The  meat  packing  houses  of  St.  Louis  increased  their  product  over  fifty 
per  cent  from  1905  to  1910,  selling  in  the  latter  year  $26,601,000  worth  of 
meats. 

One  of  John  Hogan's  "Thoughts  About  St.  Louis"  in  1854  suggested  this 
advantage  of  St.  Louis  as  a  center  of  productive  commerce: 

First,  perhaps  chiefest,  among  the  requisites  for  large  manufacturing  establishments, 
is  an  abundant  supply  of  food  of  all  kinds,  and  at  fair  living  prices.  To  manufacture  ex- 
tensively in  all  the  various  branches  of  mechanism  entering  into  commerce  requires  an 
immense  number  of  hands.  To  supply  these  and  their  families  and  all  dependent  upon  them, 
with  food  convenient  for  them,  absorbs  at  the  best  a  large  amount  of  the  entire  proceeds  of 
their  labor.  Now,  one  of  the  immutable  laws  of  trade  is,  that  where  the  demand  is  greater 
than  the  supply,  the  price  of  the  article  is  enhanced.  If,  then,  there  is  a  large  concentration 
of  operatives,  who  from  their  vocations  are  necessarily  consumers,  and  not  producers  of  food, 
unless  they  are  employed  nearest  to  the  greatest  and  most  abundant  supply,  they  will  find 
enhanced  prices,  and,  by  consequence  the  pro  rata  of  wages  over  the  amount  expended  for 
food  is  proportionally  decreased.  But  is  there  any  place  in  the  United  States  where  there 
is  a  greater  concentration  of  food  at  fair,  we  may  say  first  hand  prices,  than  at  St.  Louis? 
I  doubt  whether,  as  an  original  and  supply-produce  point,  St.  Louis  has  its  equal  anywhere. 

Audubon,  the  naturalist,  during  his  visit  to  St.  Louis  in  1843,  was  impressed 
with  the  abundance  of  food  supplies  from  the  country  immediately  adjacent 
to  the  city.  He  wrote  to  James  Hall: 


CHARLES  G.   STIFEL  IGNATZ    UHRIG  LOUIS     SCHLOSSTEJN 


EDGAR   AMES  JOHN  J.  ROE  JOSEPH    GARNEAU 


GEORGE    P.    PLANT  JOSEPH   SCHNAIDER  JULIUS  WINKELMEYER 

BUILDERS  OE  INDUSTRIAL  ST.  LOUIS 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  455 

The  markets  here  abound  with  all  the  good  things  of  the  land  and  of  nature's  creation. 
To  give  you  an  idea  of  this  read  the  following  items:  Grouse,  two  for  a  York  shilling;  three 
chickens  for  the  same;  turkeys,  wild  or  tame,  twenty-five  cents;  flour,  two  dollars  a  barrel; 
butter,  six  pence  for  the  best — fresh  and  really  good;  beef,  three  to  four  cents;  veal,  the 
same;  pork,  two  cents;  venison  hams,  large  and  dried,  fifteen  cents  each;  potatoes,  ten  cents 
a  bushel;  ducks,  three  for  a  shilling;  wild  geese,  ten  cents  each;  canvas  back  ducks,  a  shilling 
a  pair;  vegetables  for  the  asking,  as  it  were. 

In  a  land  of  such  plenty  the  naturalist  felt  that  hotel  rates  were  too  high. 
He  added  to  his  letter: 

And  only  think,  in  the  midst  of  this  abundance  and  cheapness,  we  are  paying  at  the 
rate  of  nine  dollars  a  week  at  our  hotel,  the  Glasgow,  and  at  the  Planters  we  were  asked  ten 
dollars.  We  are  at  the  Glasgow  hotel,  and  will  leave  it  the  day  after  tomorrow,  as  it  is  too 
good  for  our  purses.  We  intended  to  have  gone  twenty  miles  in  Illinois  to  Edwardsville, 
but  have  changed  our  plans  and  will  go  northwest  to  Florissant,  where  we  are  assured  game 
is  plenty  and  the  living  quite  cheap. 

A  once  promising  industry  of  St.  Louis  was  the  building  of  locomotives. 
In  1854  a  force  of  200  men  worked  in  a  plant  which  embraced  a  pattern-maker's 
shop,  an  iron  foundry,  a  brass  foundry,  a  smith's  shop,  a  boilermaker's  shop,  a 
sheet  iron  worker's  shop,  a  coppersmith's  shop,  a  carpenter's  shop,  a  finishing 
shop  and  a  paint  shop.  The  plant  occupied  a  frontage  of  500  feet  on  South 
Third  street;  it  turned  out  all  of  the  parts  of  locomotives  and  put  them  together' 
in  working  form.  Palm  and  Robinson  were  the  locomotive  builders.  They 
turned  out  the  first  St.  Louis-built  locomotive  on  July  I,  1853,  and  delivered  it 
to  the  Pacific  railroad.  They  continued  to  build  locomotives  at  the  rate  of 
about  one  every  five  weeks.  These  were  twenty-two  ton  locomotives.  The 
material  to  construct  one  of  them,  with  tender,  consisted  of  24,500  pounds  of 
cast  iron,  9,200  pounds  of  plate  and  sheet  iron,  12,000  pounds  of  rolled  bar 
iron,  7,500  pounds  of  hammered  iron,  1,400  pounds  of  steel,  4,200  pounds  of 
copper  and  500  pounds  of  tin,  zinc  and  brass.  A  considerable  part  of  the  metal 
which  went  into  these  St.  Louis-made  locomotives  came  from  Missouri  mines. 

Wilhelm  Palm  was  a  highly  educated  young  German  fresh  from  the 
University  of  Berlin  when  he  came  to  St.  Louis.  For  a  short  time  he  was 
assistant  editor  of  the  Anzeiger.  His  experiment  in  locomotive  building  at 
St.  Louis  was  so  successful  that  he  retired  with  a  comfortable  fortune.  It  is 
tradition  that  the  first  ten  locomotives  for  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  railroad 
were  constructed  in  St.  Louis,  transported  by  ferry  to  the  Illinois  side  and 
put  in  service  on  the  rails. 

Eberhard  Anheuser  came  to  JSt.  Louis  in  1845  an^  went  into  the  business 
of  soap  manufacturing.  He  did  not  become  interested  in  the  manufacture  of 
beer  until  1860,  when  he  acquired  an  interest  in  the  Bavarian  brewery.  William 
Anheuser,  who  was  a  boy  of  ten  when  the  family  left  Brunswick,  Germany, 
continued  in  the  business  his  father  had  established  in  St.  Louis — soap  manu- 
facturing. 

In  1860,  St.  Louis  had  1,126  manufacturing  industries  with  $12,733,948 
capital,  giving  employment  to  11,737  people  and  producing  $27,000,000  in  value. 
This  city  fell  below  Boston,  Cincinnati,  Newark,  New  York,  Philadelphia, 
Providence,  Pittsburg  in  manufactures. 

Twenty  years  later,  in  1880,  St.  Louis  had  come  up  to  2,886  manufactur- 
ing industries,  employing  $45,385,000  capital  and  39,724  people.  The  products 


456  ST.   LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

had  been  increased  to  $104,383,587  in  value.  St.  Louis  was  surpassed  in  1880 
only  by  Brooklyn,  Chicago,  New  York,  Philadelphia  and  Pittsburg.  These 
interesting  comparisons  were  compiled  from  government  census  figures  and 
were  given  in  one  of  the  most  effective  studies  of  St.  Louis  from  the  business 
point  of  view  in  a  paper  presented  before  the  Round  Table  in  1882  by  Charles 
W.  Knapp. 

In  1910  the  manufactured  products  of  St.  Louis  industries  reached  a 
valuation  of  $327,676,000,  a  gain  from  $193,691,595  in  1900  as  shown  by  the 
census.  The  capital  invested  in  manufacturing  at  St.  Louis  in  1910  was  $234,- 
199,358.  The  number  of  people  employed  in  these  manufacturing  industries 
was  125,087. 

Two  brothers,  whose  grandfather  came  from  Switzerland  to  Pennsylvania, 
brought  to  St.  Louis  thorough  knowledge  of  leather  manufacture.  Both  had 
been  apprentices  in  tanneries.  They  were  Chauncey  Forward  Shultz  and  John 
A.  J.  Shultz.  One  was  born  in  Pennsylvania ;  the  other  in  Maryland.  Chauncey 
F.  Shultz  came  to  St.  Louis  shortly  before  the  civil  war.  His  brother  came 
in  1864.  Together  these  brothers  established  and  developed  the  Shultz  Belting 
company.  The  younger  brother  invented  processes  which  gave  to  the  St.  Louis 
industry  wide  repute.  He  manufactured  a  new  kind  of  rawhide  belt  which 
was  considered  a  notable  improvement.  He  introduced  rawhide  lace  leather, 
the  first  made  in  the  world.  He  patented  the  woven  leather  belt.  In  1908 
he  was  chosen  president  of  the  Missouri  Manufacturers'  association. 

The  manufacture  of  clothing  on  a  large  scale  in  St.  Louis  was  one  of  the 
industries  which  became  important  just  after  the  close  of  the  civil  war.  Edward 
Martin,  after  several  years'  experience  in  Cincinnati,  came  to  St.  Louis  to  en- 
gage in  this  business.  He  associated  with  him  his  brothers  Claude  and  John. 
The  Martins  were  sons  of  a  well-to-do  freeholder  in  County  Tyrone,  Ireland. 

Thirty  years  ago  J.  D.  Hayes,  of  Detroit,  was  one  of  the  best  known 
experts  in  trade  and  transportation  problems.  He  wrote  to  Joseph  Nimmo,  the 
government  statistician,  April  7,  1881,  this  notable  forecast  on  the  probabilities 
of  manufacturing  development  at  St.  Louis: 

For  hundreds  of  thousands  of  years  before  the  present  race  of  people  were  known,  the 
Mississippi  and  Missouri  rivers  formed  their  junction  near  the  place  where  St.  Louis  now 
stands, — those  rivers  being  navigable  for  so  many  hundreds  of  miles  in  each  direction,  draining 
a  country  rich  in  agricultural  lands,  as  well  as  very  abundantly  supplied  with  iron,  coal  and 
other  minerals,  together  with  the  great  variety  of  different  kinds  of  valuable  timber  suitable 
for  manufacturing,  all  of  which  could  be  brought  to  that  point  by  the  natural  flow  of  water, 
thence  onward  down  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  to  reach  open  and  unobstructed  navigation  all 
the  year  round  to  all  parts  of  the  world.  This  vast  region  of  country  along  those  rivers  is 
capable  of  sustaining  a  population  of  three  hundred  millions  of  people,  without  having  more 
inhabitants  to  the  square  mile  than  some  parts  of  Europe.  With  such  a  country,  and  such 
natural  resources  to  and  from,  such  a  central  point  would  not  fail  to  attract  the  dullest  mind 
to  its  future  prospects  long  before  the  steamboats  and  railroads  had  entered  into  competition 
in  rates  with  the  currents  of  the  rivers  in  their  onward  course  to  the  ocean.  Therefore,  from 
the  beginning  to  the  present  time  and  for  all  coming  time,  railroads  and  steamboats  must 
compete  with  the  currents  of  those  rivers  for  the  traffic  of  St.  Louis;  therefore,  manufactories 
at  that  point  enjoy  benefits  which  are  in  some  respects  a  protection  as  against  interior  towns 
or  cities  having  to  pay  local  or  non-competing  rates.  The  St.  Louis  rates  affect  the  rates  on 
all  productions  far  back  into  the  country  each  side  of  the  river,  as  far  back  as  to  where  the 
local  rates  into  St.  Louis  and  the  through  rate  from  St.  Louis  added  together  equal  the  east- 
bound  rate  by  rail  from  the  interior  cities  and  towns. 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  457 

The  public  are  educated  to  call  this  natural  advantage  "discrimination  in  rates  in  favor 
of  St.  Louis ' '  which  is  true  so  far  as  the  other  places  are  concerned,  but  it  is  a  "  discrimina- 
tion" made  by  God  himself  in  the  formation  of  the  world,  therefore  beyond  the  power  of 
railroad  managers  to  change.  The  manufacturer  can  with  some  degree  of  certainty  put  his 
money,  energy  and  material  together  at  that  point,  looking  to  the  future  wants  of  the  vast 
number  of  people  that  are  in  the  west  and  the  millions  upon  millions  that  will  be  there,  and 
go  forward  with  manufacturing  enterprises  without  limit,  feeling  secure  in  the  ability  to 
compete  with  any  other  part  of  the  world. 

In  the  little  model  shop  of  Edward  Burroughs  on  Pine  street,  the  son 
William  S.  Burroughs,  began  about  1881  to  work  out  his  idea  of  an  adding 
machine.  The  Burroughs,  father  and  son,  were  from  New  York.  Their  shop 
was  full  of  castings  and  wheels  and  strange  looking  things.  It  was  frequented 
by  St.  Louis  inventors  who  wanted  their  ideas  put  into  mechanical  form.  Wil- 
liam S.  Burroughs  turned  out  a  machine  which  would  do  surprising  performances 
in  mathematics.  Then  he  began  to  apply  the  principles  to  a  contrivance  that 
would  set  down  and  add  columns  of  figures.  The  first  lot  of  fifty  counting 
machines  would  not  stand  wear  and  tear.  Fifty  of  these  machines  went  into 
the  junk  heap.  More  substantial  material  was  employed.  In  nine  years  Bur- 
roughs produced  the  machine  which  would  stand  the  tests  and  the  company 
formed  to  manufacture  the  machines  began  to  turn  out  large  numbers  for 
commercial  uses.  The  adder  became  almost  as  common  as  the  typewriter  in 
banks  and  other  business  houses. 

Several  of  the  most  beneficial  industries  of  St.  Louis  owed  impetus  if  not 
origin  to  profits  of  the  steamboat  business.  In  the  upper  part  of  St.  Louis 
county  was  "the  Virginia  settlement"  of  the  Tylers  and  Colemans.  James 
Dozier  and  his  father-in-law,  John  Dudgeon,  coming  from  Lexington,  Ky.,  in 
1828,  joined  this  settlement.  In  1844,  Captain  Dozier  became  one  of  a  coterie 
of  Missouri  river  commanders,  among  them  Roe,  Throckmorton,  Kaiser,  La- 
Barge  and  Eaton.  He  retired  in  ten  years  with  a  comfortable  fortune  and 
established  himself  in  a  country  home  at  Dozier's  Landing,  St.  Charles  county. 
Immediately  after  the  war  Captain  Dozier  invested  in  the  bakery  business  in 
St.  Louis  and  founded  the  Dozier- Weyl  Cracker  company.  In  1880  St.  Louis 
was  a  cracker  and  bread  center,  with  215  bakeries,  great  and  small,  turning 
out  products  valued  at  $2,000,000  a  year.  In  1910  St.  Louis  had  354  bakeries, 
turning  out  products  to  the  value  of  $7,000,000  annually. 

The  wooden-ware  and  willow-ware  industry  and  trade  were  among  the 
early  business  triumphs  of  St.  Louis.  There  was  quite  a  trade  in  wooden-ware 
during  the  decade  of  1830-40,  but  it  was  carried  on  under  the  same  roofs  with 
hardware.  In  the  summer  of  1851  Samuel  Cupples  came  from  Cincinnati, 
bringing  a  stock  of  wooden-ware  and  willow-ware,  with  which  he  opened  a  store 
in  that  line  distinctively  on  Locust  street  near  the  Levee.  Just  twenty  years 
later  St.  Louis  ruled  the  world  in  this  trade.  A  statement  of  conditions  in 
1883  contained  the  following: 

In  St.  Louis  the  wooden-ware  and  willow-ware  trade  has  obtained  the  ascendancy  over 
that  of  any  other  city  in  America  or  Europe.  Prices  for  every  other  city  on  the  continent  are 
fixed  here.  In  the  manufacture  of  these  wares  a  capital  approaching  in  the  aggregate 
$3,000,000  is  utilized  and  upwards  of  1,000  hands  are  employed.  One  St.  Louis  firm  sells 
more  annually  than  the  combined  trade  of  any  other  four  houses  in  the  same  line  in  the  world, 
and  more  than  the  aggregate  sales  of  all  of  the  houses  in  this  line  of  business  west  of  the 


458  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

Alleghanies.  St.  Louis  is  absolutely  beyond  competition  in  this  line,  having  the  largest  manu- 
factory of  this  character  in  the  world.  Not  only  are  these  goods,  chiefly  derived  from  home 
manufactories,  shipped  to  every  considerable  city  and  town  in  America,  but  there  is  a  con- 
siderable export  to  Cuba,  South  America  and  to  Australia. 

At  the  time  the  above  was  written,  twenty-five  years  ago,  St.  Louis  had 
a  five-story  paper  bag  factory  that  was  eating  up  ten  tons  of  paper  daily.  There 
were  three  oak-ware  factories  turning  out  more  product  than  any  other  estab- 
lishment of  the  kind  in  the  country.  There  was  a  broom  factory  using  more 
broomcorn  than  all  of  the  hand  broom  factories  in  the  west.  It  turned  out 
600  dozens  of  complete  brooms  daily.  The  largest  manufactory  of  axe  handles, 
hoe  handles  and  other  kinds  of  handles  in  the  world  was  here  in  St.  Louis. 

St.  Louis  wooden-ware  houses  in  1910  did  business  to  the  amount  of 
$18,000,000.  The  leading  house  issued  a  polyglot  catalogue  costing  $10,000. 
Nearly  one-half  of  the  business  of  the  United  States  in  numerous  articles  of 
household  use  classed  as  wooden-ware  was  manufactured  and  jobbed  by  St. 
Louis  houses.  The  pioneer  St.  Louis  house  in  this  line  was  the  largest  in  the 
country. 

The  first  St.  Louis  flouring  mill  equipped  with  improved  machinery  and 
with  steam  power  was  at  the  foot  of  Florida  street.  It  was  conducted  by 
Edward  Walsh.  That  was  in  1827.  Just  twenty  years  later  St.  Louis  had  four- 
teen large  mills.  And  in  1850  there  were  twenty-two  mills  grinding  12,000 
bushels  of  wheat  into  2,800  barrels  of  flour  daily.  The  jolly  millers  were  a 
power  in  the  business  of  the  city.  When  they  organized  their  Millers'  associa- 
tion, the  directors  included  Gabriel  Chouteau,  John  Walsh,  Joseph  Powell,  C.  L. 
Tucker,  Dennis  Marks,  Dr.  Tibbetts,  James  Waugh  and  T.  A.  Buckland. 

A  milling  business  of  $1,500,000  before  the  civil  war  was  the  industry 
which  Aaron  W.  Fagin  created.  The  Fagins  were  Ohio  people,  having  come 
in  the  pioneer  days  from  New  Jersey.  Aaron  W.  Fagin  left  the  trading  busi- 
ness on  the  Ohio  river  to  settle  in  St.  Louis.  In  1849  he  built  the  United 
States  mill  and  began  shipping  to  all  parts  of  the  country.  The  mill  was  a 
mammoth  establishment  for  that  day.  Every  barrel  of  flour  which  went  out 
showed  on  the  head  a  hand  holding  four  aces — hard  to  beat. 

Previous  to  1880  St.  Louis  was  the  first  city  of  the  country  in  the  manu- 
facture of  flour.  E.  O.  Stanard,  George  P.  Plant,  George  Bain,  Alexander  H. 
Smith,  J.  B.  Kehlor  were  feeding  bread  eaters  on  three  continents.  Shortly 
after  1870  George  Bain  tried  30,000  barrels  on  England  and  went  there  to 
introduce  it.  In  1879  St.  Louis  shipped  619,000  barrels  of  flour  to  Europe  and 
South  America.  George  H.  Morgan  told  the  Merchants'  Exchange  in  1882 
that  St.  Louis  millers  had  $35,000,000  invested  and  were  turning  out  12,000 
barrels  of  flour  a  day. 

St.  Louis  millers  recognized  early  the  tendency  to  localize  manufacture. 
In  1882  they  owned  and  carried  on  large  mills  at  a  dozen  points  in  Illinois 
and  Missouri.  Stanard,  Tiedeman,  Fath,  Ewald,  Kaufmann,  the  Kehlors,  Maun- 
tell,  Borgess,  Reuss  had  mills  outside  of  St.  Louis  which  were  producing  750,000 
barrels  of  flour  a  year,  a  product  properly  a  part  of  the  trade  of  St.  Louis. 

In  1882  the  flour  of  St.  Louis  manufacture  reached  1,850,000  barrels  and. 
the  receipts  from  outside  of  the  city  2,003,000  barrels.  That  year  St.  Louis 
sent  623,000  barrels  to  foreign  countries,  970,000  barrels  to  the  eastern  part 


E.  ANHEUSER 


ISAAC    COOK 


GEORGE  J.  FRITZ 


JOSEPH  PETERS 


WILLIAM  F.  NOLKER 


J.  W.  LAMBERT 


WILLIAM  GLASGOW,  JR.      SAMUEL  WAINWRIGHT  WILLIAM    J.    LEMP 

BUILDERS  OF  INDUSTRIAL   ST.  LOUIS 


THE    PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  459 

of  the  United  States  and  1,660,000  barrels  to  the  south.  Besides  these  ship- 
ments 350,000  barrels  were  sent  direct  from  mills  outside  of  St.  Louis  but 
owned  in  St.  Louis. 

The  centennial  of  the  furniture  industry  might  have  been  celebrated  last 
year.  In  July  1810  Heslep  and  Taylor  informed  the  public  that  they  had  "just 
arrived  from  Pennsylvania  with  an  extensive  assortment  of  materials  necessary 
for  elegant  and  plain  chairs.  They  will  gild,  varnish,  japan  and  paint  their 
work  agreeable  to  the  fancy  of  those  who  wish  to  encourage  the  business  in 
this  place." 

Three  years  later  Philip  Matile,  from  Switzerland,  opened  a  shop  to  do 
more  elaborate  woodwork.  In  1819  came  Laveille  and  Morton  bringing  flat- 
boat  loads  of  lumber  with  their  wood-working  tools  stowed  on  top. 

Not  until  the  decades  from  1840  to  1860  did  furniture  manufacture  take 
its  place  as  one  of  the  great  industries  of  the  city.  In  1847  Paris  H.  Mason 
and  Russell  Scarritt  began  to  make  furniture  on  Washington  avenue  near 
Second  street.  Conrades  and  Logeman  established  their  business  in  1854  and 
the  next  year  Joseph  Peters  was  making  a  specialty  of  bureaus  and  cabinet 
work.  John  H.  Crane  began  in  1855  and  so  did  William  Mitchell,  although 
his  shop  did  not  become  the  Mitchell  company  until  1870.  Martin  Lammert 
opened  in  1860.  The  interesting  and  the  significant  fact  about  these  furniture 
makers  is  the  identification  of  most  of  their  names  with  the  industry  to  this 
day.  Joseph  Peters  was  a  native  of  Prussia  and  learned  the  trade  of  cabinet 
making  before  he  came  to  St.  Louis.  He  worked  nine  years  at  the  trade  in 
St.  Louis  before  he  could  get  enough  capital  to  open  a  small  shop.  In  1908 
St.  Louis  had  fifty  furniture  factories  making  $5,867,000  in  products,  giving 
employment  to  7,100  people.  St.  Louis  was  exporting  furniture  to  Europe. 

The  fourth  city  in  population  and  in  manufacturing,  St.  Louis  ranks  first 
in  some  specialties  of  productive  commerce.  Here  are  the  largest  shoe  house, 
the  largest  tobacco  factory,  the  largest  brewery  in  the  United  States.  Here 
are  produced  more  street  cars,  stoves  and  ranges,  more  American  made  chemicals 
than  in  any  other  manufacturing  center  of  this  country. 

In  1905,  according  to  the  census  experts  of  the  government,  St.  Louis  had 
obtained  first  place  in  the  manufacture  of  carriages,  buggies  and  wagons.  The 
107  factories  engaged  in  that  industry  turned  out  during  1910  vehicles  which 
sold  for  $10,000,000. 

To  the  notable  industries  of  St.  Louis  in  the  first  decade  of  the  twentieth 
century  were  added  electrical  products.  Incandescent  lamps,  insulated  wire 
and  a  great  variety  of  electrical  manufactures  made  up  a  jobbing  volume  of 
$20,000,000  in  1910. 

The  car  building  industry  of  St.  Louis  is  equivalent  to  the  support  of  a 
city  of  50,000  people.  Eight  plants  in  1910  were  employing  10,000  men.  They 
were  building  every  kind  of  street  car  and  steam  car,  which  ranged  from  the 
freight  costing  $700  to  the  private  palace  costing  $40,000.  They  were  drawing 
supplies  of  mahogany,  Oregon  fir  and  other  material  from  great  distances  and 
were  shipping  cars  to  other  countries,  one  order  of  $1,000,000  going  to  the 
Argentine  Republic.  The  railway  equipment  turned  out  by  the  factories  of 
St.  Louis  in  1910  amounted  to  $70,000,000. 


460  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

The  clay  products  of  St.  Louis  factories — pipe,  pottery,  fire  brick,  terra 
cotta  and  tiling — amounted  in  1910  to  $6,000,000,  leading  every  other  clay  manu- 
facturing center  of  the  United  States  by  fifty  per  cent.  This  class  of  industries 
gave  employment  to  3,000  people. 

Manufacture  of  clothing  became  one  of  the  thriving  St.  Louis  industries 
between  1900  and  1910.  It  increased  forty-seven  per  cent  in  the  latter  half 
of  the  decade.  In  1910  the  108  factories  employed  8,000  people  and  had  an 
output  of  $14,573,000. 

In  1910  the  shoe  factories  numbered  thirty-two,  with  seven  others  in  nearby 
towns,  owned  by  St.  Louis  manufacturers.  These  thirty-nine  factories  employed 
20,000  people  and  made  shoes  to  the  number  of  26,306,735  pairs,  valued  at 
$46,249,161. 

Two  developments  in  the  productive  commerce  of  St.  Louis  have  been 
strikingly  similar  in  the  successful  results.  They  started  thirty  years  apart. 
Conditions  which  confronted  them  were  of  like  discouraging  character.  The 
foresight  and  superb  courage  of  a  handful  of  men  in  each  of  these  movements 
meant  a  great  deal  to  the  industrial  progress  of  this  city.  The  Filleys  and  the 
Bridges  in  the  decade  of  1840-1850  inaugurated  the  manufacture  of  stoves 
against  the  opinion  of  the  business  community,  creating  an  industry  which  has 
grown  to  nineteen  establishments  turning  out  annually  products  to  the  value 
of  $7,500,000.  Thirty  years  later  the  Browns,  the  Hamiltons,  the  Desnoyers 
and  a  little  group  of  men  began  a  demonstration  of  the  advantages  St.  Louis 
offered  for  manufacture  of  boots  and  shoes.  They  faced  the  same  adverse 
opinion  which  failed  to  deter  the  pioneer  stove-makers.  This  industry  grew 
until  there  were  thirty-two  shoe  manufacturing  concerns  in  St.  Louis  turning 
out  100,000  pairs  of  shoes  a  day,  with  an  annual  product  of  over  $25,000,000. 
The  Browns  were  from  New  York  state.  In  the  decade  1870-80  they  sold 
shoes  in  the  St.  Louis  territory.  To  George  Warren  Brown  came  the  inspira- 
tion that  shoes  for  this  trade  could  be  made  in  St.  Louis.  The  house  for  which 
George  Warren  Brown  traveled  sought  to  dissuade  him  from  manufacturing 
by  an  offer  of  share  of  profits  in  the  jobbing.  The  young  man  was  barely 
twenty-five  when  he  took  his  $7,000  of  savings,  and  with  $5,000  added  for 
capital  started  in  a  loft  on  St.  Charles  street  the  modest  beginning  of  the  industry 
which  has  proven  so  much  for  the  advantages  of  St.  Louis  as  a  center  of  pro- 
ductive commerce.  When  George  Warren  Brown  went  on  the  road  to  place 
the  St.  Louis  manufactured  goods,  the  merchants  looked  at  the  samples,  gave 
orders  and  frankly  told  the  shoe  manufacturer  they  were  patronizing  him  on 
personal  grounds  and  not  with  the  expectation  that  his  stock  would  be  up  to 
sample.  Success  came  quickly.  Hamilton,  Brown  and  company,  leading  whole- 
sale dealers  in  the  boots  and  shoes  of  eastern  make,  began  to  manufacture. 
Others  followed.  This  industry  drew  to  it  young  men  of  business  judgment 
and  energy  rather  than  large  investments  of  capital.  It  developed  upon  brains 
rather  than  upon  cash.  It  created  for  St.  Louis  a  coterie  of  energetic  public 
spirited  citizens.  It  has  done  a  great  deal  more  for  the  city  than  is  represented 
in  the  addition  it  has  made  to  the  volume  of  productive  commerce.  As  the 
business  grew  into  the  form  of  corporations,  the  ambitious  and  the  worthy  were 
encouraged  to  become  shareholders.  The  Browns,  with  the  recollection  of  their 


THE   PRODUCTIVE    COMMERCE  461 

own  experiences,  led  in  this.  One  of  the  most  successful  of  the  shoe  companies 
consists  of  a  hundred  partners.  This  single  line  of  manufacture  has  developed 
for  St.  Louis  half  a  thousand  business  men  whose  activities  and  whose  influence 
are  widely  felt  for  the  common  good. 


CHAPTER  XIX. 
THE  DISTRIBUTIVE  COMMERCE 

A  St.  Louis  Merchant  of  1790 — When  Catfish  Was  Circulating  Medium — Soulard's  Trade 
Review  of  1805 — Dressed  Deerslins  the  Leading  Article  of  Commerce — "Incalculable 
Riches  Along  the  Missoiiri" — Prices  of  Staples  in  1815 — The  First  Boolcstore — "Heavy 
Groceries" — Henry  Von  Phul,  the  Oldest  Merchant — Collier's  Luck — The  "Dry  Grocery" 
of  Greeley  fy  Gale — The  Jaccards — How  Jacob  S.  Merrell  Won  Success — Robert  M. 
Funkhouser's  Start  in  a  Notable  Career — The  Orthweins'  Grain  Experiments — St.  Louis 
Commerce  in  1851 — Era  of  Elevators — Senter  and  the  Cotton  Trade — Pioneer  Incorpora- 
tion— Edivard  C.  Simmons  and  His  Pocket  Knife — The  First  Illustrated  Trade  Catalogue — 
Isaac  Wyman  Morton's  Activities — When  Samuel  Cupples  Came  to  St.  Louis — Evolution 
of  Cupples  Station — Shopping  Districts  of  Four  Generations — The  Branch  House  Policy — 
Chamber  of  Commerce  and  Merchants'  Exchange — High  Standards  of  Business  Honor — A 
Wonderful  Record  of  Cheerful  Giving— Master  Mechanics  of  St.  Louis  in  1839 — Arbitra- 
tion Substituted  for  Litigation  in  1856 — The  Board  of  Trade  Which  Preceded  the  Business 
Men's  League — The  City's  Importance  Not  Measured  by  Local  Statistics — What  St.  Louis 
Men  and  Money  Have  Done  in  the  Southwest. 

Those  old-time  workers  may  have  been  a  little  too  conservative,  sometimes  timid, — "old 
fogies,"  you  would  call  them  nowadays, — but  they  were  scrupulously  honest  in  their  dealings, 
strict  constructionists  in  their  regard  for  contracts,  men  of  untarnished  integrity  in  meeting 
their  engagements,  and  it  is  to  their  practice  and  example  that  the  present  high  commercial 
credit  of  St.  Louis,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  is  greatly  due.  However  strong  and  promising  the 
present  may  be,  I  cannot,  as  your  oldest  member,  say  a  better  word  than  this, — that  we  should 
hold  fast  to  the  early  traditions  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  and  maintain  that  high  regard 
for  honorable  dealings  which  has  characterized  the  past,  so  that  to  be  a  recognized  member  of 
the  St.  Louis  Merchants'  Exchange  may  always  and  everywhere  be  a  passport  to  respect  and 
confidence.  Consider  through  what  trials  and  difficulties  we  have  thus  far  advanced.  No  city 
has  suffered  greater  reverses  by  fire,  pestilence  and  flood,  by  financial  crises,  by  internal  dissen- 
sions and  civil  war ;  and  yet  we  have  passed  through  all,  chiefly  by  the  sturdy  strength  and 
steadfastness  of  our  business  men. — Wayman  Crow,  1875. 

More  flippantly  than  accurately,  a  writer  on  the  colonial  commerce  of  the 
settlement  said  a  St.  Louis  merchant  in  1790  was  "a  man  who,  in  the  corner 
of  his  cabin,  had  a  large  chest  which  contained  a  few  pounds  of  powder  and 
shot,  a  few  knives  and  hatchets,  a  little  red  paint,  two  or  three  rifles,  some 
hunting  shirts  of  buckskin,  a  few  tin  cups  and  iron  pots,  and  perhaps  a  little 
tea,  coffee,  sugar  and  spice." 

Bills  of  exchange  which  passed  from  hand  to  hand  in  the  colonial  period 
were  not  always  based  upon  shaved  deerskins  and  other  furs,  although  that 
kind  of  circulating  medium  was  most  common.  Occasionally  financial  transac- 
tions took  a  form  of  which  the  following  is  an  illustration : 

"Bon  pour  six  livre  de  Barbue,  a  St.  Louis,  ce  25Sbre,  1799. — 

"ANTOINE  ROY." 

Turned  into  English  this  French  copy  of  an  original  paper  which  meant 
value  would  read: 

"Good  for  six  pounds  of  catfish,  at  St.  Louis,  the  25th  September,  1799. — 

"ANTOINE  ROY." 

St.  Louis  was  a  fine  fish  market  in  the  days  of  the  fur  traders.  Catfish, 
buffalo  fish  and  the  more  delicate  silver  fish  were  caught  and  marketed  by  resi- 

463 


464  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

dents  of  the  settlement  who  followed  that  as  a  business.  Antoine  Roy  dealt 
in  fish  and  issued  orders  on  himself  as  the  equivalent  of  money. 

In  1805  was  made  what  may  be  considered  the  first  review  of  the  trade 
and  commerce  of  St.  Louis.  It  was  prepared  by  Antoine  Soulard,  who  held 
the  office  of  surveyor  of  Upper  Louisiana.  It  was  dated  "At  St.  Louis  of  the 
Illinois,  March,  1805."  Mr.  Soulard's  report  showed  the  year's  trade  at  St. 
Louis  amounted  to  $77,971.  The  items  were  skins,  hides,  tallow  and  fat  and 
bears'  grease.  The  largest  item  was  dressed  deer  skins,  of  which  St.  Louis 
handled  96,000,  valued  at  $28,000.  The  next  item  of  trade  was  beaver  pelts, 
of  which  St.  Louis  handled  12,000  pounds,  valued  at  $14,737.  Mr.  Soulard 
said : 

This  table,  which  is  made  as  correct  as  possible  on  an  average  of  fifteen  years,  gives 
the  amount  of  $77,971.  The  goods  carried  up  the  Missouri  and  exchanged  for  this  peltry 
would  amount  to  $61,250,  reckoning  the  charges  to  be  a  one-fourth  part  of  the  worth  of  the 
articles.  From  this  it  follows  that  the  trade  favors  an  annual  profit  of  $16,721  or  a  profit 
of  27  per  cent. 

Mr.  Soulard  proceeds  with  an  argument  intending  to  show  the  possibilities 
of  improving  St.  Louis'  trade  and  commerce.  He  says : 

If  the  Missouri  trade,  badly  regulated  and  without  encouragement,  gives  annually  such 
a  profit  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  its  increase  if  encouraged  by  the  government.  It  must  be 
observed  that  the  prices  fixed  in  the  table  are  those  current  at  the  Illinois.  If  the  London 
prices  were  taken  and  deducted  from  the  charges  the  profits  would  appear  much  greater.  If 
the  Missouri  river  of  the  savages  and  having  but  a  single  branch  of  trade  favors  such  great 
returns  in  proportion  to  the  capital  employed  in  it,  what  might  we  not  expect  from  investment 
by  companies  with  large  funds  aided  by  a  numerous  population  and  devoting  themselves  to 
other  kinds  of  traffic?  Some  of  these,  I  am  bold  to  say,  may  be  undertaken  with  a  certainty 
of  success  when  we  consider  the  riches  offered  by  its  banks  of  which  in  this  note  I  have 
endeavored  to  sketch  an  outline. 

Antoine  Soulard  had  been  surveyor  of  Upper  Louisiana  for  several  years 
and  had'  traveled  about  considerably.  He  was  greatly  impressed  with  "The 
Incalculable  Riches  Along  the  Banks  of  the  Missouri."  As  early  as  March, 
1805,  he  enumerated  the  kinds  of  wood  and  the  uses  to  which  they  might  be 
put.  He  spoke  of  the  knowledge  which  the  Indians  had  of  trees  and  of  forest 
plants,  and,  in  the  course  of  his  statements,  he  said: 

They  derive  from  certain  plants  with  great  care  and  system  that  product  which  renders 
them  insensible  to  the  most  vehement  fire.  I  have  seen  them  take  hold  of  redhot  irons  and 
burning  coals  without  suffering  any  inconvenience. 

In  1816  the  prices  on  staple  articles  of  the  market  which  prevailed  in  St. 
Louis  were  as  follows: 

Beef,  on  foot,  per  cwt $  4.00  Flour,  horse-mill,  S.  fine,  per  cwt.  . .  .$  6.00 

Butter,  per  Ib 25  Grain — Wheat,  per  bu 1.00 

Bees  wax,  per  Ib 25  Bye,  per  bu 62^ 

Candles,    per   Ib 25  Barley,  per  bu 75 

Cheese,   per   Ib 25  Corn,  per  bu 37 

Cheese,  common,  per  Ib I2y2  Oats,  per  bu 37 

Boards,  none  in  market 00  Gunpowder,  per  Ib 1.00 

Cider,  none  in  market 00  Hams,  per   Ib 12 

Coffee,  per  Ib 50  Hides,  per  piece 2.75 

Cotton,  per  Ib 40  Hogs'  lard,  per  Ib 12 

Cotton  yarn,  No.  10 1.25  Bears'  lard,  per  gal 1.50 

Feathers,    per    Ib 50  Honey,  per  gal 1.00 

Flour,  per  bbl.,  S.  fine,  in  demand .  . .    16.00     . 


STEPHEN   RIDGELY 


JOHN    H.    LOUDERMAN 


THE   OLD  CHOUTEAU  MILL 
After  1852  in  use  as  a  stone  saw  mill 


BUILDERS  OF  INDUSTRIAL   ST.  LOUIS 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  465 

The  price  of  a  load  of  wood  on  the  little  carts  was  "six  bits"  or  seventy-five 
cents.  The  Americans  started  and  preserved  a  tradition  that  one  of  these  honest 
vendors  of  wood  was  offered  a  dollar  for  his  load  and  that  he  cried  'out  "Seex 
beets !  seex  beets !  No  more,  no  less !" 

The  first  regular  bookstore  was  opened  on  Main  street  by  Daniel  Hough 
and  Thomas  Essex  about  1820.  Mr.  Hough  was  from  New  Hampshire,  edu- 
cated at  Dartmouth.  In  1820  St.  Louis  was  importing  goods,  annually  valued 
at  "upwards  of  $2,000,000."  The  Indian  trade  was  considered  to  be  worth 
$600,000. 

"Heavy  groceries"  constituted  a  distinct  branch  of  the  trade  of  St.  Louis 
for  many  years.  The  Colliers,  the  Lacklands,  the  Glasgows  were  dealers  in 
heavy  groceries.  They  would  be  called  importers  now.  They  brought  to  St. 
Louis  sugar  by  the  boat  load,  coffee,  tea  and  a  few  other  staples  in  enormous 
quantities,  selling  them  at  small  margin  as  desired  by  jobbers.  The  business 
experience  of  Henry  Von  Phul,  who  lived  to  be  the  oldest  merchant  in  St.  Louis 
and  died  in  his  pist  year,  dated  back  to  the  first  decade  of  the  century,  when 
he  was  employed  by  James  Hart  at  Lexington,  Ky.  Mr.  Hart  was  the  brother- 
in-law  of  Henry  Clay,  and  the  son  of  the  man  for  whom  Thomas  H.  Benton 
was  named.  Young  Von  Phul  began  his  commercial  career  by  taking  charge 
of  keel  boats  loaded  with  flour,  lead  and  provisions.  He  floated  down  stream, 
stopping  at  the  principal  towns  on  the  Mississippi  river,  trading  his  products 
for  cotton.  He  continued  this  until  he  reached  New  Orleans,  where  he  sold 
the  cotton  and  other  products  that  had  not  been  traded,  as  well  as  the  keel 
boats.  He  then  returned  on  horseback  to  Lexington,  where  he  made  up  another 
shipment  and  repeated  the  voyage  and  the  trading.  This  was  the  business 
Mr.  Von  Phul  followed  until  he  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1811.  The  head  of  the 
Von  Phul  family  was  born  in  Philadelphia.  His  mother  was  a  Graff,  coming 
from  Lancaster.  Henry  Von  Phul  arrived  in  St.  Louis  to  find  the  horsemen 
organizing  under  Colonel  Nathan  Boone  to  fight  in  the  war  against  England. 
He  joined  the  command.  After  the  war  of  1812  Henry  Von  Phul  married  the 
daughter  of  Doctor  Antoine  F.  Saugrain  and  began  his  career  as' a  merchant 
on  Main  street.  To  him  were  born  fifteen  children.  Through  sixty-three  years 
Henry  Von  Phul  was  a  business  man  in  St.  Louis.  He  saw  the  first  steamboat 
land.  He  invested  in  steamboats.  He  conducted  for  many  years  one  of  the 
largest  commercial  houses  in  the  Mississippi  valley.  His  credit  was  such  that 
many  western  banks  kept  their  St.  Louis  balances  with  him.  In  1872,  at  the 
age  of  eighty-eight,  Mr.  Von  Phul,  after  passing  safely  through  crisis  after 
crisis,  was  involved  through  endorsements  of  the  obligations  of  Von  Phul 
Brothers  of  New  Orleans.  Against  the  earnest  advice  of  his  counsel,  this 
sturdy  old  captain  of  industry  paid  every  dollar  of  the  debts  for  which  he  was 
responsible  legally  or  morally  with  interest  at  eight  per  cent.  This  action  swept 
away  what  was  a  great  fortune  for  those  days.  Two  years  later  Henry  Von 
Phul  died  almost  poor,  leaving  a  record  which  is  part  of  the  glory  of  St.  Louis 
commercial  integrity. 

"Collier's  luck"  was  a  common  expression  in  St.  Louis  business  circles 
during  the  thirty  years  of  one  man's  activities.  George  Collier  had  many  and 
widely  varied  interests.  He  had  more  partners  in  his  time,  probably,  than  any 

4- VOL.  II. 


466  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

other  St.  Louisan.  In  the  selection  of  these  associates  he  showed  remarkable 
judgment.  Largely  for  that  reason  everything  he  went  into  turned  out  well. 
The  Colliers,  John  and  George,  were  Marylanders  by  birth.  Their  father  had 
owned  a  farm  and  had  been  engaged  in  the  coasting  trade,  and  died  when  the 
boys  were  young.  Their  mother,  a  woman  of  force,  sent  them  to  Wylie's 
academy,  a  business  school  of  high  standing  in  Philadelphia.  John  Collier  came 
west  in  1816  and  George  Collier  followed  two  years  later.  Beginning  with  a 
small  mercantile  trade,  they  expanded  their  business  until  they  were  selling 
"heavy  groceries"  throughout  St.  Louis  territory.  John  Collier  died  in  1821 
and  George  Collier  continued  the  store  taking  into  partnership  Peter  Powell, 
another  young  man  from  Maryland.  In  1830  George  Collier  retired  from  the 
store  with  considerable  capital.  He  entered  upon  what  was  an  entirely  new 
field  for  St.  Louis  and  upon  what  meant  a  great  deal  to  a  number  of  St.  Louisans. 
Selecting  young  men  who  showed  ability  and  energy,  Mr.  Collier  furnished 
the  capital  for  venture  after  venture.  His  favorite  investments  for  ten  or 
twelve  years  were  in  steamboats.  But  his  methods  were  entirely  original  with 
him.  Having  made  up  his  mind  favorably  as  to  the  qualifications  of  the  young 
man,  Mr.  Collier  sent  him  around  to  the  Ohio  river  to  build  a  steamboat.  The 
trade  to  be  served  was  carefully  considered.  The  boat  was  planned  for  that 
special  trade.  Mr.  Collier  supplied  the  credit.  The  silent  partner  remained  in 
Pittsburg,  actively  superintending  the  construction.  When  the  boat  was  com- 
pleted the  partner  became  the  captain,  steamed  to  St.  Louis  and  entered  upon 
the  trade  selected  and  received  a  share  of  the  profits.  If  there  were  no  profits ; 
if  the  boat  was  not  suited  for  the  trade;  if  the  plans  proved  to  have  been  ill 
advised,  Mr.  Collier  quickly  disposed  of  the  boat.  It  was  one  of  his  rules  to 
get  out  of  an  unprofitable  venture  as  quickly  as  the  turn  could  be  made.  But 
the  capitalist  was  seldom  mistaken  in  his  estimate  of  his  silent  partner  or  in  his 
judgment  of  the  kind  of  a  boat  that  would  pay  on  any  particular  river.  He 
entered  boats  for  transportation  business  in  all  directions  from  St.  Louis.  At 
times  he  had  as  many  as  half  a  score  on  the  rivers.  Men  who  became  capitalists 
themselves,  laid  the  foundation  of  their  fortunes  by  operating  boats  in  which 
George  Collier  gave  them  an  interest.  Sullivan  Blood,  the  early  president  of 
the  Boatmen's  bank,  John  Simonds  who  became  the  partner  in  the  private  bank- 
ing house  of  Lucas  &  Simonds,  N.  J.  Eaton  who  resigned  his  commission  in 
the  United  States  army,  and  Rufus  J.  Lackland  were  among  the  silent  partners 
of  George  Collier. 

Mr.  Collier  bought  and  shipped  lead  in  great  quantities.  He  invested  in 
lead  mines  at  Galena.  When  Henry  T.  Blow  was  struggling  with  the  infant 
white  lead  industry  of  St.  Louis,  Mr.  Collier  became  the  largest  individual 
subscriber  to  the  Collier  White  Lead  works.  For  some  years  he  carried  on  a 
banking  business,  having  as  a  partner  William  G.  Pettus.  Mr.  Collier  and 
Mr.  Pettus  married  sisters,  the  Misses  Morrison.  In  1840  Mr.  Collier  retired 
from  the  banking  business,  Mr.  Pettus  continuing  it.  Two  years  later  he  formed 
the  firm  of  Collier  &  Morrison  which  launched  his  brother-in-law  into  mercantile 
life.  In  1847  George  Collier  retired  and  the  house  became  William  M.  Morri- 
son &  Co.,  the  silent  partners  being  the  young  men,  Rufus  J.  Lackland  and 
Alfred  Chadwick.  At  every  new  business  step  Mr.  Collier  extended  a  helping 


EUGENE    JACCARD 
The  pioneer  in  the   retail   movement   to   Fifth   street 


JOHN  KENNARD  RICHARD    M.    SCRUGGS 

FORMER  REPRESENTATIVE  MERCHANTS   OF   ST.  LOUIS 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  467 

hand  to  some  young  man.  He  came  to  be  looked  upon  as  an  adviser  to  all 
financial  St.  Louis.  The  second  wife  of  George  Collier  was  Miss  Sarah  A.  Bell. 
The  two  daughters  of  Mr.  Collier  married  brothers — Henry  and  Ethan  Allen 
Hitchcock.  A  grandson  of  George  Collier  was  elected  to  the  St.  Louis  circuit 
bench  in  1908. 

When  Carlos  S.  Greeley  started  a  wholesale  grocery  in  St.  Louis  he  put 
in  no  stock  of  liquor.  The  news  traveled  quickly  up  and  down  the  Levee  and 
Main  street,  that  two  young  men  from  the  east  were  going  to  try  this  experi- 
ment. The  trade  generally  looked  on  with  amusement.  Predictions  were  made 
that  the  new  firm  would  not  last.  Greeley  was  under  thirty  when  with  Mr. 
Sanborn  he  opened  the  store  on  the  Levee  in  1838.  The  elimination  of  "wet 
groceries"  wasn't  altogether  a  novelty  to  Mr.  Greeley.  When  the  young  man 
left  his  native  New  Hampshire  he  had  about  $100  made  in  "swapping  steers" 
and  other  property  which  had  come  into  his  possession.  He  found  employment 
in  the  retail  grocery  of  Moses  Pettingill  at  Brockport,  New  York.  Mr.  Pettin- 
gill  was  running  a  grocery  without  liquor  and  making  money.  Afterwards  he 
became  one  of  the  most  successful  pioneer  merchants  of  Peoria.  Greeley 
bought  out  his  employer  and  continued  the  policy  of  selling  no  whiskey.  When 
he  came  to  St.  Louis  he  had  this  experience  and  a  capital  of  about  $5,000. 
His  first  partner  was  Mr.  Sanborn  who  had  been  with  him  in  the  Brockport 
store.  Mr.  Gale,  a  Salisbury,  New  Hampshire,  friend  of  Mr.  Greeley,  bought 
out  Mr.  Sanborn.  The  "dry  grocery"  house  of  Greeley  &  Gale  made  money 
from  the  beginning.  It  grew  into  one  of  the  institutions  of  the  city.  The  profits 
helped  to  build  the  Kansas  Pacific  railroad,  the  line  from  Sedalia  to  Warsaw, 
the  St.  Louis  and  Illinois  railroad;  they  were  represented  in  the  capital  of  the 
National  Bank  of  Commerce  and  the  Boatmen's;  they  helped  to  establish  the 
Belcher  Sugar  refinery,  the  St.  Louis  Cotton  Factory,  the  Crystal  City  Plate 
Glass  company.  They  contributed  generously  to  Drury  College,  to  Lindenwood 
Seminary,  to  the  Mercantile  Library,  to  Washington  University. 

The  Jaccards  were  Swiss.     Louis  Jaccard  came  first,  in  1829.     His  nephew  \ 
Eugene  Jaccard  followed  in  1837.    The  association  of  the  name  with  the  jewelry     \ 
business  in  St.  Louis  eighty  years  ago  began  with  the  elder  Jaccard  working  as 
a  journeyman  for  nine  dollars  a  week.     D.  Constant  Jaccard,  another  member 
of  the  family,  a  cousin  of  Louis  and  Eugene,  came  from  St.  Croix  to  St.  Louis 
in  1848,  leaving  Switzerland  because  of  the  political  disturbances.     He  founded 
the  house  of  Mermod,  Jaccard  &  King. 

It  was  said  of  Augustus  F.  Shapleigh,  who  was  the  father  of  the  wholesale 
hardware  trade  of  St.  Louis,  that  he  never  asked  an  extension  on  a  loan  and 
never  let  a  just  bill  be  presented  a  second  time  for  payment.  The  sales  of  the 
hardware  jobbers  of  St.  Louis  are  more  than  the  combined  sales  of  all  the 
hardware  jobbers  of  New  York,  Boston,  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore. 

One  of  the  merchants  who  suffered  in  the  great  fire  was  Adolphus  Meier. 
Three  years  before,  Mr.  Meier  had  come  from  his  home  in  Germany  and  had 
established  himself  in  the  hardware  business  with  his  brother-in-law  John  C. 
Rust..  At  six  o'clock  in  the  morning  he  saw  the  roof  of  his  store  fall  in.  At 
eight  o'clock  he  had  drawn  the  plans  for  a  new  store  and  had  placed  the  con- 
tracts for  the  brick  work  and  lumber. 


468  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

The  founder  of  the  Merrell  Drug  company,  Jacob  Spencer  Merrell,  at  the 
age  of  fifteen  paid  his  father  $150  for  his  time.  He  worked  his  way  westward; 
on  the  Erie  canal  from  his  New  York  birthplace.  He  took  deck  passage  on 
a  Lake  Erie  boat.  He  cut  cordwood,  on  what  is  now  part  of  Toledo.  He 
worked  in  a  Lexington,  Ky.,  grocery  for  ten  dollars  a  month,  hired  a  horse 
and  traveled  through  the  mountains  buying  furs.  When  he  sold  his  furs  in 
Cincinnati  he  saw  a  little  drug  factory  for  sale  and  bought  it  on  credit.  The 
rest  was  steady  progress.  When  Mr.  Merrell  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1853,  he 
had  the  capital  to  establish  himself  in  a  strong  position.  When  the  American 
Medical  college  was  established,  Mr.  Merrell  was  one  of  the  founders. 

The  Funkhouser  family  was  of  patriotic  descent,  moving  from  Virginia  to 
Kentucky  and  then  to  Illinois.  An  ancestor  vwas  Colonel  Cross,  of  fame  in 
the  Revolutionary  war.  Robert  M.  Funkhouser,  the  head  of  the  family  in 
St.  Louis,  reached  Alton  in  the  spring  of  1840  with  a  capital  of  fifty  dollars. 
He  found  the  town  full  of  young  men  looking  for  openings,  went  down  to  the 
river  and  took  the  first  boat  for  St.  Louis.  The  second  evening  after  he  reached 
this  city  he  went  into  an  auction  sale,  which  in  the  early  years  was  a  popular 
form  of  evening  amusement.  The  auctioneer  was  selling  looking  glasses  at 
what  appeared  to  the  young  school  teacher  to  be  very  cheap.  Mr.  Funkhouser 
bought  four  dozen  and  the  next  day  went  through  the  city  offering  looking 
glasses  for  sale  at  retail.  He  was  so  vigorous  in  his  business  methods  that  he 
attracted  the  attention  of  a  merchant,  T.  R.  Selms,  who  engaged  him  on  the 
spot  as  clerk  at  a  salary  of  $250  a  year  with  board  thrown  in.  Mr.  Funkhouser 
married  the  daughter  of  his  first  employer,  became  a  merchant  on  his  own 
account,  a  bank  director,  a  savings  association  director  and  president  of  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce. 

When  John  Kennard,  Sr.,  grew  old  he  placed  the  affairs  of  the  house 
in  the  hands  of  his  sons.  He  had  been  a  devoted  and  consistent  Methodist 
all  his  life,  but  he  deemed  it  proper  that  the  last  days  should  be  spent  in  quiet 
preparation  for  the  end.  Once  the  pastor,  Rev.  J.  H.  Linn,  of  Centenary,  spoke 
to  him;  he  found  that  Mr.  Kennard  had  kept  in  view  this  sentiment,  that  a 
business  man  should  close  his  earthly  affairs  in  time  so  that  the  departure  might 
not  come  to  him  unprepared.  "I  have  my  time  now,"  Mr.  Kennard  said,  "at 
discretion.  I  cannot  help  but  be  employed— that  is  my  nature  and  my  habit. 
But  I  have  full  confidence  in  my  sons ;  I  have  committed  these  worldly  matters 
into  their  hands — wholly  into  their  hands." 

James  H.  Brookmire,  born  in  the  suburbs  of  Philadelphia,  began  in  St. 
Louis  as  a  shipping  clerk,  in  1855,  for  his  uncles  the  Hamills  who  were  whole- 
sale grocers  on  the  Levee.  He  was  noted  for  the  thoroughness  with  which 
he  studied  the  business,  even  perfecting  himself  in  the  chemistry  of  the  prin- 
cipal products  sold  in  his  trade.  He  invented  several  things  which  came  into 
general  use  by  the  trade. 

The  Orthweins  came  from  Wuertemberg  in  1854.  They  lived  for  a  time 
in  Logan  county,  Illinois.  Charles  F.  Orthwein  as  a  boy  received  advice  and 
encouragement  from  Abraham  Lincoln.  He  was  a  clerk  in  a  country  store 
before  coming  to  St.  Louis,  just  previous  to  the  Civil  war.  As  early  as  1866, 
before  he  was  thirty  years  old,  Charles  F.  Orthwein  startled  St.  Louis  by 


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THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  469 

chartering  a  steamboat  and  five  barges  to  go  up  the  river  and  load  with  grain. 
He  was  the  early  advocate  of  moving  grain  in  bulk  down  the  river.  His  proposi- 
tion, which  he  urged  with  great  force,  was,  that  the  economical  exportation  of 
grain  must  be  down  the  river;  that  railroads  must  turn  over  their  grain  at  St. 
Louis  for  the  river  route.  To  show  what  could  be  done  Mr.  Orthwein  shipped 
12,000  bushels  of  wheat  by  way  of  New  Orleans  to  New  York,  where  it  arrived 
in  perfect  condition.  This  was  the  answer  to  the  theory  that  grain  sent  out  in 
bulk  by  water  would  suffer  from  temperature  and  moisture.  Mr.  Orthwein 
repeated  his  experiments  until  St.  Louis  grain  men  were  convinced  that  grain 
could  be  exported  in  this  way  without  heating.  But  the  handicap  was  the  want 
of  a  deep  channel  at  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi.  Then  St.  Louis  got  behind 
Captain  Eads  and  pushed  for  the  jetties.  The  grain  export  trade  of  St.  Louis 
by  way  of  New  Orleans  went  up  to  15,000,000  bushels  annually  about  1880. 
William  D.  Orthwein,  two  years  younger  than  Charles  F.,  joined  his  brother 
in  the  grain  business  at  St.  Louis  in  1862.  He  later  took  up  milling  in  addition 
to  the  handling  of  grain.  For  fourteen  years  the  house  of  Orthwein  Brothers, 
with  branches  in  several  cities,  was  very  powerful  in  the  grain  handling  of  the 
southwest.  In  one  period  the  Orthweins  exported  12,000,000  bushels  of  corn 
annually  to  Europe. 

Of  old  New  England,  stock,  the  parents  of  Frank  Orville  Sawyer  moved 
west  from  Exeter,  New  Hampshire,  to  Cincinnati.  Mr.  Sawyer  was  educated 
at  Woodward  College,  Cincinnati.  He  came  to  St.  Louis  before  the  Civil  war 
and  founded  the  Sawyer  Paper  company. 

How  rapidly  St.  Louis  extended  her  trade  is  shown  in  a  statement  of  busi- 
ness made  by  six  dry  goods  houses  in  1853.  These  houses  reported: 

Sales   in    1845 $1,119,657 

Sales   in    1853 4,074,782 

In  eight  years  their  increase  of  annual  business  was  $2,955,724.  But  this 
was  by  no  means  an  indication  of  the  volume  of  St.  Louis  trade  in  the  one  line. 
There  were  at  that  time  over  twenty  wholesale  dry  goods  houses  in  this  city. 
In  1855  St.  Louis  had  fifty-two  houses  in  the  wholesale  grocery  business,  selling 
goods  annually  to  the  value  of  $22,000,000.  In  1881  the  number  of  wholesale 
grocery  houses  was  the  same,  fifty-two,  with  sales,  exclusive  of  sugar  and  coffee 
and  rice,  reaching  $30,000,000  a  year.  In  1908  the  business  done  was  $69,- 
000,000. 

In  1856  a  missionary  went  east  to  inform  the  benighted  on  the  Atlantic 
seaboard  about  St.  Louis  and  the  west.  The  mission  was  supported  by  the 
chamber  of  commerce,  now  the  merchants'  exchange.  The  lectures  which 
Richard  Smith  Elliott  was  to  deliver,  according  to  the  resolution  of  the  chamber 
of  commerce,  embraced  "facts  in  regard  to  the  physical  geography,  natural 
resources,  economic  relations,  and  progress  in  wealth,  morals  and  refinement  of 
our  part  of  the  country."  To  his  Boston  audience  in  the  state  house  Mr. 
Elliott  described  St.  Louis  as  "a  city  of  125,000  people,  with  churches,  schools, 
hotels,  steamboats,  newspapers  and  other  institutions  of  civilized  life."  He  said: 

Our  paved  and  macadamized  streets  would  more  than  reach  from  Boston  to  Worcester. 
There  are  eighteen  miles  of  public  street  sewers.  The  wharf  stretches  one  mile  and  a  quarter 
on  the  Mississippi,  is  several  hundred  feet  wide,  and,  during  the  season  of  navigation  ia 


470  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

crowded  with  the  products  of  every  clime  and  soil.  In  1855  there  were  600,000  barrels  of  flour 
manufactured  in  St.  Louis  and  over  400,000  received  from  other  places,  making  a  million 
of  barrels,  equaling  the  flour  trade  of  Philadelphia.  About  140,000  bags  of  coffee  were 
received  in  1855,  enough  to  make  a  string  of  coffee  bags  more  than  fifty  miles  in  length.  The 
hemp,  tobacco,  pork,  lard,  wheat,  bale-rope,  flour,  coffee,  sugar  and  salt  passing  through  the 
hands  of  St.  Louis  merchants  in  1855  would,  allowing  the  actual  space  occupied  by  each 
article,  reach  in  one  grand  line  from  St.  Louis  to  Boston.  In  1840  St.  Louis  had  16,000  people; 
in  1855,  she  had  125,000.  She  added  in  fifteen  years  109,000  to  her  population. 

The  growth  of  distribution  from  St.  Louis  as  a  manufacturing  and  com- 
mercial center  was  rapid.  Shipments  of  produce  and  manufactures  from  this 
port  by  river  to  places  on  the  interior  waters  of  the  United  States  are  given  in 
government  reports.  For  the  year  ending  June  30,  1851,  these  local  shipments 
were: 

Flour,  bbls 648,520      Whiskey,  bbls 29,916 

Flour,   sacks    2,156      Lard,  bbls 47,450 

Wheat,  sacks 112,600      Lard,  kegs  19,730 

Oats,  sacks    415,624      Lard,  tons   421 

Barley,  sacks    —  17,487      Beef,  tcs 5,111 

Pork,  hhds 108      Beef,  bbls 4,538 

Pork,   tcs 5,012      Bacon,  casks 24,432 

Pork,   bbls 122,948      Hemp,  bales    : 57,160 

Lard,  tcs 14,290      Hides    38,490 

Lead,    pigs    472,438      Nails,  kegs    38,776 

Lead  bars,  Ibs 78,600      Glass,   boxes    6,418 

Tobacco,  hhds 9,210       Salt,  bbls 76,753 

Tobacco,  boxes   5,011      Cotton  yarn,  bags 6,180 

Eefined  sugar,  bbls 21,892  Wrought  iron — 

Sugar,  hhds 21,905          Manufactures,  tons    15,345 

Sugar,   bbls 11,548          Castings,  tons  30,840 

Molasses,  bbls 40,510 

In  1860  the  grain  dealers  of  St.  Louis  began  to  hold  meetings  and  to  assert 
that  the  time  had  come  for  this  market  to  handle  grain  in  bulk  instead  of  con- 
fining themselves  to  sacks.  Henry  and  Edgar  Ames  and  Albert  Pearce  offered 
to  build  an  elevator.  The  necessary  bill  for  a  location  on  the  river  front  went 
through  the  council  but  was  vetoed  by  the  mayor.  The  innovation  was  opposed. 
Not  until  1864  was  consent  obtained  to  build  the  first  elevator  at  the  foot  of 
Biddle  street  where  the  electric  power  plant  is  now  located.  Not  until  the 
elevator  got  into  the  management  of  a  board  of  which  John  Jackson  was  presi- 
dent and  Dennis  P.  Slattery  was  the  secretary  did  it  become  profitable  to  its 
owners.  John  Jackson  was  from  County  Down,  Ireland,  of  Scotch-Irish  parent- 
age. He  had  been  a  successful  merchant  in  salt  and  other  heavy  groceries 
before  he  devoted  his  attention  to  the  development  of  the  grain  trade  of  St. 
Louis. 

The  Larimores,  N.  G.  and  J.  W.,  brothers,  were  boys  when  their  parents 
moved  to  St.  Louis  county  from  Kentucky  in  1884.  They  were  brought  up 
on  a  farm  of  1,000  acres  which  their  father  bought  for  ten  and  twelve  dollars 
an  acre  and  developed  into  "the  model  farm."  As  that  it  took  the  premium 
offered  by  the  St.  Louis  Fair  association  in  1864  and  was  known  far  and 
wide.  The  Larimores  left  the  model  farm  and  came  to  St.  Louis  to  enter  the 
grain  trade.  In  company  with  G.  G.  Schoolfield  and  D.  H.  Silver  the  Larimore 


AARON    W.    FAGTX  GEORGE    PARTRIDGE 

COMMANDERS  OF  COMMERCE 


THE  WHOLESALE  DISTRICT  OF  1909 
Washington  avenue,  west  of  Eighth  street 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  471 

brothers  built  a  great  warehouse  at  Fifth  and  Chouteau  avenue  and  joined  in 
the  movement  to  educate  St.  Louis  in  the  handling  of  bulk  grain.  The  ware- 
house was  divided  into  many  bins.  In  those  days  the  St.  Louis  millers  wouldn't 
buy  wheat  by  grade  but  insisted  on  having  each  carload  put  in  a  separate  bin. 
Dealing  in  bulk  grain  was  an  evolution.  When  the  Larimores  began  to  put 
their  profits  in  elevators,  about  1873,  tney  received  a  great  deal  of  discouraging 
advice.  They  made  money,  bought  wheat  land  in  North  Dakota  by  the  thou- 
sands of  acres  in  advance  of  the  building  of  Hill's  Great  Northern  and  founded 
the  town  of  Larimore.  N.  G.  Larimore  married  the  youngest  daughter  of 
Levi  Ashbrook,  one  of  the  pioneer  pork  packers  of  St.  Louis.  J.  W.  Larimore 
married  Bettie  R.  Carlisle,  of  a  widely  known  Methodist  family,  long  identified 
with  the  Methodist  Orphans'  home  and  other  philanthropic  effort. 

With  confidence  the  men  who  participated  in  the  trial  of  bulk  shipment 
of  grain  by  river  look  for  the  renaissance.  In  their  judgment  the  experiment 
was  successful.  It  demonstrated  the  theory.  The  practice  did  not  become 
permanent  because  of  limitations  on  the  route.  With  a  deep  and  permanent 
channel,  grain  will  again  go  by  river.  The  secretary  of  the  merchants'  ex- 
change, George  H.  Morgan,  looking  backward  on  forty-four  years'  experience 
and  forward  to  the  promise  of  the  deep  waterway,  said: 

At  the  close  of  the  Civil  war  the  members  of  the  merchants'  exchange  took  up  with 
renewed  energy  the  task  of  restoring  to  the  commerce  of  the  city  the  grain  trade  of  the 
west,  which  had  been  diverted  to  more  northern  markets,  and  of  renewing  the  trade  relations 
which  had  previously  existed  with  the  south.  In  the  annual  report  of  the  exchange  pub- 
lished in  1865,  the  right  hand  of  fellowship  and  commerce  was  extended  to  all  former  business 
acquaintances  in  the  following  words: 

' '  And  now  that  the  strife  is  over,  f  orget- 
"ting  all  dissensions  of  the  past,  they  ex- 
pend the  right  hand  of  friendship  to  those 
"who  so  lately  opposed  them,  and  invite 
"them  to  come  back  and  renew  those  kind  re- 
"lations  which  before  existed." 

For  the  proper  extension  of  the  grain  trade  additional  facilities  were  needed.  The 
custom  of  shipping  in  sacks,  which  had  hitherto  prevailed,  was  too  expensive  and  cumbersome, 
and  the  handling  of  grain  in  bulk,  which  had  already  been  inaugurated  in  competing  mar- 
kets, was  imperatively  necessary  if  St.  Louis  was  to  compete  for  the  grain  trade  of  the 
Mississippi  Valley. 

To  meet  this  need  members  of  the  exchange  erected  the  St.  Louis  Grain  Elevator  on 
the  levee  at  the  foot  of  Ashley  street,  and  in  the  fall  of  1865  it  opened  for  business  and 
demonstrated  that  grain  could  be  profitably  handled  in  bulk. 

To  move  the  grain  in  bulk  a  barge  line  was  formed  to  carry  the  freight  to  New  Orleans, 
where  a  transfer  elevator  was  built  to  transfer  the  grain  from  the  barges  to  the  ocean 
vessels. 

There  was  some  movement  of  bulk  grain  via  the  water  route  by  individuals  for  New 
Orleans  and  for  Atlantic  ports,  but  it  was  found  that  there  were  doubts  in  the  minds  of 
shippers  as  to  the  safety  of  the  gulf  route,  on  account  of  climatic  conditions,  whether  grain 
would  keep  in  as  good  condition  as  by  the  more  northern  routes. 

It  was  decided  in  the  early  part  of  1869  that  experimental  shipments  of  grain  to 
Europe  should  be  made  to  test  the  question  and  an  organisation  was  effected  under  the  name 
of  the  St.  Louis  Grain  Association,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $100,000.  The  exchange  in  its 
corporate  capacity  took  $20,000  of  the  stock  and  the  balance  was  taken  by  firms  and  indi- 
viduals. Shipments  of  470,000  bushels  of  wheat  were  made  to  Europe  during  the  first  year 
and  while  the  venture  was  not  successful  from  a  pecuniary  point  of  view,  the  practicability 


472  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

and  safety  of  the  gulf  route  was  firmly  established.  The  export  movement  was  slow  in  starting 
but  gradually  grew  in  favor,  and  in  the  year  1880  over  15,000,000  bushels  were  exported  by 
St.  Louie  houses. 

From  this  initial  step  the  grain  movement  via  Gulf  ports  has  grown  to  large  proportions, 
and  a  large  portion  of  the  grain  trade  of  the  West  now  moves  on  longitudinal  lines  to  the 
Gulf  ports. 

In  1906  there  was  exported  from  New  Orleans  and  Galveston  49,721,960  bushels  of 
wheat,  corn  and  oats. 

To  the  Merchants'  Exchange  of  St.  Louis  is  due  the  credit  of  demonstrating  the  desir- 
ability and  safety  of  an  outlet  to  the  markets  of  the  world  by  the  Gulf  route,  resulting  in 
an  immense  saving  in  freight  rates  on  the  surplus .  products  of  the  great  west,  to  the  great 
benefit  of  the  farmer  and  the  grain  dealer. 

While  this  movement  has  now  ceased  via  St.  Louis  on  account  of  the  uncertainties  of 
river  navigation  and  other  transportation  conditions  west  of  the  Missouri  river,  it  is  con- 
fidently believed  that  when  the  river  is  so  improved  by  the  general  government  that  a  depth 
of  not  less  than  six  feet  from  St.  Paul  to  St.  Louis  and  of  not  less  than  twelve  feet  from 
St.  Louis  to  New  Orleans  is  secured,  and  the  route  from  the  lakes  to  the  Mississippi  river 
is  finished,  via  the  Illinois  river,  the  volume  of  traffic  seeking  the  cheaper  outlet  by  water 
routes  will  become  very  large  and  the  pristine  glory  of  the  mighty  Mississippi  will  be  renewed. 

The  St.  Louis  Fair  was  much  more  than  encouragement  to  agriculture. 
It  was  an  annual  exposition  of  the  industries  of  St.  Louis.  It  was  made  an 
occasion  to  stimulate  thought  and  energies  in  a  variety  of  directions  for  the 
city's  good.  In  1868  the  Excelsior  Insurance  company  offered  a  premium  of 
$100  to  be  awarded  at  the  Fair  "for  the  best  plan  of  construction  of  iron  barges 
and  vessels  suited  to  carry  grain  in  bulk  on  the  Mississippi  river  and  tributaries." 
Logan  D.  Dameron  and  the  Fair  Association  each  contributed  the  same  amount 
toward  the  premium. 

The  year  before  the  war  closed  William  Marshall  Senter,  the  son  of  a 
Lexington,  Tennessee,  farmer  came  to  St.  Louis  to  work  out  his  theory  that  this 
city  might  handle  a  large  cotton  trade.  He  was  the  central  figure  in  a  very 
interesting  trade  evolution.  St.  Louis  was  handling  about  30,000  bales  a  year. 
Mr.  Senter,  with  others  who  joined  him,  formed  a  cotton  association  in  1870. 
In  1873  the  cotton  exchange  was  organized.  J.  W.  Paramore  joined  the  coterie 
who  were  bound  to  make  St.  Louis  a  great  cotton  market.  He  was  the  son 
of  a  Mansfield,  Ohio,  farmer,  the  tenth  of  eleven  children  in  the  family.  He 
served  in  the  war  as  colonel  of  the  Third  Ohio  cavalry,  for  a  considerable  period 
commanding  a  brigade.  With  some  experience  in  railroad  building  after  the 
war,  he  came  to  St.  Louis.  A  compress  and  warehouse  were  built,  the  largest 
and  most  convenient  in  the  world  at  the  time,  it  was  said.  The  capacity  was 
500,000  bales.  The  plant  occupied  eighty  acres  of  ground.  It  compressed  3,000 
bales  a  day.  The  cotton  handled  under  the  stimulus  given  the  trade  by  Senter, 
Paramore  and  their  associates  increased  from  about  30,000  bales  a  year  to  over 
400,000  bales  about  1880.  To  hold  and  develop  this  cotton  trade  of  St.  Louis 
Colonel  Paramore  planned  a  great  system  of  narrow  gauge  railroads.  The 
routes  were  chosen  with  special  reference  to  the  cotton  growing  sections  of  the 
southwest.  The  roads  as  planned  were  to  cost  about  half  as  much  as  standard 
gauge  and  to  cost  for  operation  about  one-third  of  the  gross  earnings.  Turning 
over  the  management  of  the  .compress  to  Mr.  Senter,  Colonel  Paramore  in  1881 
began  to  build  these  narrow  gauge  roads  under  the  name  of  the  Cotton  Belt, 
starting  from  a  landing  in  Missouri  on  the  Mississippi  river.  He  was  able 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  473 

to  show  that  cotton  was  shipped  from  Texas  and  Arkansas  to  Europe  by  way 
of  St.  Louis  cheaper  than  by  way  of  the  gulf  ports.  Two  conditions  contributed 
to  this  result.  They  were  reasonable  transportation  charges  to  St.  Louis; 
economy  in  the  handling  of  the  staple. 

When  the  handling  of  cotton  reached  its  zenith  the  St.  Louis  Compress 
company  had  $1,250,000  capital  employed.  The  buildings  contained  thirty  acres 
of  floor  space  to  and  from  which  a  network  of  railroad  tracks  made  connection. 
The  company  employed  from  300  to  800  men.  In  1879-80  the  number  of  bales 
compressed  here  was  275,000. 

The  Factors'  and  Brokers'  Compress  company  with  capacity  for  55,000 
bales  a  year,  with  buildings  and  tracks  at  Columbus  and  Lafayette  streets,  was 
formed  in  1874  by  R.  B.  Whittemore,  Oliver  Garrison,  H.  M.  Mandeville  and 
others. 

To  grasp  quickly  new  conditions  has  saved  prestige  to  St.  Louis  in  ways 
of  transportation,  character  of  industries  and  methods  of  trade.  When  the 
shipments  of  cotton  through  St.  Louis  were  greatest  the  cotton  factors  here 
began  to  prepare  for  the  coming  localization  of  the  compressing  and  ware- 
housing. William  M.  Senter,  James  L.  Sloss,  J.  D.  Goldman,  A.  C.  Stewart  and 
other  St.  Louisans  organized  and  put  in  operation  the  Texarkana  Cotton  Com- 
press company  to  handle  the  staple  which  could  not  under  the  natural  laws  of 
trade  be  brought  to  this  city.  As  the  cotton  receipts  at  St.  Louis  diminished 
under  the  influences  of  new  railroads  and  better  seaport  connections,  St.  Louis 
factors  established  warehouses  and  compresses  in  centers  of  production  on  the 
most  economical  routes.  In  this  way  St.  Louis  preserved  her  interests  in  the 
cotton  trade  although  the  actual  cotton  did  not  come  here. 

The  first  commercial  or  jobbing  house  in  the  United  States  to  incorporate 
was  a  St.  Louis  firm.  A  manufacturer  promptly  refused  an  order  for  $200 
worth  of  goods  from  this  house  although  the  order  was  given  on  a  cash  basis. 
The  manufacturer  reasoned,  curiously  enough  as  it  seems  now,  that  incorpora- 
tion by  a  mercantile  house  meant  a  purpose  to  avoid  personal  liability.  The 
St.  Louis  house  which  pioneered  the  incorporation  movement  on  the  ist  of 
January,  1874,  was  the  Simmons  Hardware  company.  The  experiment  was 
considered  by  not  a  few  to  be  suspicious;  it  might  pave  the  way  to  dishonest 
failure.  The  truth  was  that  incorporation  was  trade  evolution.  It  meant  many 
partners.  It  led  to  profit  sharing.  Perhaps  no  one  development  did  more  to 
advance  the  trade  interests  of  St.  Louis  than  the  incorporation  of  the  mercantile 
houses,  for  the  Simmons  idea  spread  rapidly  to  all  branches  of  wholesale  busi- 
ness in  this  center.  The  beginning  of  the  Simmons  Hardware  company  as  a 
corporation  seems  humble  now.  The  cash  capital  of  the  company  was  only 
$200,000.  Some  of  the  men  who  had  proven  their  worth  to  the  house  and 
were  at  the  heads  of  departments  borrowed  money  to  buy  their  stock.  One  of 
.these  was  James  E.  Smith,  in  1909  the  president  of  the  Business  Men's  League. 

In  a  recent  address  Mr.  E.  C.  Simmons  drew  attention  to  the  number  of 
men  occupying  high  positions  in  St.  Louis  business  circles,  who  had  come  up 
from  subordinate  positions  as  clerks  or  salesmen.  He  mentioned  R.  H.  Stock- 
ton, J.  E.  Pilcher,  C.  D.  Smiley,  J.  E.  Smith,  H.  M.  Meier,  C.  N.  Markle  and 


474  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

"as  a  pronounced  example  Saunders  Norvell,"  who  had  served  business  appren- 
ticeship with  his  house.  He  said: 

All  of  these  men  prospered  and  have  taken  a  front  rank  among  commercial  men.  To 
these  names  should  also  be  added  that  of  my  late,  and  always  deeply  lamented  partner — Mr. 
Isaac  W.  Morton,  who  was  bookkeeper  and  then  a  salesman  for  us  before  he  became  a 
partner  of  the  firm  and  afterwards  an  officer  of  the  corporation.  I  have  named  those  gentle- 
men for  two  reasons;  first,  because  it  makes  me  happy  to  have  it  said  that  so  many  men 
profited  and  succeeded  in  such  large  measure  by  association  with  our  house;  and  second, 
because  I  want  to  impress  it  on  your  minds  that  those  men  were  all  salesmen,  and  that  their 
success  in  life  is  due  to  the  fact  that  they  were  good  salesmen. 

Take  the  case  of  one  of  the  gentlemen  whose  name  I  have  mentioned  as  having  pros- 
pered by  reason  of  being  connected  with  our  house — Mr.  E.  H.  Stockton;  he  was  a  natural 
born  salesman  of  the  first  class;  he  sold  a  world  of  cutlery,  chiefly  pocket  knives  and  razors, 
to  druggists,  and  I  never  found  out  how  he  did  it  until  after  he  had  left  us,  as  he  never 
gave  away  his  plans  or  methods  to  anybody. 

It  was  this:  He  learned  all  about  tooth  brushes — how  they  were  made,  what  bones 
for  the  handles — where  the  bristles  came  from,  how  bleached,  how  glued  in,  etc.,  etc.,  in  fact 
all  there  was  known  about  tooth  brushes.  Then  he  would  go  into  a  drug  store,  leaving  his 
cutlery  samples  by  the  door,  ask  for  the  proprietor,  and  if  in,  he  would  say,  "I  want  to  buy 
a  tooth  brush ; ' '  then  he  would  talk  tooth  brushes  so  intelligently  that  he  would  get  the 
merchant  interested  by  telling  him  a  lot  of  things  he  didn't  know  before;  then  he  would 
buy  a  tooth  brush — thus  putting  himself  in  the  attitude  of  a  customer.  Then  his  real  work 
would  begin,  for  he  would  draw  from  his  pocket  a  sample  razor  or  pocket  knife,  and  say, 
"I've  got  something  here  I  want  to  show  you — you  haven't  anything  like  it,  and  it's  a  great 
seller,"  and  from  this  he  would  get  a  start,  and  then  bring  up  his  samples,  and  end  up  with 
a  fine  cutlery  order.  This  is  what  I  call  brains  in  salesmanship. 

While  E.  C.  Simmons,  as  president  of  the  National  Prosperity  Association 
was  handling,  in  the  summer  of  1908,  an  enormous  mail  from  all  parts  of  the 
country  he  opened  one  letter  which  read : 

"You  may  be  right  from  your  standpoint,  because  you  are  a  rich  man  and 
have  never  known  what  it  was  to  want  money;  but  we  poor  devils  who  try 
to  climb  the  ladder  of  prosperity  have  a  different  point  of  view." 

"The  man  who  wrote  that  letter,"  said  Mr.  Simmons,  with  reminiscent  look, 
"perhaps  did  not  know  that  I  commenced  my  career  as  poor  as  the  proverbial 
Job's  turkey — making  the  fire,  sweeping  out,  dusting  the  shelves.  My  life  has 
been  one  of  intemperate  hard  work.  For  twenty-five  years  of  my  life,  I  worked 
sixteen  hours  a  day — without  one  single  week's  intermission  or  vacation.  Often 
when  footsore  and  weary  I  walked  long  distances,  because  I  had  not  the  price 
of  carfare.  I  opened  the  store  at  six  o'clock  on  winter  mornings  and  five  o'clock 
on  summer  mornings,  although  I  was  only  required  to  open  at  seven  in  winter 
and  six  in  summer." 

It  is  tradition  that  Edward  C.  Simmons,  while  a  child  in  Frederick,  Mary- 
land, was  never  so  well  contented  as  when  he  had  a  pocket  knife  in  his  fingers. 
He  came  to  St.  Louis,  a  small  boy,  and  went  to  school  on  Sixth  street,  between 
Locust  and  St.  Charles.  He  is  best  remembered  by  his  fellow  students,  as  the 
youth  who  wanted  to  see  and  to  examine  every  other  boy's  knife.  Possibly 
he  came  well  by  the  proclivity  for  his  father,  Zachariah  T.  Simmons,  though 
of  Pennsylvania  nativity,  was  of  descent  from  the  land  of  steady  habits  and 
whittling. 

In  1855,  the  day  before  New  Year's,  when  he  was  sixteen  years  old,  the 
high  school  student  went  into  the  wholesale  hardware  store  of  Childs,  Pratt 


ADOLPHUS    MEIER 


ALOXZO    CHILD 


HENRY   VON    PIll'L 


WILLIAM     L.    EWING 
At  the  age  of  fifty 


COMMANDERS    OF    COMMERCE 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  475 

&  Co.,  and  asked  Mr.  Pratt:  "Don't  you  want  a  boy?"  Mr.  Pratt  inquired 
kindly :  "What  can  you  do,  my  lad  ?"  "I  can  do  as  much  as  any  boy  of  my 
age.  Where  shall  I  hang  my  coat  ?"  Mr.  Pratt  laughed  as  He  closed  the  bargain 
with:  "Well,  my  boy,  if  you  work  as  well  as  you  talk  we  can  use  you.  Come 
down  the  day  after  New  Year's  and  go  to  work." 

That  was  the  beginning  of  E.  C.  Simmons'  more  than  half  century  identifica- 
tion with  the  trade  of  St.  Louis.  The  boy  with  the  pocket  knife  was  father 
to  the  man  with  the  hardware  store.  The  day  came  when  Mr.  Simmons  startled 
a  manufacturer  so  that  he  talked  about  it  for  years,  by  buying  4,000  dozen 
assorted  pocket  knives  in  thirty  minutes. 

More  than  his  admiration  for  the  pocket  knife,  more  than  his  quickness 
of  speech,  a  crisis  which  came  in  his  apprenticeship  had  to  do  with  the  future 
of  Edward  C.  Simmons  as  a  merchant.  The  boy  was  assigned  to  one  of  the 
partners  in  the  house  to  get  out  orders  from  the  stock.  One  day  Jake  Smith 
came  down  the  river  from  Topeka.  He  bought  a  lot  of  goods.  When  the 
order  reached  young  Simmons  he  saw  that  the  prices  entered  on  the  order  were 
higher  than  those  on  the  samples  in  the  stock  room.  He  carried  the  book  to 
the  man  who  had  sold  the  goods  and  showed  him  the  increases.  "You  mind 
your  own  business  and  get  out  that  order.  I  know  what  I  am  doing,"  was 
the  answer  he  got.  The  boy  went  home  and  that  night  he  lay  awake  thinking 
about  the  trick  and  wondering  if  he  wasn't  in  some  way  responsible  for  a  share 
in  it.  The  next  morning  he  went  to  the  salesman  and  said:  "I  am  afraid  you 
did  not  understand  me.  This  is  wrong.  Don't  you  see  you  are  doing  a  wrong, 
charging  a  man  more  than  the  marked  prices  ?"  The  salesman  replied :  "My 
boy,  let  me  teach  you  a  lesson.  This  man  lives  in  Topeka,  sixty-six  miles  west 
of  Kansas  City.  The  goods  go  by  boat  to  Kansas  City  and  then  have  to  be 
hauled  by  ox  teams  to  Topeka.  We  will  never  see  this  man  again  and  therefore 
we  must  make  all  we  can  out  of  him  now.  So  run  along,  my  boy,  and  finish 
up  the  order."  And  the  boy  stood  still,  saying,  "But  it's  wrong.  It's  wrong," 
until  the  salesman  threatened  to  have  him  discharged. 

When  the  next  season's  trade  opened,  Jake  Smith  came  down  on  one  of 
the  first  boats  after  the  ice  went  out  of  the  Missouri.  He  was  in  a  rage  when 
he  found  the  man  who  had  overcharged  him  on  the  gdods.  The  boy  heard 
the  tirade.  The  salesman  listened  quietly  and  said:  "Jake,  you  are  all  wrong, 
and  I  am  the  best  friend  you've  got.  I'll  prove  it  to  you  before  we  get  through." 
"Well,  do  it,"  said  Smith.  Then  the  salesman  said:  "You  were  going  into  a 
new  country,  weren't  you?"  "Yes."  "Into  a  new  market  where  no  prices  had 
been  established  ?"  "Yes."  "You  knew  nothing  about  prices,  did  you  ?"  "  No." 
"Naturally  you  would  base  your  selling  prices  on  your  cost  and  mark  your 
goods  accordingly,  wouldn't  you?"  "Yes."  "Then  I  said  to  myself,  I  must  help 
this  friend  to  establish  good  high  market  prices.  If  I  sell  him  cheap  he  will 
establish  low  selling  prices.  No,  I  won't  do  him  that  injury.  I  will  charge 
good  stiff  prices  and  he  will  go  to  Topeka,  and  when  he  has  the  market  so 
established  he  will  come  back  here  again  and  I  will  sell  him  a  bill  of  goods  so 
cheap  that  it  will  make  his  eyes  water,  and  he  can  take  them  to  Topeka  and 
sell  them  at  the  high  prices  I  have  been  the  means  of  helping  him  to  establish. 
And  now  I  am  prepared  to  sell  you  a  bill  of  goods  so  cheap  as  to  make  the  two 


476  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

average  up  to  your  satisfaction."  Jake  Smith  shook  the  hand  of  the  salesman 
warmly  and  thanked  him  and  gave  the  order  for  another  bill  of  goods.  When 
the  customer  had  gone  out  the  salesman  proceeded  to  give  the  boy  a  lesson  on 
the  art  of  selling  hardware.  The  boy  revolted,  gave  up  his  position  and  found 
employment  with  a  new  house,  Wilson,  Levering  &  Waters,  just  starting  on 
Main  street.  His  first  employers  failed.  Six  years  after  the  Jake  Smith  in- 
cident, Edward  C.  Simmons  was  a  partner  in  the  business  which  was  done  on 
the  square. 

Isaac  Wyman  Morton's  part  in  the  trade  development  of  St.  Louis  was 
something  besides  a  third  of  a  century  of  general  activity.  Mr.  Morton  created 
the  first  elaborate  and  illustrated  trade  catalogue  issued  by  a  St.  Louis  house. 
Eighteen  months — days,  evenings  and  holidays — he  devoted  to  the  work.  There 
was  no  model  to  copy  for  Mr.  Morton  was  entering  a  comparatively  new  field. 
Mr.  Morton  prepared  the  huge  volume  in  detail, — the  descriptions,  the  classifica- 
tion, the  indexing  and  the  paging.  He  superintended  the  engraving  of  the 
pictures.  In  those  days,  thirty  years  ago,  the  making  of  cuts  had  not  reached 
the  present  standards.  This  illustrated  hardware  catalogue  came  out  in  1880. 
It  was  a  revolution  in  selling  methods.  The  cost,  $30,000,  staggered  some  of 
the  other  stockholders  of  the  Simmons  Hardware  company.  But  that  first  year 
the  catalogue  was  in  use  the  sales  of  the  house  increased  over  $1,000,000.  Mr. 
Morton's  industry  gave  to  the  trade  what  it  had  not  had  and  that  was  a  catalogue 
which  became  the  model  for  similar  publications  in  various  lines.  The  author 
had  just  passed  thirty  years  of  age  when  he  began  this  catalogue.  He  had  come 
from  his  birthplace,  Quincy,  Illinois,  to  St.  Louis,  when  he  was  nine  years  old. 
His  parents  were  Massachusetts  people.  With  Wyman  Institute  and  Washington 
University  education.  Mr.  Morton,  at  seventeen  was  successively  collector,  book- 
keeper and  teller  in  the  Second  National  bank,  only  to  conclude  in  1865  that  more 
active  business  life  would  suit  him  better.  He  became  clerk,  salesman,  partner, 
"friend  and  companion"  to  Edward  C.  Simmons. 

The  founder  of  Cupples  Station,  that  great  aid  to  the  commerce  of  St. 
Louis,  looked  back  upon  an  object  lesson  at  the  beginning  of  his  experience 
in  St.  Louis.  When  Samuel  Cupples  in  1851  landed  at  the  wharf  he  found 
congestion  confronting  him.  The  wholesale  grocers  filled  Front  street  with 
their  heavy  stocks.  The  commission  merchants  were  in  the  next  rank  crowd- 
ing Commercial  alley.  In  Main  street  were  the  dealers  in  hats,  shoes,  boots 
and  dry  goods.  And  that  was  the  business  part  of  St.  Louis.  Mr.  Cupples 
unloaded  his  stock  of  woodenware  on  the  Levee  about  the  foot  of  Locust  street 
and  set  about  finding  a  store.  It  seemed  almost  impossible  to  secure  a  place 
without  going  beyond  the  business  limits.  Along  the  Levee  the  steamboats  were 
crowded  so  close  that  they  moored  at  right  angles  with  the  current  of  the  river 
and  sometimes  the  boats  lay  two  and  three  deep  at  the  wharfboats.  The  second 
day  after  unloading  his  stock  Mr.  Cupples  still  in  search  of  a  storeroom  went 
down  to  see  that  everything  was  safe.  As  he  stood  there  looking  at  his  freight, 
a  man  with  a  stick  came  along  and  stopped.  He  was  the  harbormaster. 

"Who  owns  these  buckets  and  tubs?"  he  called  out  in  a  loud  tone. 

Mr.  Cupples  mildly  identified  himself  as  the  owner  and  explained  that 
he  was  looking  for  a  store. 


CUPPLES    STATION 


CHOUTEAU    MILL   POND 

This  picture  taken  looking  northwest  from  about  the  center  of  the  Cupples  station  district: 

building  on  right  is  the  front  of  Collier  White  Lead  Works.    Chouteau 

Mansion  in  the  center  stood  on  present  site  of  Four  Courts. 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  477 

"Move  them  away,"  ordered  the  autocrat  of  the  St.  Louis  terminal  of 
1851.  "If  they  are  not  moved  by  twelve  o'clock  tomorrow,  I'll  have  them  moved 
and  charge  you  storage." 

Samuel  M.  Dodd  led  a  movement  of  the  wholesale  business  westward 
from  Main  street  to  get  more  room.  Dodd,  Brown  &  Co.  located  on  Fifth  and 
St.  Charles  streets  in  1871  when  such  a  breaking  away  from  the  old  center  of 
jobbing  trade  seemed  hazardous. 

Cupples  Station  was  an  evolution.  At  Seventh  and  Poplar  streets  the 
city  had  a  market  house  which  had  outlived  its  usefulness.  The  property  was 
for  sale.  The  house  of  Cupples  &  Co.  was  on  Second  street.  "We  needed  a 
warehouse,"  said  Samuel  Cupples.  "Robert  and  I  thought  the  market  house 
was  in  a  location  convenient  to  the  railroad  and  would  suit  our  purposes.  We 
bought  it.  Then  we  bought  another  back  of  it.  The  idea  of  having  ware- 
houses with  railroad  tracks  beside  them  grew  on  the  benefits  that  accrued." 
That  is  the  history  of  Cupples  Station  which  has  been  worth  millions  of  dollars 
to  St.  Louis  trade  in  the  heavy  lines.  The  saving  in  the  years  of  Cupples 
Station's  growth  held  old  and  gained  new  trade  territory  for  St.  Louis.  In 
1911  Cupples  Station  had  developed  into  a  collection  of  nearly  fifty  large 
buildings.  There  were  forty  firms  housed  in  these  buildings.  They  were 
sharing  in  the  advantages  of  the  track  and  elevator  service  and  were  carrying  on 
a  trade  of  $100,000,000  a  year.  The  main  group  of  buildings  was  constructed 
in  1891.  The  forty-three  buildings  in  1911  represented  an  investment  of  $6,000,- 
ooo.  As  a  center  of  wholesale  trade  Cupples  Station  had  no  rival  in  the  country. 

Stability  has  been  a  marked  characteristic  of  mercantile  St.  Louis.  It 
has  applied  to  retail  as  well  as  to  wholesale  trade.  The  structure  had  two 
cornerstones — one-price  and  plain-dealing.  In  1849  a  young  Virginian  journeyed 
through  the  west  looking  for  the  most  promising  opportunity  to  open  a  store. 
A  boy  of  fifteen,  he  had  begun  as  clerk  in  a  store  at  Lynchburg.  He  had  risen 
to  be  the  cashier  of  a  dry  goods  establishment  in  Richmond.  Going  south  he  had 
held  a  position  in  the  branch  office  at  Huntsville  of  a  New  Orleans  cotton 
house.  In  company  with  M.  V.  L.  McClelland,  Richard  M.  Scruggs  traveled 
from  one  city  to  another  studying  the  advantages  offered.  An  uncle  of  Mr.  Mc- 
Clelland volunteered  the  capital  to  start.  To  the  young  men,  St.  Louis,  with  its 
50,000  population,  seemed  most  promising.  The  firm  of  McClelland,  Scruggs 
&  Company  began  business  in  1850  at  Fourth  and  St.  Charles  streets.  The  city 
limits  were  at  Eighteenth  street.  In  1888  the  business  was  moved  to  Fifth  and 
Locust  streets  and  in  1907  to  Tenth  and  Olive  streets. 

William  L.  Vandervoort  came  into  the  St.  Louis  firm  in  1860.  He  was  a 
merchant  by  the  blood.  His  great  uncle,  Peter  L.  Vandervoort,  brought  the 
first  camel's  hair  shawls,  four  of  them,  to  this  country.  He  conducted  the  first 
"one-price"  dry  goods  store  in  the  United  States.  That  store  was  where  the 
shadow  of  Trinity  church  now  falls.  The  first  four  shawls  were  sold  to  the  four 
wealthiest  ladies  in  New  York  city.  The  Vandervoorts  were  merchants  a 
hundred  years  before  William  L.  Vandervoort  began  at  the  bottom  in  a  Balti- 
more store  at  one  dollar  a  week  and  table  board.  A  bad  season  cut  the  salary 
to  fifty  cents  a  week.  The  twelve-year-old  clerk  tried  another  store  and  con- 
gratulated himself  on  a  salary  of  two  dollars  a  week  and  full  board.  He  swept 


478  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

the  store  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  put  up  the  shutters  at  ten  o'clock  at 
night.  He  carried  the  parcels.  In  1860  Mr.  Vandervoort  had  his  choice  between 
partnership  with  McClelland  and  Scruggs  at  St.  Louis  and  one  of  the  most  re- 
sponsible positions  in  the  house  of  "the  merchant  prince  of  America,"  Alexander 
T.  Stewart.  He  chose  the  St.  Louis  connection. 

The  great  grandmothers  of  the  generation  of  1911  shopped  on  Market 
street.  From  the  Levee  to  Third  street  was  the  retail  district.  Ubsdell,  Pierson 
&  Co.,  of  New  York,  established  a  St.  Louis  dry  goods  store  at  Third  and  Mar- 
ket streets.  The  fire  of  1849  swept  the  retail  district.  Merchants  opened  new 
stores  on  Fourth  street.  The  property  owners  on  Market  street  rebuilt  hastily, 
but  not  well.  The  merchants  refused  to  move  back.  Fourth  street  became  the 
shopping  center.  The  Ubsdell,  Pierson  &  Co:  branch  had  located  temporarily  on 
Fourth  and  Olive,  where  the  Merchants-Laclede  bank  now  is.  It  was  removed 
in  1857  to  Fourth  between  Vine  and  St.  Charles  streets,  and  remained  there 
until  1880.  William  Barr  and  James  Duncan  were  the  managers.  During  the 
war  Mr.  Barr,  Mr.  Duncan  and  Joseph  Franklin  bought  out  the  New  York 
partners.  In  1870  Mr.  Duncan  retired.  Twenty-eight  years  ago,  following  the 
westward  trend,  the  firm  removed  to  Sixth  and  Olive.  This  was  the  genesis 
of  "Barr's,"  an  institution  which  within  the  current  year  will  celebrate  its 
sixtieth  anniversary  of  continuous  retail  business  in  St.  Louis. 

Perhaps  "the  branch  house"  policy  is  the  latest  and  most  significant  de- 
velopment in  the  trade  evolution  of  St.  Louis.  The  jobber  is  establishing 
branches  and  is  districting  his  territory.  This  has  come  about  largely  within 
the  past  half  decade.  It  seems  to  be  a  natural  change,  meaning  a  great  deal  to 
the  future  of  St.  Louis  trade.  It  holds  out  encouragement  for  extension  of 
trade  territory,  with  this  as  the  directing  center  of  distribution.  A  retail  mer- 
chant in  South  Dakota  who  came  to  the  World's  Fair  in  1904  called  upon  E.  C. 
Simmons.  He  was  asked  why  his  orders  for  hardware  were  not  as  large  as 
they  had  been  a  few  years  before.  His  answer  was: 

"Well,  when  you  had  a  strike  and  your  business  here  in  St.  Louis  was  badly 
interrupted,  I  commenced  buying  some  goods  in  Sioux  City.  I  found  that  I 
got  them  in  two  or  three  days  after  giving  the  order  instead  of  waiting  ten  days 
or  two  weeks  to  receive  them  from  St.  Louis  or  Chicago.  And  I  also  found 
that  by  ordering  little  lots  I  could  do  my  business  on  less  capital  if  I  bought 
near  home." 

"But  haven't  we  a  much  better  assortment  than  Sioux  City  has?"  urged 
Mr.  Simmons. 

"Yes,"  said  the  South  Dakota  merchant,  "but  those  people  have  all  I 
need." 

"Are  not  our  prices  much  lower?"  again  urged  the  St.  Louis  merchant. 

"Yes,"  said  the  visitor,  "but  I  make  a  rattling  good  profit  on  the  goods  I 
buy  from  them."  And  then  he  came  back  with  this  counter  argument.  "When 
I  commenced  I  had  $10,000  in  my  business,  but  I  have  since  taken  out  half  of  it 
and  bought  me  a  nice  farm  home  in  the  suburbs  of  our  little  city.  I  do  as 
much  business  on  my  $5,000  by  purchasing  near  home  in  little  lots  as  I  did  be- 
fore on  $10,000  capital  when  I  bought  in  St.  Louis  and  Chicago.  What  ar« 
gument  have  you  to  meet  that?" 


D.  A.  JANUARY 


D.  B.  GALE 


A.  F.  SHAPLEIGH 


C.   F.   G.   MEYER  S.   M.  EDGELL 

ARCHITECTS  OF  ST.  LOUIS  COMMERCE 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  479 

Mr.  Simmons  said  he  hadn't  any.  If  the  trade  wouldn't  come  to  St.  Louis 
— St.  Louis  would  have  to  go  to  the  trade.  And  thereupon  the  Simmons  Hard- 
ware company  adopted  the  policy  of  establishing  branch  houses  beyond  the 
circuit  of  immediate  St.  Louis  territory  to  hold  and  to  extend  the  more  remote 
districts.  The  policy  of  branch  houses  is  not  limited  to  one  line  of  St.  Louis 
trade. 

On  a  dull  summer  day  of  1836  twenty-five  young  business  men  organized 
the  St.  Louis  Chamber  of  Commerce.  The  meeting  place  was  the  office  of  the 
Missouri  Insurance  company  on  Main  street,  between  Olive  and  Pine  streets. 
That  was  the  center  of  business.  The  primary  purpose  was  to  agree  upon 
certain  regulations  which  the  members  would  observe  in  their  business.  One 
of  the  first  transactions  was  to  adopt  a  tariff  of  commissions  to  be  charged  on 
sales  of  produce  and  lead,  on  purchases  and  shipments  of  produce,  on  pay- 
ment of  freight  bills,  on  advances  to  customers,  on  placing  insurance,  and 
on  adjustment  of  losses.  The  chamber  also  fixed  the  schedule  of  fees  for  arbi- 
tration of  business  disputes  and  the  rates  of  service  for  agents  of  steamboats. 
In  short,  the  young  men  determined  that  business  in  these  lines  should  be 
organized.  They  founded  what  is  today  the  oldest  commercial  trading  organiza- 
tion in  the  United  States.  One  of  the  most  active  of  the  twenty-five  was 
George  K.  McGunnegle,  who  was  at  that  time  a  member  of  the  legislature.  At 
the  next  session  McGunnegle  put  through  a  bill  incorporating  the  chamber  and 
giving  it  a  charter.  The  idea  was  so  novel  that  the  legislature  conferred  power 
upon  the  organization  to  do  anything  it  pleased  which  was  not  "contrary  to 
the  laws  of  the  land."  The  only  other  restriction  imposed  was  that  the  property 
which  might  be  acquired  should  "not  exceed  at  any  time  the  sum  of  $20,000." 
In  the  very  beginning  the  chamber  of  commerce  took  on  the  character  of  a 
public  spirited  movement.  The  membership  soon  overflowed  the  insurance  office. 
The  meeting  place  was  changed  to  the  office  of  the  Missouri  Republican,  on 
Main  street  near  Pine.  The  next  move  was  to  the  basement  of  the  Unitarian 
church,  on  Fourth  and  Pine  streets.  The  meetings  were  held  at  night.  The 
organization  was  expanding.  Its  discussions  were  interesting. 

Out  of  the  chamber  of  commerce  with  its  meetings  to  consider  subjects 
germane  to  business  interests  of  the  city  and  out  of  the  merchants'  exchange 
and  newsroom  where  papers  were  kept  on  file  and  to  which  business  men  re- 
sorted for  conversation  developed  the  idea  "on  'change."  The  newspapers 
began  to  agitate  this  as  the  next  step  toward  commercial  organization  in  St. 
Louis.  "We  think,"  wrote  Editor  Chambers,  "the  idea  a  good  one.  If  a  certain 
hour  is  established  for  'change,  say  twelve  to  one  o'clock  in  the  day,  every  mer- 
chant having  business  to  do  with  another  would  know  when  and  where  he 
could  be  found."  The  suggestion  met  with  such  favor  that  in  the  spring  of  1839 
Rene  Paul  faced  a  large  gathering  of  representative  business  men  when  he 
moved  that  Henry  S.  Cox  be  chosen  chairman  and  William  G.  Pettus  be  made 
secretary  of  a  meeting  called  to  consider  the  matter.  The  meeting  was  held  in 
the  merchants'  exchange  and  newsroom,  as  it  had  come  to  be  known  to  all 
business  St.  Louis.  The  sense  of  those  present  expressed  in  the  resolutions 
which  A.  B.  Chambers  offered  was  that  an  exchange  building  be  erected. 


480  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

John  D.  Daggett,  Rene  Paul,  Nathaniel  Paschall,  Adam  B.  Chambers, 
John  B.  Camden,  William  Glasgow  and  Edward  Tracy  were  the  committee  of 
seven  chosen  to  take  charge  of  the  movement. 

The  next  year  occurred  an  incident  illustrative  of  the  standard  of  com- 
mercial honor  which  characterized  the  commercial  community  of  St.  Louis 
at  that  time.  Edward  Tracy  had  been  president  of  the  chamber  of  commerce 
from  its  beginning.  Becoming  financially  embarrassed,  he  tendered  his  resigna- 
tion. The  members  declined  to  accept  the  resignation,  there  being  nothing  that 
in  any  way  was  discreditable  to  the  president.  Mr.  Tracy  insisted  that  the  in- 
terests of  the  chamber  would  be  best  served  by  a  change.  Henry  Von  Phul 
had  been  the  vice  president  of  the  chamber.  He  was  chosen  president  by  ac- 
clamation, but  declined  to  serve.  The  chamber  then  elected  Wayman  Crow, 
who  continued  to  hold  the  office  until  1849. 

A  third  of  a  century  after  he  had  been  elected  president  of  the  chamber 
of  commerce,  Wayman  Crow,  in  June,  1874,  stood  beside  the  cornerstone  of 
the  new  chamber  of  commerce  building  on  Third  street.  As  his  mind  went  back 
to  the  early  days,  to  this  act  of  Edward  Tracy  and  to  like  evidences  of  nice 
sense  of  mercantile  honor,  Mr.  Crow  said: 

But  having  been  in  business  here  for  more  than  forty  years,  I  cannot  recall  to  mind 
an  individual  now  in  commercial  life  who  was  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits  at  the  time 
of  my  coming.  You  will  pardon  me  then,  I  am  sure — seeing  that  I  belong  to  the  past  more 
than  to  the  present — if  my  thoughts  revert  to  those  early  days  and  rest  for  a  moment  with 
the  men  who  were  my  trusted  colaborers,  and  with  those  who  immediately  preceded  us  in  our 
work.  At  least  you  will  permit  me  to  bear  witness  to  the  high  character,  the  commercial 
honor,  the  personal  faithfulness  of  those  who  were  the  early  founders  of  our  prosperity,  and 
who  gave  the  tone  and  standard — not  yet  lost,  and  never,  as  we  confidently  hope,  to  be  lost — 
to  the  daily  business  life  of  St.  Louis.  Those  old-time  workers  may  have  been  a  little  too 
conservative,  sometimes  timid — "old  fogies"  you  would  call  them  nowadays — but  they  were 
scrupulously  honest  in  their  dealings,  strict  eonstructionists  in  their  regard  for  contracts,  men 
of  untarnished  integrity  in  meeting  their  engagements,  and  it  is  to  their  practice  and 
example  that  the  present  high  commercial  credit  of  St.  Louis,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  is 
greatly  due. ' ' 

The  movement  for  an  exchange  building  did  not  progress.  At  one  time 
the  papers  had  it  that  a  lot  at  Third  and  Chestnut  had  been  purchased  and  at 
another  time  that  a  lot  on  Fifth  street  had  been  secured.  In  1848  the  exchange 
rooms  on  Main  and  Olive  were  opened.  A  secretary,  Edward  Barry,  was  ap- 
pointed. Papers  were  kept  on  file.  Telegrams  giving  the  state  of  the  markets 
were  received.  The  next  year  the  merchants'  exchange  was  formally  established 
by  the  chamber  of  commerce.  This  plan  meant  two  organizations.  Members 
of  the  exchange  had  all  privileges  except  voting.  The  chamber  of  commerce 
controlled  both  bodies.  The  'change  hour  was  observed  from  n  a.  m.  to  12 
m.  The  rooms  were  opened  at  that  time  to  everybody,  but  only  members  could 
buy  and  sell. 

About  the  time  that  the  merchants'  exchange  was  started,  the  millers 
were  looking  for  a  shelter.  They  had  been  for  years  in  the  habit  of  going  to 
the  levee  in  the  morning,  examining  the  sacks  of  grain  unloaded  from  the  boats 
and  then  waiting  in  the  dust  and  mud  for  hours  until  the  sellers  arrived  to 
make  trades.  James  Waugh  and  T.  A.  Buckland  were  especially  vigorous  in 
complaining  about  the  exposure  from  which  they  had  suffered  from  trying  to 


JACOB   S.    MERRELL 


DAVID  NICHOLSON"  C.  S    GREELEY 

ARCHITECTS  OE  ST.  LOUIS  COMMERCE 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE  481 

buy  grain  on  the  levee.  A  meeting  was  called.  Rooms  were  rented  near  Locust 
and  the  levee  and  the  millers'  exchange  began  to  do  business,  inviting  those 
who  had  grain  or  any  kind  of  produce  to  bring  in  and  display  their  samples. 
Upon  two  pine  counters,  in  twenty-four  tin  pans,  began  the  selling  of  grain  and 
flour  by  sample  in  St.  Louis.  And  this  was  the  inauguration  of  the  sample 
method  of  trading  on  'change  for  the  United  States.  It  dates  back  to  the  decade 
of  1840-50.  The  merchants'  exchange,  which  was  only  two  blocks  away,  sent  an 
invitation  to  the  millers'  exchange  to  bring  their  flour  and  grain  samples  and  do 
the  trading  there.  The  invitation  was  accepted. 

In  1850-60  the  commercial  organization  developed  great  strength.  The 
chamber  of  commerce  in  1851  was  presided  over  by  William  M.  Morrison.  In 
1852  the  body  sent  delegates  headed  by  Joseph  Stettinius  to  a  "commercial  con- 
vention" at  Baltimore. 

The  movement  for  a  building  took  on  new  life  in  1855.  Henry  T.  Blow, 
R.  J.  Lackland,  Charles  P.  Chouteau,  A.  L.  Shapleigh  and  Thomas  E.  Tutt 
were  made  a  committee  to  get  a  charter  for  an  exchange  building  company. 
Messrs.  Edward  J.  Gay  and  Robert  Barth,  representing  owners  of  property  on 
the  east  side  of  Main  between  Market  and  Walnut  streets,  proposed  to  put  up 
a  building,  the  second  floor  of  which  should  be  occupied  exclusively  by  the  mer- 
chants' exchange  at  a  rental  of  $2,500  a  year  for  ten  years.  This  plan  was 
carried  out.  A  company  put  up  the  building  on  the  site  which  Pierre  Laclede 
had  reserved  for  a  plaza  and  which  the  village,  town  and  city  of  St.  Louis  had 
used  for  a  market  place  through  several  generations.  The  central  point  of  the 
little  settlement  of  1764  became  the  commercial  heart  of  the  city  in  1857.  The 
structure  was  known  as  the  chamber  of  commerce  building.  The  ground  floor 
was  occupied  by  stores.  The  exchange  hall  was  101  feet  long  by  80  feet  wide. 
From  the  floor  to  the  apex  of  the  dome  was  63  feet.  St.  Louis  had  a  celebrated 
fresco  artist  at  that  time,  L.  D.  Pomerede,  who  decorated  the  interior  of  the 
dome  with  paintings  representing  the  four  quarters  of  the  globe.  This  exchange 
hall,  which  was,  probably,  the  finest  commercial  hall  in  the  country  of  its  day, 
was  constructed  under  the  immediate  direction  of  Oliver  A.  Hart,  for  the  St. 
Louis  merchants'  exchange  company,  chartered  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  the 
building. 

The  Civil  war  brought  a  severe  test  of  the  vitality  of  commercial  organiza- 
tion in  St.  Louis.  Over  the  annual  election  in  January,  1862,  the  members 
divided.  Those  who  withdrew  held  a  meeting  with  Stephen  M.  Edgell  as 
chairman  and  Clinton  B.  Fisk  secretary.  They  called  themselves  "the  union 
merchants'  exchange  of  St.  Louis."  The  new  body  took  rooms  in  a  building 
on  Third  street  just  south  of  the  postofrice.  Within  a  year  the  union  mer- 
chants' exchange  was  back  in  the  possession  of  the  old  quarters  on  Main,  be- 
tween Market  and  Walnut  streets.  The  new  exchange  organized  with  Henry 
J.  Moore  as  president.  At  the  next  annual  meeting  in  January,  1863,  George 
Partridge  was  elected  president.  In  March  following  the  body  incorporated. 
The  obligation  which  the  members  of  the  union  merchants'  exchange  took  was 
the  result  of  a  movement  to  commit  the  business  community  to  the  strongest 
possible  expression  of  allegiance  to  the  government.  In  1875  the  name  was 
changed  from  union  merchants'  exchange  to  Merchants'  Exchange  of  St.  Louis. 

•5- VOL.  ii. 


482 


ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 


In  1871,  under  the  presidency  of  Gerard  B.  Allen,  the  westward  movement 
became  strong.  Propositions  were  received  from  James  H.  Lucas  and  others 
to  build  a  new  chamber  of  commerce  at  Third  and  Chestnut ;  from  P.  B.  Gerhart 
to  build  at  Third  and  Locust;  from  John  A.  Scudder,  Catherine  Ames  and 
William  H.  Scudder  to  build  at  Sixth  street  and  Washington  avenue,  where  the 
destruction  of  the  old  Lindell  hotel  had  left  a  vacancy.  The  Third  and  Chestnut 
street  proposition  was  accepted.  A  canvass  of  the  membership  showed  that, 
at  the  time,  773  of  the  business  houses  represented  on  'change  were  located 
south  of  Olive  street,  and  492  north  of  Olive.  The  St.  Louis  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce Association  to  construct  the  building,  was  formed  with  Rufus  J.  Lack- 
land, president;  Gerard  B.  Allen  and  George  Knapp,  vice  presidents.  In  July, 
1873,  work  was  commenced.  In  June,  1874,  the  cornerstone  was  laid  with 
masonic  and  military  ceremonies,  Web  M.  Samuel,  president  of  the  exchange, 
delivering  the  address. 

Before  the  Civil  war  the  great  commercial  body  of  St.  Louis  kept  a  good 
president  as  long  as  he  would  serve.  Many  years  the  duties  were  performed 
in  succession  by  Edward  Tracy,  Wayman  Crow  and  William  Morrison.  Be- 
ginning with  1862  the  custom  of  one-term  presidents  was  inaugurated  and  ad- 
hered to.  The  presidents  and  vice  presidents  of  the  Merchants'  Exchange  for 
forty-seven  years  constitute  a  roll  of  commercial  honor: 


Year.  President 

1862  Henry  J.  Moore. 

1863  George  Partridge. 

1864  Thomas  Bicheson. 

1865  Barton  Able. 

1866  E.  O.  Stanard. 

1867  C.  L.  Tucker. 

1868  John  J.  Eoe. 

1869  Geo.  P.  Plant. 

1870  Wm.  J.  Lewis. 

1871  Gerard  B.  Allen. 

1872  E.  P.  Tansey. 

1873  Wm.  H   Scudder. 

1874  Web  M.  Samuel. 

1875  D.  P.  Rowland. 

1876  Nathan  Cole. 

1877  John  A.  Scudder. 

1878  Geo.  Bain. 

1879  John  Wahl. 

1880  Alex.  H.  Smith. 

1881  Michael  McBnnis. 

1882  Chas.  E.  Slayback. 

1883  J.  C.  Ewald. 

1884  D.  E.  Francis. 

1885  Henry  C.  Haarstick. 

1886  S.  W.  Cobb. 

1887  Frank  Gaiennie. 

1888  Chas.  F.  Orthwein. 

1889  Chas.  A.  Cox. 

1890  John  W.  Kauffman. 

1891  Marcus  Bernheimer. 

1892  Isaac  M.   Mason. 


Vice  Presidents. 
C.  S.  Greeley. 

C.  S.  Greeley. 
Barton  Able. 
E.  O.  Stanard. 
Alex.  H.  Smith. 
Edgar  Ames. 
Geo.  P.  Plant. 
H.  A.  Homeyer. 
G.  G.  Waggaman. 
E.  P.  Tansey. 
Wm.  H.  Scudder. 
S.  M.  Edgell. 

L.  L.  Ashbrook. 
John  P.  Meyer. 
John  Wahl. 
N.  Schaeffer. 
H.  C.  Haarstiek. 
Michael  McEnnis. 
Chas.  E.  Slayback. 
John  Jackson. 
Chas.  F.  Orthwein. 

D.  E.  Francis. 
John  P.  Reiser. 
S.  W.  Cobb. 

Chas.  H.  Teichmann. 
Louis  Fusz. 
J.  H.  Teasdale. 
Hugh  Eogers. 
Marcus  Bernheimer. 
Geo.  H.  Plant. 
Wm.  T.  Anderson. 


Vice  Presidents. 
A.  W.  Fagin. 
A.  W.  Fagin. 

C.  L.  Tucker. 
H.  A.  Homeyer. 

D.  G.  Taylor. 
D.  G.  Taylor. 
H.  A.  Homeyer. 
Nathan  Cole. 
H.  C.  Yaeger. 
Geo.  Bain. 

C.  H.  Teichmann. 
Web  M.  Samuel. 
John  F.  Tolle. 
Wm.  M.  Senter. 

F.  B.  Davidson. 
Geo.  Bain. 
Craig  Alexander. 
W.  J.  Lemp. 

J.  C.  Ewald. 
A.  T.  Harlow. 
Frank  Gaiennie. 

D.  P.  Grier. 

C.  W.  Barstow. 

D.  P.  Slattery. 
J.  Will  Boyd. 
Thomas  Booth. 
Chas.  A.  Cox. 
Alex.  Euston. 

G.  M.  Flanigan. 
S.  E.  Francis. 
Wallace  Delafield. 


THE   DISTRIBUTIVE   COMMERCE 


483 


Year.  President. 

1893  W.  T.  Anderson. 

f  A.  T.  Harlow. 

{  Wm.  G.  Boyd. 

1895  Thos.  Booth. 

1896  C.  H.  Spencer. 

1897  H.  F.  Langenberg. 

1898  Chris.  Sharp. 

1899  Wm.  P.  Kennett. 

1900  Oscar  L.  Whitelaw. 

1901  Wm.  T.  Haarstick. 

1902  Geo.  J.  Tansey. 

1903  T.  R.  Ballard. 

1904  H.  H.  Wernse. 

1905  Otto  L.  Teichmann. 

1906  Manley  G.  Richmond. 

1907  George  H.  Plant. 

1908  Edward  Devoy. 

1909  Edward  E.  Scharff. 

1910  Manning  W.  Cochrane. 

1911  James   W.   Garneau. 


Viee-Presidents. 
Roger  P.  Annan. 

Wm.  G.  Boyd. 

Geo.  H.  Small. 
C.  Marquard  Forster. 
Amedee  B.  Cole. 
Chris.  Sharp. 
Henry  H.  Wernse. 
Oscar  L.  Whitelaw. 
Wm.  T.  Haarstick. 
Geo.  J.  Tansey. 
T.  R.  Ballard. 
Wm.  A.  Gardner. 
Otto  L.  Teichmann. 
Manley  G.  Richmond. 
William  H.  Danforth. 
Edward  Devoy. 
Edward  E.  Scharff. 
Manning  W.  Cochrane. 
Nat.  L.  Moffitt. 
C.  Bernet. 


Vice-Presidents. 
L.  C.  Doggett. 

J  E.  A.  Pomeroy. 

Geo   D.  Barnard. 
Clark  H.  Sampson. 
Wm.  P.  Kennett. 
Oscar  L.  Whitelaw. 
Daniel  E.  Smith. 
Frank  E.  Kauffman. 
T.  R.  Ballard. 
Wm    A.  Gardner. 
Charles  H.  Huttig. 
M.  G.  Richmond. 
John  E.  Geraghty. 
Edward  Devoy. 
Edward  E.  Scharff. 
Manning  W.  Cochrane. 
Nat.  L.  Moffitt. 
C.  Bernet. 
John  L.  Mesmore. 


A  wonderful  record  of  cheerful  giving  the  Merchants'  Exchange  has  made. 
In  two  generations  the  amounts  raised  by  popular  subscriptions  on  'change  for 
emergency  relief  have  been  nearly  $1,000,000.  From  Portland,  Maine,  to  San 
Francisco,  from  Chicago  to  Galveston,  this  body  of  St.  Louis  business  men  has 
extended  the  generous  hand.  To  suffering  fellowmen  in  Ireland  and  Germany 
these  men  of  the  daily  mart  loosened  the  purse  strings.  Flood  and  drought, 
yellow  fever  and  fire,  cyclone  and  earthquake,  tidal  wave  and  cloudburst — no 
matter  what  the  occasion — the  responses  from  the  members  of  the  Merchants' 
Exchange  have  come  promptly  and  liberally.  In  the  long  and  honorable  history 
of  the  commercial  body  the  contributions  to  benevolence  make  a  bright  page: 

1866  For  sufferers  by  fire  at  Portland,  Me $     2,686.00 

For  destitute  in  Georgia  and  Alabama 1B,780.00 

1867  For  destitute  in  Southern  states 28,283.66 

For  sufferers  by  yellow  fever  at  New  Orleans 8,391.50 

1871     For  sufferers  by  fire  at  Chicago 150,000.00 

1874    For  families  of  firemen  killed  at  fire,  April  4th 2,997.25 

For  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Collinsville,  111 210.00 

1880     For  suffering  poor  in  Ireland 7,029.54 

For  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Marshfield,  Mo 9,102.45 

For  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Savoy,  Tex 220.00 

1882  For  sufferers  by  overflow  of  Mississippi  River 8,971.55 

For  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Brownsville,  Mo 426.00 

1883  For  sufferers  by  overflow  in  Germany 3,760.00 

For  sufferers  by  overflow  at  Shawneetown,  111 756.69 

For  sufferers  by  overflow  in  American  bottom 1,263.00 

1885  For  the  poor  of  St.  Louis,  "Minnie  Palmer  Xmas  Boxes" 282.88 

1886  For  relief  of  sufferers  by  drought  in  Texas 7,508.00 

For  relief  of  sufferers  by  earthquake  at  Charleston,  S.  C 1,532.35 

For  relief  of  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Sabine  Pass,  Tex 10.00 

1888     For  relief  of  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Mt.  Vernon,  111 6,332.25 

For  relief  of- -sufferers  by  yellow  fever  at  Jacksonville,  Fla 8,341.00 


484  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

1889  For  relief  of  sufferers  by  flood  at  Johnstown,  Pa 14,479.20 

1890  For  orphan  asylum  at  Houston,  Tex.,  sale  of  bale  of  cotton 585  00 

1891  For  Confederate  Orphans'  Home  of  Missouri  (cake  sold) 157.00 

1892  For  relief  of  sufferers  by  overflow  of  Mississippi  Eiver 54,010.22 

1893  For  relief  of  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Ked  Bud,  111 849.00 

Belief  of  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Cisco,  Tex 927.00 

Belief  of  sufferers  by  cyclone  at  Hope,  Ark 129.00 

Belief  of  sufferers  by  storm  on  Gulf  Coast 982.50 

1895  Belief  of  sufferers  by  drought  in  Nebraska 3,720.75 

1896  Tornado,  St.  Louis,  May  27th 267,440.49 

Tornado,  Denison,  Tex 1,503.00 

1897  Flood  relief,  overflow,  Lower  Mississippi 7,224.00 

Yellow  fever  in  Mississippi '. 1,284.00 

1898  Overflow  at  Shawneetown,  111 *. 2,336.75 

Cloudburst  at  Steelville,  Mo 704.00 

Bale  of  cotton  sold  for  benefit  United  States  Hospital  fund 630.00 

Game  of  baseball  for  benefit  of  Fresh  Air  fund 196.00 

Yellow  fever  in  South 1,673.75 

1899  Tornado  at  Kirksville,  Mo 3,582.35 

Texas  flood  relief,  Brazos  Biver 3,831.00 

1900  Texas  relief,  tidal  wave  at  Galveston  and  vicinity 39,063.30 

1902     Belief  of  families  of  firemen  who  lost  their  lives  at  fire  of  February  4th 26,014.86 

Belief  of  drought  sufferers  in  Southwestern  Missouri 4,771.25 

1904     Overflow,  Mississippi  Biver 35,046.00 

1906     San  Francisco  earthquake 42,822.00 

1909     Cyclone  at  Brinkley,  Ark 1,855.00 


Total    $899,613.00 

As  early  as  1839,  "the  master-mechanics  of  St.  Louis,"  as  they  called  them- 
selves, organized  the  Mechanics'  Exchange.  This  was  not  a  labor  movement 
but  an  organization  of  the  producing  industries  of  the  city  for  mutual  good. 
The  plan  was  formed  and  presented  from  a  body  composed  of  one  representa- 
tive of  each  branch  of  manufacture  or  skilled  trade.  The  list  of  these  represen- 
tatives is  a  good  index  to  the  industries  of  St.  Louis  in  1839.  It  includes  men 
who  became  prominent  in  the  life  of  the  city  and  whose  descendants  are  in 
some  instances  following  the  same  industries  as  developed  under  new  conditions, 
in  St.  Louis  today: 

Joseph  C.  Laveille,  carpenter.  Daniel  D.  Page,  baker. 

Asa  Wilgus,  painter.  Isaac  Chadwick,  plasterer. 

Samuel  Gaty,  founder  Thomas  Andrews,  coppersmith. 

George  Trask,  cabinetmaker.  John  M.  Paulding,  hatter. 

James  Barry,  chandler.  James  Love,  blacksmith. 

Joseph  Laiden,  chairmaker.  John  Young,  saddler. 

William  Shipp,  silversmith.  Wooster  Goodyear,  cordwainer. 

B.  Townsend,  wire  and  sieve  maker.  B.  Todd,  burr  millstone  maker. 

Thomas  Gambal,  cooper.  Francis  Baborg,  tanner. 

S.  C.  Coleman,  turner.  N.  Paschall,  printer. 

John  G.  Shelton,  tailor.  B.  L.  Turnbull,  bookbinder. 

Charles  Coates,  stonecutter.  David  Shepard,  bricklayer. 

Anthony  Bennett,  stonemason.  L  A.  Letcher,  brickmaker. 

William    Thomas,   shipbuilder.  Samuel  Hawkins,  gunsmith. 

Samuel  Shawk,  locksmith.  A.  Oakford,  combmaker. 

N.  Tiernal,  wheelwright.  J-  B.  Gerard,  carriagemaker. 

Moses  Stout,  planemaker.  James  Eobinson,  upholsterer. 
J.  Bemis,  machinist. 


D.    C.    JACCARD 


CLARK  H.  SAMPSON 


WILLIAM   L.  VANDERVOORT  A.  E.   FAUST 

TYPES  OF  BUSINESS  LIFE  SIXCE  THE  WAR 


485 

In  1852  the  Mechanics'  and  Manufacturers'  Exchange  and  Library  Asso- 
ciation was  organized.  The  St.  Louisans  who  took  the  active  part  in  this  move- 
ment were  Thornton  Grimsley,  Charles  H.  Peck,  P.  Wonderly,  J.  C.  Edgar, 
R.  Keyser  and  John  Goodin. 

In  1856  the  Mechanics'  Exchange  with  rooms  on  Chestnut  street  between 
Third  and  Fourth  streets  was  one  of  the  strong  institutions  of  the  city.  Anthony. 
Ittner,  Thomas  Rich,  A.  Cook,  W.  Stamps,  James  Garvin,  C.  Lynch,  J.  Locke, 
James  Luthy  were  some  of  the  leading  members.  The  laudable  objects  were 
"the  encouragement,  development  and  promotion  of  the  mechanical  and  manu- 
facturing interests  of  the  city  and  the  arbitration  of  all  errors  and  misunder- 
standings between  its  members  and  those  having  business  with  them."  The 
first  president  was  N.  M.  Ludlow.  To  carry  out  the  policy  of  settlement  of 
disputes  by  arbitration  the  exchange  formed  a  strong  committee  of  appeal. 
The  members  of  this  committee  were  Charles  H.  Peck,  Samuel  Robbins,  W.  F. 
Cozzens,  John  Evill,  W.  G.  Clark,  L.  D.  Baker  and  W.  H.  Markham,  all  promi- 
nent men  in  the  city.  In  1908  Mr.  Clark  celebrated  his  ninetieth  birthday  at 
the  home  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  James  B.  Hill. 

With  an  address  by  Henry  T.  Blow  and  under  Adolphus  Meier  as  presi- 
dent the  St.  Louis  Board  of  Trade  entered  upon  its  mission  of  business  organ- 
ization in  October,  1867.  The  motive  of  the  board  of  trade  was  similar  to 
that  which  in  later  years  operated  through  the  Business  Men's  League  to  the 
great  commercial  and  industrial  advantage  of  the  city.  But  at  that  time  benefits 
of  business  organizations  were  not  so  well  recognized.  The  board  of  trade  held 
many  meetings.  It  considered  subjects  in  which  the  interests  of  St.  Louis  were 
concerned.  Wayman  Crow,  Isidor  Bush,  E.  C.  Simmons,  E.  A.  Hitchcock, 
Isaac  M.  Mason  were  among  the  active  members  in  the  period  of  the  board's 
greatest  usefulness.  Chauncey  I.  Filley  was  for  some  time  the  energetic  presi- 
dent. 

The  Boatmen's  Exchange  was  an  institution  of  such  promise  that  in  1868 
Charles  P.  Chouteau  erected  for  the  accommodation  of  the  body  a  handsome 
stone  front  building  at  Levee  and  Vine  streets,  costing  $80,000.  The  building 
was  the  most  imposing  architecturally  on  the  river  front. 

With  Gerard  B.  Allen  as  president  and  Thomas  Richeson  as  vice  president 
the  St.  Louis  Manufacturers'  Association  was  started  in  1874.  Adolphus  Meier 
and  Giles  F.  Filley  were  especially  active  in  promoting  the  organization. 

In  1875  Anthony  Ittner,  W.  W.  Polk,  Joseph  K.  Bent  and  others  chartered 
another  Mechanics'  Exchange.  Fine  quarters  were  opened  in  the  Hunt  build- 
ing on  Fourth  street  opposite  the  Planters'  House.  Mr.  Bent  was  of  Massachu- 
setts birth.  He  was  for  forty  years  a  contractor  and  builder  in  St.  Louis,  operat- 
ing part  of  the  time  his  own  planing  mill  and  taking  some  of  the  largest  contracts 
in  carpenter  work.  He  did  the  carpenter  work  of  the  Merchants'  Exchange,  of 
Barr's,  of  the  First  Presbyterian  church  on  Lucas  place.  He  had  the  contract 
for  the  construction  of  the  Third  National  bank  building  which  was  occupied 
by  the  bank  up  to  1908. 

The  St.  Louis  Coal  Exchange  was  opened  in  1879  for  the  mutual  pro- 
tection of  shippers  and  dealers.  The  president  was  Alexander  Hamilton  and 
the  treasurer  was  C.  E.  Gartside. 


486  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

Out  of  a  strike  among  the  furniture  workers  of  the  city  grew  an  organi- 
zation of  manufacturers  which  became  the  St.  Louis  Furniture  Exchange.  The 
first  officers  were  Daniel  Aude,  D.  S.  Home  and  J.  H.  Koppelman. 

The  growth  of  St.  Louis,  financial,  commercial  and  industrial,  is  not  meas- 
ured by  the  city's  tonnage,  clearings,  sales  and  products.  It  goes  far  beyond 
these  local  returns,  flattering  as  they  are.  St.  Louis  is  financing,  producing  and 
trading  in  many  places  away  from  home.  That  is  the  latest  evolution  of  busi- 
ness growth.  Notably  St.  Louis  has  been  reaching  out  into  the  southwest.  The 
relationship  has  come  to  mean  more  than  the  holding  of  natural  trade  territory. 
President  Breckinridge  Jones,  of  the  Mississippi  Valley  Trust  company,  at  the 
close  of  1908,  in  the  Manufacturers'  Record,  pointed  out  what  St.  Louis  men 
and  St.  Louis  capital  have  been  doing  in  the  field : 

In  1903,  out  of  a  total  of  over  5,000  miles  of  railroad  constructed  in  the  United 
States,  2,302  miles  were  built  in  the  southwest;  that  is,  in  the  states  of  Missouri,  Arkansas, 
Louisiana,  Oklahoma,  Indian  Territory  and  Texas.  In  1904  the  total  railroad  building 
in  the  United  States  amounted  to  3,822.26  miles;  in  1905  to  4,358.2  miles,  and  in  1906 
to  5,623  miles,  of  which,  in  each  year,  at  least  40  per  cent  was  in  the  states  above  named. 
About  the  same  percentage  of  mileage  is  being  constructed  in  the  southwest  now.  In  all 
of  this  development  St.  Louis  capital  has  been  heavily  interested.  Among  other  recent 
roads  made  possible  by  St.  Louis  capital  are  the  following:  Arkansas  Southern,  running 
from  Eldorado,  Ark.,  to  Alexandria,  La.,  Blackwell,  Enid  &  Southwestern,  extending  from 
Blackwell,  Okla.,  to  Vernon,  Texas;  Denver,  Enid  &  Gulf  running  from  Guthrie,  Okla.,  to 
Belvidere,  Kan.;  St.  Louis,  Brownsville  &  Mexico,  constructed  from  Brownsville,  Texas, 
toward  San  Antonio,  Texas;  St.  Louis,  El  Keno  &  Western,  extending  from  Guthrie  west, 
and  Missouri  &  Arkansas,  running  from  Eureka  Springs,  Arkansas,  east. 

The  Mexican  Central,  running  from  El  Paso  through  the  Eepublic  of  Mexico,  while 
not  in  the  territory  called  the  southwest  in  this  article,  still  is  in  territory  tributary,  and 
should  be  mentioned,  for  St.  Louis  loaned  quite  a  good  deal  of  money  to  help  its  com- 
pletion. 

Along  the  lines  of  railway  made  possible  by  St.  Louis  capital,  sites  became  villages, 
villages  towns  and  towns  cities  almost  before  the  echo  of  the  first  locomotive's  whistle  had 
died  out  across  the  plains.  Indian  reservations  became  things  of  the  past,  and  fruit  was 
grown  which  rivaled  the  products  of  Florida  and  California.  The  new  cities,  so  overgrown 
as  to  be  backward  in  the  frontier  dress,  needed  help.  Water  works,  gas  and  electric  lights, 
street  railways,  telephones  and  other  such  conveniences  were  necessary  but  the  communities 
were  not  strong  enough  to  stand  the  inaugural  expense.  St.  Louis  had  faith  in  their 
future,  and  readily  gave  her  assistance,  taking  pleasure  in  playing  the  part  of  an  elder 
sister  intensely  interested  in  the  welfare  of  the  younger  children. 

As  an  indication  of  the  volume  of  business  St.  Louis  has  with  the  southwest,  the  fol- 
lowing figures  are  instructive:  The  total  number  of  tons  of  freight  shipped  out  of  St. 
Louis  in  1907  was  18,374,916;  of  this,  10,537,291  tons,  or  57  per  cent  was  for  the  south- 
west. The  total  number  of  tons  of  freight  shipped  into  St.  Louis  the  same  year  was 
29,445,669;  of  this,  15,146,725  tons,  or  51  per  cent,  was  from  the  southwest. 

This  section  has  always  looked  to  the  financial  institutions  of  St.  Louis,  and  has  never 
found  them  unwilling  to  do  all  in  their  power.  Every  bank  in  Arkansas  keeps  an  account 
with  some  St.  Louis  bank  or  trust  company,  and  this  can  also  be  said  of  nearly  every  bank 
in  the  other  southwestern  states.  The  great  service  that  St.  Louis  performs  with  out-of- 
town  banks,  mostly  located  in  the  southwest,  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  between  January  2 
and  October  31  of  this  year,  a  period  of  ten  months,  the  St.  Louis  banks  and  trust  com- 
panies shipped  $104,412,729  in  currency,  gold  and  silver  to  their  correspondents  for  the 
purpose  of  handling  and  moving  crops  and  for  other  industrial  and  commercial  purposes. 
During  this  same  period  they  received  $67,681,979  in  cash,  making  a  total  of  $172,094,704, 
which  represents  what  St.  Louis  is  doing  as  a  financial  center. 


487 

In  1910  the  St.  Louis  wholesale  dry  goods  houses  sold  goods  to  the  value 
of  more  than  $70,000,000.  They  received  and  distributed  the  output  of  ninety- 
two  factories,  most  of  them  in  St.  Louis  or  in  the  immediate  vicinity.  The 
marked  feature  in  the  evolution  of  the  dry  goods  business  of  St.  Louis  was  the 
increasing  dependence  of  St.  Louis  houses  upon  the  products  of  St.  Louis  fac- 
tories making  shirts,  hose,  underwear  and  other  kinds  of  wearing  apparel. 
Through  this  combination  of  productive  and  distributive  commerce  St.  Louis 
merchants  were  able  to  obtain  large  government  contracts  in  competitive  bids 
in  the  New  York  market. 

The  sales  of  St.  Louis  manufacturers  and  jobbers  of  drugs  in  1910  were 
$28,000,000,  of  which  amount  more  than  one-half  was  of  local  manufacture, 
including  chemicals,  patent  medicines,  ammonia,  soaps,  perfumes  and  toilet 
articles. 

In  distributive  commerce  St.  Louis  has  higher  rank  than  the  fourth  city 
when  certain  lines  are  considered.  This  is  the  largest  dry  goods  market  west  of 
the  Alleghanies;  the  largest  hardwood  lumber  market  in  America;  the  largest 
horse  and  mule  market  in  the  world ;  the  second  largest  millinery  market  in  this 
country;  the  largest  inland  coffee  distributing  point;  the  largest  distributor  of 
shoes.  St.  Louis  has  the  largest  hardware  house,  the  largest  woodenware  house, 
the  largest  drug  house  in  the  United  States. 


CHAPTER  XX. 
THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 

Pastors  and  Citizens — Long  and  Notable  Careers  of  Truman  M.  Post  and  James  H.  Brookes — 
How  Montgomery  Schuyler  Faced  the  War  Issue — Archbishop  Kenrick's  Busy  Days — 
Thomas  Morrison's  Sixty  Years  of  Religious  Heroism — The  First  Mass  Under  the  Trees 
— The  First  Church — Civic  Proclamations  on  the  Door — Clmrch  and  State  Under  the 
Spanish  Governors — The  First  Protestant  Preacher — How  Trudeau  Winked  at  Baptist 
Meetings — The  Pioneer  of  Presbyterianism — Rev.  Salmon  Giddings'  Ride  of  1,200  Miles — 
Contributors  to  the  First  Presbyterian  Meeting  House — Coming  of  Bishop  Dubourg — 
Cathedral  Treasures  of  1821 — Rosati,  First  Bishop  of  St.  Louis — When  Rev.  Mr.  Potts 
was  "the  Rage" — Mormons  in  St.  Louis — Hero  of  the  Cholera  of  1835 — Baptism  of 
Sixteen  Hollanders — The  Religious  Life  as  Charles  Dickens  Saw  It — Close  Association 
of  Kenrick  and  Ryan — The  Walthers  and  the  Lutherans — Religious  Journalism — Bishop 
Tuttle's  Missionary  Experience — New  Churches  of  igoo-io — The  New  Cathedral — An 
Imposing  Ceremonial — The  Issue  of  Sabbath  Observance — Father  Matthew's  Visit  to  St. 
Louis — "The  Great  Controversy" — Rise  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A. — Evolution  of  the  Provident 
Association — The  Character  of  St.  Louis  Philanthropy. 

Seventy  years  is  a  long  time  in  the  life  of  an  individual.  It  marks  the  scriptural  limit  of 
our  earthly  pilgrimage.  Men  say  of  one  who  reaches  it,  "He  has  passed  his  prime ;  his  best  days 
are  over."  For  him,  morning  with  its  hopes  and  noontide  with  its  labors  are  gone.  For  him, 
there  remain  the  sunset  and  the  gloom  and  the  pensive  memories  of  bygone  days.  The  earthly 
hopes  that  come  to  him  are  as  passing  birds  that  light  on  the  trees  of  autumn  to  sing  their 
songs  among  the  sere  and  falling  leaves,  and  then  fly  away.  But  while  the  individual  dies,  the 
race  lives  on,  ever  renewing  itself.  Generation  succeeds  generation ;  instead  of  the  fathers 
are  the  children,  made  wiser  and  enriched  by  the  dowry  of  the  past.  Upon  this  church  seventy 
years  have  not  left  any  marks  of  decrepitude,  or  weakness  of  any  kind.  We  cross  the  line  with 
undiminished  numbers,  with  unbroken  harmony  among  us,  with  our  organizations  for  Christian 
work  multiplied,  with  our  material  resources  enlarged,  and,  above  all,  still  steadfast  in  the 
faith  that  gave  such  vitality  in  the  past.  The  onward  movement  of  the  church  of  the  living 
God  is  the  mid-current  of  human  history.  The  eternal  purpose  of  God  is  in  it,  and  it  is  not 
limited  by  time.  Age  and  decay  can  never  destroy  it. — Rev.  Dr.  Samuel  J.  Niccolls,  Second 
Presbyterian  Anniversary,  1908. 

Pastors  for  life  St.  Louis  has  had  in  numbers  and  in  characters  extraordi- 
nary. Church  leaders  and  teachers  who  are  permanently  located,  who  acquire 
personal  interest  in  all  that  concerns  other  citizens,  who  have  home  ties,  who 
thrill  with  local  pride,  contribute  far  more  to  the  religious  life  of  the  com- 
munity than  is  implied  in  pulpit  ministrations.  St.  Louis  has  had  the  benefit 
of  clergy  of  the  lifelong  kind. 

Strong  personalities  have  been  developed  in  the  religious  as  well  as  in 
the  professional,  in  the  business  and  in  the  political  life  of  St.  Louis.  Truman 
M.  Post  was  the  son  of  a  Middlebury,  Vermont,  lawyer.  Highly  educated,  he 
came  to  St.  Louis  in  1833  to  enter  he  law  office  of  Hamilon  R.  Gamble.  A 
visit  to  Jacksonville  led  to  a  connection,  as  instructor,  with  Illinois  college.  At 
the  same  time  Mr.  Post  occupied  the  pulpit  of  a  new  Congregational  church  in 
Jacksonville.  He  declined  to  be  "licensed"  to  preach  because  that  implied  some 
spiritual  authority  over  both  preacher  and  people.  He  went  into  the  ministry 
on  a  "recommendation."  The  Third  Presbyterian  church  heard  of  the  eloquent 
young  professor  of  Illinois  college  and  sent  for  him.  This  congregation  was  an 
offshoot  of  the  First  Presbyterian,  formed  in  1842.  It  worshipped  on  Sixth 

489 


490  ST.   LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

street  between  Franklin  avenue  and  Wash  street.  Mr.  Post  replied  to  the  in- 
vitation that  he  considered  the  holding  of  human  beings  as  property  to  be  in 
violation  of  the  foundation  principles  of  the  Christian  religion;  that  he  must  be 
guaranteed  liberty  of  opinion  and  freedom  of  speech  on  the  subject  of  slavery. 
Ten  years  before  that  time  a  Presbyterian  minister,  Elijah  P.  Lovejoy,  had 
been  threatened  for  what  he  printed  about  slavery  in  the  St.  Louis  Observer, 
had  removed  to  Alton  and  had  been  slain  by  a  mob. 

Mr.  Post  asked  that  his  views  on  slavery  be  read  to  the  Third  Presbyterian 
church  and  that  another  vote  be  taken  on  the  call  extended  to  him.  The  church 
listened  to  the  letter  and  unanimously  renewed  the  invitation.  Mr.  Post  came 
to  St.  Louis  under  an  arrangement  to  remain  four  years.  In  1852,  by  a  formal 
vote  of  sixty-seven  members,  the  Third  Presbyterian  became  a  Congregational 
church.  In  this  manner  the  seal  of  approval  was  put  upon  the  principles  of 
personal  liberty  and  of  personal  responsibility  advocated  by  the  pastor.  Mr. 
Post  became  Dr.  Post  through  the  action  of  Middlebury  college.  From  that 
year  the  First  Congregational  church  was  a  center  of  anti-slavery  sentiment 
on  moral  grounds.  The  society  moved  from  Sixth  street  to  Tenth  and  Locust 
streets  before  the  war  and  in  1879  to  Delmar  near  Grand  avenue.  Dr.  Post's 
active  pulpit  career  in  St.  Louis  was  thirty-four  years.  During  the  fourteen 
years  from  1847  to  1861,  this  man  of  profound  historical  study,  of  philosophic 
mind,  of  sturdy  sense  of  duty,  of  captivating  speech,  was  influential  far  beyond 
the  doors  of  his  church  for  the  abolition  of  slavery  and  for  the  maintenance  of 
the  Union. 

A  pulpit  career  remarkable  for  length  and  steadfastness  was  the  period  of 
thirty-nine  years  through  which  James  H.  Brookes  preached.  This  career  began 
with  the  Second  Presbyterian  church  when  it  was  on  Broadway  and  Locust 
in  1855,  and  ended  in  the  Compton  avenue  church.  Year  after  year  Dr.  Brookes 
ministered  to  the  same  congregation  with  unfailing  vigor  and  freshness.  He 
preached  from  the  Bible,  of  which  he  was  a  devoted  student.  He  edited  for 
twenty-three  years  a  monthly  publication  called  "The  Truth,"  and  found  time  to 
write  half  a  dozen  books,  the  results  of  his  Bible  study. 

Forty-two  years  Montgomery  Schuyler  was  a  well-doing  citizen  of  St.  Louis 
as  well  as  a  conspicuous,  constructive  clergyman.  He  was  preeminently  one  of 
the  St.  Louis  clergymen  whose  activities  were  not  limited  to  their  churches. 
His  influence  was  marked  upon  public  morals  and  upon  public  spirit.  The  list 
of  good  works  of  these  men  is  long  and  varied.  No  history  of  the  city  could 
omit  some  mention  of  the  profession  in  its  relation  to  the  better  development  of 
St.  Louis,  apart  from  the  growth  of  the  church.  When  Montgomery  Schuyler 
died  the  diocese  recorded  that  he  was  "a  typical  priest  of  the  church  and  a 
faithful  member  of  the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ."  Giving  up  the  practice  of  law 
because  he  had  acquitted  a  man  he  felt  sure  was  guilty  of  murder,  Montgomery 
Schuyler  speculated  in  a  Michigan  real  estate  boom;  he  operated  a  saw  mill; 
he  interested  himself  in  a  stage  line  between  Detroit  and  the  village  of  Chicago ; 
he  was  a  successful  merchant.  None  of  these  occupations  brought  satisfaction. 
Montgomery  Schuyler  turned  to  the  Episcopal  priesthood  when  he  was  well 
toward  thirty  years  of  age.  The  supreme  test  of  this  man's  character  came  with 
the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  war.  Christ  church,  on  Fifth  and  Chestnut,  had  been 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  491 

sold.  The  congregation  was  worshiping  in  Mercantile  Library  hall.  Included 
in  the  membership  were  many,  perhaps  a  majority,  who  sympathized  with  the 
south.  Of  the  old  Schuyler  stock  of  New  York,  with  Revolutionary  traditions 
of  the  family  binding  him,  the  rector  was  a  Union  man.  When  the  hostilities 
began  Dr.  Schuyler  talked  of  resigning.  He  made  no  concealment  of  his  politi- 
cal sentiments,  although  he  preached  no  political  sermons.  His  southern  mem- 
bers would  not  listen  to  any  change  of  rectors.  Montgomery  Schuyler  stayed 
on.  His  patriotism  found  expression  in  association  with  Yeatman,  Eliot  and  the 
rest  of  that  noble  band  which  became  glorious  as  the  Western  Sanitary  commis- 
sion. The  rector  of  Christ  church  was  made  chaplain  to  all  of  the  army  hospitals 
at  St.  Louis.  To  the  inherited  Dutch  courage  and  determination  which  yielded 
nothing  of  principle,  he  joined  a  wealth  of  sympathy,  ways  that  were  winning 
and  gentleness  of  manner.  It  was  Montgomery  Schuyler's  ambition  to  establish 
a  downtown  church.  Old  Trinity  of  New  York  was  his  ideal.  With  this  in 
view  the  location  at  Thirteenth  and  Locust  was  chosen.  It  was  part  of  his  life 
plan  to  found  a  mission  which  should  remain  in  the  business  section.  Mont- 
gomery Schuyler  ministered  to  rich  and  poor.  His  monument  is  Schuyler  Me- 
morial house. 

Notwithstanding  the  rule  of  the  Methodist  church  requiring  frequent  pulpit 
changes,  several  ministers  of  that  denomination  became  identified  with  St.  Louis 
by  long  residence  and  exercised  much  influence  upon  the  life  and  development 
of  the  city.  A  thorough  St;  Louisan  was  Rev.  Dr.  Joseph  Boyle,  born  in  Balti- 
more. He  came  to  this  city  in  1842  in  charge  of  the  First  Methodist  church. 
St.  Louis  was  practically  his  home  for  thirty  years,  until  his  death.  He  was  a 
delegate  to  the  general  conference  at  Louisville  in  1844  when  the  Methodists 
divided  into  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church  and  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
South.  Dr.  Boyle  labored  to  bring  about  reconciliation  of  the  wings.  The 
immediate  cause  of  the  division  was  the  proposition  advanced  that  Bishop 
Andrew  of  Georgia  be  asked  to  suspend  the  exercise  of  his  duties  so  long  as  a 
certain  impediment  existed.  The  impediment  was  the  fact  that  his  wife  owned 
slaves.  Dr.  Boyle  was  presiding  elder  of  the  St.  Louis  district  in  1860,  1868  and 
1869.  He  preached  in  the  First  church  three  periods ;  in  Centenary,  two. 

For  many  years  Archbishop  Kenrick  lived  at  the  residence  attached  to  the 
old  Cathedral  on  Walnut  street.  One  of  the  priests,  Father  O'Hanlon,  who  was 
there  in  the  late  forties,  left  this  pen  picture: 

"I  well  recollect,  the  archbishop  was  the  earliest  riser  in  the  house,  he  was  satis- 
fied with  a  few  hours'  rest;  and  especially  during  the  summer  mornings,  he  was  often 
up  at  four  and  rarely,  if  ever,  in  bed  after  five  o'clock.  Soon  afterwards  he  was  sys- 
tematically out  on  the  veranda,  pacing  noiselessly  in  slippers,  that  he  might  not  dis- 
turb others  who  were  sleeping,  while  he  was  engaged  devoutly  reciting  the  greater  part  of 
the  divine  office,  so  that  he  might  be  prepared  for  the  multiplied  daily  duties  and  labors, 
which  were  sure  to  occupy  his  attention  afterwards;  he  went  each  morning  into  the  con- 
fessional about  six  o'clock,  and  at  half  past  six  he  commenced  his  celebration  of  mass  in 
the  cathedral.  But  nothing  could  be  more  admirable  than  his  punctuality  in  the  distribu- 
tion of  time,  and  the  priests  all  noticed  his  early  morning  duties  succeeded  each  other 
regularly  as  the  clock  told  the  hour.  The  only  difference  observable  was  during  the  cold 
and  short  winter  days,  when  he  was  obliged  to  keep  his  room  and  read  by  the  lighted  lamp 
until  the  day  had  nearly  dawned,  and  when  he  was  ready  to  enter  the  cathedral. 
He  breakfasted  at  an  early  hour  and  then  he  usually  withdrew  to  the  library  which  was 


492  ST.   LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

retired  from  a  parlor  and  reception  room.  Some  snatches  of  time  he  managed  to  take  for 
reading  and  writing;  but  soon  a  succession  of  visitors  began  to  arrive,  and  while  he  specially 
desired  to  see  those  who  had  real  business  to  transact,  he  received  others  with  a  patience 
and  courtesy  which  often  must  have  been  greatly  tested  if  not  strained.  '  O  Dear ! '  he 
would  sometimes  pleasantly  remark  to  his  priests  at  the  table,  'how  some  people  can  never 
learn  to  shorten  their  unnecessary  visits  ? '  While  he  often  observed  that  the  more  he  found 
persons  disposed  to  indulge  in  talk,  the  less  was  he  prepared  to  receive  either  correct  in- 
formation or  practical  suggestions  on  those  affairs  which  interested  and  engaged  his  at- 
tention. The  most  distinguished  citizens  and  strangers,  Catholic  or  Protestant,  were  often 
to  be  seen  in  his  ante-room  waiting  their  turn  for  an  interview,  and  always  more  than  de 
lighted  when  the  opportunity  was  afforded  them. 

"It  was  a  truly  pleasant  reunion  to  have  our  archbishop  present  at  our  early  dinnei 
and  at  our  evening  meal.  Notwithstanding  his  habitual  reserve,  regarding  matters  of 
confidential  secrecy,  and  of  business  transactions  which  were  under  consideration,  he  was 
communicative  enough  on  other  topics,  always  giving  a  tone  to  and  leading  conversation  on 
subjects  of  public  interest  and  importance,  or  relating  anecdotes  which  were  novel  and  in- 
structive, while  he  promoted  hilarity  and  good  humor  by  the  introduction  of  sly  jokes,  and 
a  refinement  of  wit,  which  the  French  and  German  priests  could  not  always  well  under- 
stand in  the  English  idiom  until  they  had  time  for  reflection  and  explanation.  Some- 
times he  conversed  with  them  in  their  respective  languages,  which  he  spoke  with  remarkable 
fluency  and  correctness.  He  often  preached  both  in  French  and  German,  as  circumstances 
of  church  congregation  required.  I  heard  from  himself  that  the  celebrated  and  gifted 
Irish  poet,  James  Clarence  Mangan,  gave  him  the  first  German  lessons  in  Dublin;  and  he 
always  had  the  most  unbounded  admiration  for  the  genius,  and  also  compassion  and  con- 
sideration for  the  weakness  of  his  former  tutor,  whose  latter  years  were  clouded  with 
timorousness  or  melancholy,  and  who,  notwithstanding  his  occasional  inebriety,  was  a  most 
gentle  and  lovable  character.  The  extent  of  the  archbishop's  charities  could  never  be  known 
from  himself;  however,  I  suspect  the  unfortunate  poet  knew  well  where  to  find  a  benefactor 
in  his  former  distinguished  pupil,  nor  would  aid  be  refused  if  prudence  did  not  suggest  the 
propriety  of  not  ministering  to  gratifications  which  tend  to  make  some  men  their  greatest 
enemies. ' ' 

The  quality  of  religious  heroism  came  out  strong  and  not  infrequently 
among  the  laymen  of  the  city.  Thomas  F.  Webb  opened  a  little  Sunday  school 
with  twenty  scholars  in  a  small  frame  house  at  Sixth  and  Carr  streets  in  1840. 
After  half  a  dozen  years  the  owner  of  the  land  wanted  it.  The  frame  build- 
ing was  lifted  on  trucks  and  hauled  to  Fourteenth  and  Carr  streets,  where 
Judge  Carr  offered  a  temporary  location.  As  the  school  grew  the  building 
was  enlarged  to  accommodate  350.  In  1848  Thomas  Morrison  became  the 
superintendent.  For  sixty  years  thereafter  this  man  carried  on  a  work  peculiarly 
his  own  with  a  degree  of  devotion  which  made  his  personality  of  more  than 
local  interest.  To  get  additional  room  he  moved  the  school  to  a  hall  in  the 
Biddle  market,  and  the  Biddle  market  mission  was  cited  a  model  for  mission 
work  in  other  cities.  The  number  of  scholars  increased  to  over  1,000.  A 
church,  "the  First  Independent  church  of  St.  Louis,"  was  started  in  1864. 
Mr.  Morrison  sold  his  home  and  added  to  it  all  of  the  money  he  could  spare 
to  build  on  Sixteenth  and  Carr  streets.  After  $37,000  had  been  spent  the 
place  was  sold  under  a  mortgage.  Carlos  S.  Greeley  took  the  property,  com- 
pleted the  church  and  presented  it  to  the  trustees  of  the  mission.  At  that  time, 
in  1880,  the  Memorial  Tabernacle,  for  that  was  the  name  Rev.  Dr.  Niccolls  be- 
stowed upon  it,  was  pronounced  the  largest  and  finest  building  in  the  United 
States  for  Sunday  school  purposes. 


Signers  of  the  agreement  to  build  the  first  church  in  St.   Louis,  1770,  six  years  after  the 

founding.    Autographs  of  Laclede  and  the  Spanish  Governor,  Piernas,  at  the  bottom. 

(Courtesy  Missouri  Historical  Society) 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  493 

When  Thomas  Morrison  died,  in  1908,  the  scenes  and  the  testimonies  at 
his  bier,  told  eloquently  what  a  place  he  had  occupied  in  the  life  of  the  city. 
Barefooted  boys  and  bankers,  men  with  dinner  buckets  and  men  who  manage 
great  industries  came.  A  laboring  man  said: 

"I  went  to  school  to  him  in  1863.  It  was  in  the  old  mission  over  the  Biddle  Market. 
I  haven't  made  such  a  great  success  as  the  world  goes,  but  I've  lived  a  Christian  life 
and  reared  my  children  Christians,  all  on  account  of  him." 

James  W.  Bell,  the  banker,  told  of  the  esteem  in  which  Thomas  Morrison  was  held: 

"In  1898,  upon  the  fiftieth  anniversay  of  the  organization  of  this  mission,  Mr. 
Morrison  gave  away  3,000  bibles,  each  with  his  autograph  and  a  small  American  flag  of 
jilk  pasted  inside.  I  have  one  of  those  bibles  now  at  home  upon  my  center  table  and 
prize  it  highly.  There  will  never  be  another  Thomas  Morrison  in  St.  Louis.  He  was 
unique.  He  was  the  means  of  saving  thousands  of  men  and  women.  I  was  a  steady 
contributor  to  his  mission  for  fifty  years.  We  all  loved  to  help  him.  When  we  saw  him 
come  in  we  threw  up  our  hands  and  said:  'How  much,  Tom?'  ' 

In  the  newspaper  accounts  of  the  funeral  of  Thomas  Morrison  were  de- 
scribed these  scenes: 

In  the  procession  of  mourners  were  three  generations  of  one  family,  a  grandmother, 
her  daughter  and  little  grandson.  The  grandmother  was  a  pupil  in  the  Biddle  Mission 
Sunday  School  sixty  years  ago.  Her  daughter  was  a  pupil  there  thirty  years  ago,  and 
her  little  boy  is  a  member  of  the  same  Sunday  School  now,  all  reared  in  the  love  of  God 
through  the  influence  of  this  one  man.  The  three  generations  went  into  the  mission 
together  and  stopped  at  the  coffin.  The  mother  lifted  her  little  boy  up  so  he  could  see 
the  face  they  all  loved  so  much.  As  they  went  out  the  grandmother  said: 

"I  wanted  the  child  to  carry  in  his  memory  the  face  of  the  man  who  did  so  much 
for  us.  He  was  the  means  of  our  salvation." 

In  the  crowd  was  an  old  Irish  woman,  a  devout  member  of  the  Catholic  church.  After 
she  had  looked  at  the  face  in  the  coffin,  she  said: 

"He  was  a  great  and  good  man.  I  knew  of  his  good  works  for  forty  years  in  this 
district,  and  though  he  didn't  die  in  the  church  I'd  like  to  have  seen  him  die  in,  he  must 
surely  be  in  heaven." 

A  woman  in  a  magnificent  motor  car  rode  up  to  the  mission  door  at  one  o'clock  and 
alone  climbed  the  dingy  stairway  to  the  mission  room.  Her  tears  fell  upon  the  glass  plate 
covering  the  face  and  without  speaking  to  anyone  she  walked  out,  got  into  her  car  and 
went  away. 

"Some  woman  he  saved.     There  are  many  of  them,"  said  a  mourner. 

Frederick  Diebel,  president  of  the  National  Storage  and  Warehouse  company,  told 
that  he  had  in  his  safe  a  large  number  of  chattel  mortgages  upon  furniture  of  poor  fam- 
ilies which  were  given  him  by  Mr.  Morrison.  When  a  family  of  Mr.  Morrison's  ac- 
quaintance had  its  furniture  mortgaged  and  was  about  to  lose  it  he  would  pay  the  mort- 
gage and  have  it  transferred  to  him  and  lock  it  in  the  safe  so  the  family  would  be  out 
of  debt  and  could  not  again  mortgage  its  furniture.  In  this  way  he  saved  many  a  family 
from  its  own  improvidence. 

John  H.  Both,  secretary  of  the  Adam  Both  Grocery  company,  told  of  the  times  when 
he  was  in  the  mission. 

"It  was  a  mighty  tough  neighborhood  here  in  the  early  days,  and  Mr.  Morrison 
had  lots  of  trouble  with  gangs  who  broke  up  his  benches,  threw  stones  through  the 
windows  and  did  other  mischievous  things.  Once  a  gang  of  bad  boys  planned  to  break 
up  the  Sunday  school  by  starting  a  fight.  Mr.  Morrison  learned  of  it,  and  he  got  a 
stout  rattan  cane  and  hid  it  in  the  lobby.  Then  he  instructed  his  teachers  that  when  he 
gave  a  certain  signal  they  were  all  to  start  singing  and  keep  on  until  he  gave  a  signal 
to  stop.  At  the  appointed  time  the  disturbance  started  and  Mr.  Morrison  sprang  into 
the  midst  of  it,  grabbed  the  ringleader  by  the  collar,  dragged  him  out  into  the  lobby  and 
flogged  him  into  submission  with  the  rattan  cane.  Then  be  set  the  young  man  down  and 
talked  to  him  and  he  and  his  gang  were  loyal  members  of  the  Sunday  school  from  that 
time. ' ' 


494  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

A  big  fellow  who  had  listened  to   this   story  grinned  when   it   was   ended   and   said: 
"I'm  that  fellow,  I'm  the  ringleader  he  whipped  and  it  was  the  making  of  me." 
One    of    the    ushers    at   the    funeral    was    Joseph   B.    Farmer,    vice    president    of    the 

Blanke-Wenneker    Candy    company.      He    was    a    member    of    the    mission    Sunday    school 

and  was  married  in  the  mission.     Once  when  Mr.  Farmer  went  with  his  wife  and  daughter 

to  visit  the  mission  Mr.  Morrison  met  him  with: 
"Ah,  here's  another  one  of  my  boys." 
A  block  away  from  the  mission  in  the  midst  of  the  congested  district  there  is  a  saloon, 

the  keeper  of  it  said: 

"I'd  like  to  go  to  the  funeral  myself  for  if  ever  there  was  a  good  man  it  was  Mr. 

Morrison.     I  was  in  his  Sunday  school  myself  and  I've  given  him  many  a  dollar  since  to 

help  the  poor.     He  was  a  good  man.     It  didn't  make  a  bit  of  difference  who  you  were, 

Mr.  Morrison  would  never  turn  you  down  if  you  were  in  need." 

The  founder  of  St.  Louis  did  not  neglect  religious  ceremony  in  the  early 
days  of  the  settlement.  Across  the  river,  at  Cahokia,  was  Father  Sebastian 
L.  Meurin,  a  man  of  zeal  and  courage,  who  had  been  a  missionary  at  Vin- 
cennes,  and  in  the  country  of  the  Illinois,  five  years,  when  Laclede  arrived. 
Father  Meurin  was  absent  when  Auguste  Chouteau  and  the  first  thirty  were 
clearing  ground  and  cutting  trees  for  the  cabins  at  Main  and  Walnut  streets. 
When  he  returned  to  Cahokia  he  took  his  canoe  and  crossed  the  river.  He 
called  the  settlers  together,  improvised  an  altar  among  the  trees,  celebrated  mass 
and  blessed  the  site.  Until  St.  Louis  had  attained  the  importance  which  en- 
couraged the  coming  of  a  priest  to  make  his  residence  here.  Father  Meurin  visited 
the  settlement  as  often  as  he  could  and  held  religious  services,  either  out-of-doors 
or  in  tent.  Many  years  later  the  bones  of  the  good  missionary  who  had  stood 
church  sponsor  for  the  village  were  brought  to  St.  Louis,  grown  to  be  a  great 
city,  and  given  honored  burial. 

Father  Pierre  Gibault,  the  patriot  priest  who  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
American  colonies  against  England,  came  to  St.  Louis  from  Kaskaskia  and  re- 
mained some  time,  perhaps  eighteen  months.  But  there  were  periods  of  weeks 
and  months  when  the  villagers  of  St.  Louis  had  no  priest.  Deaths  occurred. 
Rene  Kiersereau,  the  "chantre,"  or  singer  of  the  church,  performed  the  last 
rites  and  recited  the  prayers. 

The  old  cathedral  register  of  St.  Louis  begins  with  1766,  when  it  is  stated 
Father  Meurin  administered  baptism  in  a  tent.  After  that  the  register  records 
the  coming  of  Father  Meurin  from  Cahokia  twice  a  year  or  oftener  to  hold  serv- 
ices and  perform  the  rites.  That  went  on  for  six  years.  Then  Father  Gibault 
occasionally  came  up  from  Kaskaskia  and  administered  the  sacraments.  Father 
Gibault  was  the  patriot  who  espoused  the  American  cause.  About  1772  a 
priest  came  to  St.  Louis  to  live.  He  was  Father  Valentin,  a  Capuchin  friar. 
The  book  which  he  opened  for  a  record  was,  to  translate  the  original,  "to  in- 
scribe the  baptisms  of  the  parish  of  St.  Louis,  country  of  the  Illinois,  Province  of 
Louisiana,  Bishopric  of  St.  James  of  Cuba."  Thus  St.  Louis,  religiously  speak- 
ing was  put  on  the  map  in  1772.  Two  years  after  he  came  the  parish  had  pros- 
pered to  the  extent  that,  in  1774,  Father  Valentin  blessed  a  bell  for  church 
purposes.  The  first  church  was  built  a  little  later.  The  families  who  partici- 
pated in  the  building  of  the  church  numbered  seventy-eight.  In  1776,  about 
the  middle  of  summer,  the  records  show  that  the  church  was  completed.  It 
stood  a  few  feet  east  of  the  present  site  of  the  old  cathedral.  It  was  of  posts 


REV.  DR.  THOMAS  M.  FINNEY 


THOMAS  MORRISON 


UNION   PRESBYTERIAN   CHURCH 
Eleventh  and  Locust  streets,  in  1857 


SECOND  PRESBYTERIAN  CHURCH 
Fifth  and  Walnut  streets,  before  the  war 


THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  49o 

planted  upright,  with  overhanging  roof,  sixty  feet  long  and  thirty  feet  wide  with 
a  porch  five  feet  wide. 

Father  Valentin  referred  to  himself  in  his  documents  as  "priest  of  the 
parish  of  St.  Louis  and  its  dependencies."  There  had  not  been  much  formality 
about  the  coming  of  Father  Valentin.  But  in  1776,  in  May,  a  couple  of  months 
before  the  American  Declaration  of  Independence,  Father  Bernard  arrived  with 
elaborate  credentials  to  take  charge.  He  was  designated  as  "cure  of  the  paro- 
chial church  of  St.  Louis  of  the  Illinois,  post  of  Paincourt,  with  all  rights  and 
dependencies."  Up  to  this  time  St.  Louis  had  been  recognized  only  as  a 
missionary  field.  Now  it  was  to  become  a  regularly  constituted  parish.  Father 
Bernard  presented  these  credentials  to  Governor  Cruzat,  who  witnessed  them 
and  filed  them  in  the  government  archives  of  St.  Louis.  The  front  door  of 
the  church  became  the  public  place  for  proclamations  of  various  kinds,  for 
sales  of  property  under  official  decree  and  for  a  variety  of  formal  acts.  At 
the  church  door  were  carried  out  certain  sentences.  There  Baptiste  Menard 
was  compelled  to  stand  at  the  close  of  devotions  one  Sunday  and  ask  pardon 
of  God,  the  king  and  Mrs.  Petit  for  what  he  had  "said  of  Mrs.  Petit,  maliciously 
and  wrongfully,  while  under  the  influence  of  drink."  Church  and  state  were 
closely  united  while  St.  Louis  was  a  colony.  Father  Bernard  gave  place  to 
Father  Ledru  in  1789,  and  Father  Didier  came  in  1793,  planting  an  orchard 
which  became  one  of  the  institutions  of  St.  Louis  a  decade  later.  Father  Janin 
succeeded  Father  Didier  in  1800.  The  year  before  that  the  bishop  at  New 
Orleans  wrote  to  St.  Louis  of  the  steps  which  were  to  be  taken  to  reach  the 
English  and  American  settlers,  to  convert  all  immigrants  to  the  Catholic  religion. 
The  register  from  1800  shows  that  besides  the  regularly  stationed  priests  at 
St.  Louis  mentioned,  missionary  priests  were  coming  from  time  to  time  and 
officiating  in  St.  Louis.  From  the  time  of  the  American  occupation,  the  records 
of  the  cathedral  show  entries  by  several  priests.  In  1811  Father  Savine  came 
and  for  half  a  dozen  years  was  an  influential  member  of  the  community. 

The  log  church  gave  place  to  brick,  a  large  structure  located  on  Second 
and  Walnut  streets.  The  building  of  this  brick  church  was  begun  in  1818  and 
the  first  service  was  held  in  it  Christmas,  1819.  It  was  time,  for  Father  de 
Andreis  left  the  record  that  the  log  church  "was  falling  into  ruins."  At  that 
time,  in  all  of  Upper  Louisiana,  the  territory  of  Missouri,  there  were  four 
priests  and  seven  chapels.  The  brick  church  preceded  the  cathedral. 

Church  and  state  were  closely  united  in  the  days  of  the  Spanish  governors 
of  St.  Louis.  When  it  became  necessary  to  fill  a  vacancy  the  bishop  at  New 
Orleans  wrote  to  Governor  Delassus,  in  November,  1799. 

"Don  Pedro  Janin,  priest  of  this  parish,  has  been  appointed  rector  in  San  Luis  de 
Illinois  on  account  of  the  death  of  Don  Pedro  Didier.  I  request  you  to  kindly  give  him 
all  the  attention  and  assistance  possible  so  that  he  can  discharge  the  duties  of  this  posi- 
tion to  the  best  advantage  and  service  of  the  Lord  and  King.  He  is  a  very  good  per- 
son and  deserves  the  attention  of  everybody  in  public  office  as  well  as  of  yourself  as  com- 
inander.  I  hope  you  will  attend  to  my  request,  praying  that  the  Lord  will  keep  you  many 
years. ' ' 

Governor  Delassus  received  the  priest  and  in  due  time  replied  to  the 
bishop : 


496  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

"To  his  Grace,  the  Bishop:  The  Father  Don  Pedro  Janin  has  arrived  here.  And  due 
fo  your  recommendation  I  will  do  all  in  my  power  to  favor  him  and  I  shall  be  pleased 
to  serve  him  all  I  can,  and  I  am  sure  I  shall  enjoy  his  company.  I  remain,  asking  your 
blessing  and  praying  the  Lord  to  keep  you  many  years." 

Liberality  of  the  Spanish  authority  at  St.  Louis  extended  to  religion  as 
well  as  to  government.  When  Americans  came  to  settle  in  the  village  or  in 
the  surrounding  country  the  Spanish  governor  informed  them  officially  that 
the  law  required  every  resident  to  be  "un  bon  Catholique."  Then  he  proceeded 
to  put  some  very  general  questions  as  to  spiritual  opinions.  He  concluded 
by  declaring  the  answers  were  satisfactory,  and  that  the  newcomers  were  evi- 
dently good  Catholics  and  could  remain.  It  is  not  of  record  that  otherwise 
desirable  Americans  were  turned  back  from  St.  Louis  because  of  their  religious 
convictions.  John  Clark,  a  Scotchman,  was  the  first  Baptist  preacher  and 
probably  the  first  Protestant  preacher  to  hold  services  in  the  vicinity  of  St. 
Louis.  He  and  a  man  named  Talbot  started  the  denomination  in  St.  Louis 
county  by  immersing  each  other.  Clark,  for  some  years,  lived  on  the  Illinois 
side,  crossed  over  by  night  near  St.  Louis  and  held  his  meetings.  The  Spanish 
governor  waited  until  he  thought  the  Baptist  preacher  had  about  completed 
his  round  of  visits  among  the  American  Protestant  families  and  then  sent 
him  word  he  must  leave  within  three  days  or  he  would  be  imprisoned  as  the 
teaching  of  the  Protestant  faith  was  in  violation  of  the  Spanish  laws.  The 
Rev.  John  Clark  would  smile,  hold  a  farewell  service  and  go  back  to  the  Illinois 
side,  to  repeat  his  missionary  trip  a  little  later.  The  liberality  of  Governor 
Trudeau  was  put  to  a  rather  severe  test  when  Abraham  Musick  called  at  govern- 
ment house  and  boldly  asked  for  a  permit  to  hold  Baptist  meetings  in  his  house 
out  in  the  county.  The  governor  denied  the  petition  and  quoted  the  law.  Then 
looking  significantly  at  the  sturdy  Kentuckian,  he  added: 

I  mean  you  must  not  put  a  bell  on  your  house  and  call  it  a  church  or  suffer  any- 
body to  christen  your  children  except  the  parish  priest,  but  if  your  friends  choose  to 
meet  in  your  house  to  sing,  pray  and  talk  about  religion,  you  will  not  be  molested,  pro- 
vided you  continue,  as  of  course  you  are,  a  good  Catholic. 

The  pioneer  of  Presbyterianism  in  St.  Louis  was  a  Connecticut  man,  Rev. 
Salmon  Giddings.  Appointed  a  missionary,  he  rode  horseback  1,200  miles, 
in  winter,  arriving  here  in  April,  1816.  He  organized  the  First  Presbyterian 
church  in  St.  Louis  with  nine  members.  As  his  chief  means  of  support  Mr. 
Giddings  conducted  a  school  for  girls  on  Market  street  opposite  the  courthouse. 
The  missionary  spirit  prompted  him  to  go  among  the  newcomers  in  the  vicinity 
of  St.  Louis  and  to  gather  them  into  congregations.  In  this  way  he  organized 
twelve  Presbyterian  churches.  He  got  together  in  his  school  room  a  number 
of  St.  Louisans  and  organized  a  society  to  distribute  Bibles.  It  is  told  of 
one  of  the  churches  Salmon  Giddings  organized  that  the  pastor  who  was  in- 
stalled over  it,  Charles  S.  Robinson,  a  Massachusetts  man,  was  at  one  time 
"entirely  out  of  money  and  out  of  food  for  his  family,  but  just  when  his  need 
was  greatest  he  found  a  silver  dollar  imbedded  in  the  earth,  which  sufficed 
for  all  his  wants  until  a  more  permanent  supply  came." 

The  First  Presbyterian  church,  on  Fourteenth  and  Lucas  place  was  dedi- 
cated in  1855,  a  funeral  hymn  was  sung  just  after  the  sermon.  In  the  midst 
of  the  singing  the  body  of  Rev.  Salmon  Giddings,  who  had  died  twenty-seven- 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  497 

years  previously,  was  carried  in  and  deposited  in  a  vault  below  the  pulpit.  The 
men  who  officiated  as  pallbearers  were  among  the  wealthiest  and  best  known 
men  of  St.  Louis.  John  O'Fallon  and  Jesse  'Lindell,  were  two  of  them. 

When  the  nine  pioneers  organized  the  First  Presbyterian  church  in  Novem- 
ber, 1817,  they  drew  up  and  signed  an  agreement  or  covenant  to  watch  over 
each  other  and  to  regulate  their  lives  in  a  "spirit  of  Christian  meekness,"  and 
to  maintain  the  worship  of  God  in  their  homes.  Stephen  Hempstead,  Sr.,  and 
Thomas  Osborne  were  chosen  leaders.  Church  building  has  always  been  linked 
with  good  citizenship  -in  St.  Louis.  Business  men  have  aided  such  enterprises 
on  the  broad  principle  that  a  city  cannot  have  too  many  or  too  fine  churches. 
The  congregation  worshipped  in  the  room  where  Mr.  Giddings  carried  on  the 
school  to  support  himself.  When  the  time  seemed  favorable,  financially,  for 
the  building  of  the  First  Presbyterian  church  in  St.  Louis,  the  little  congrega- 
tion had  the  substantial  sympathy  of  the  whole  community.  A  public  meeting 
was  held  to  start  the  subscription  paper.  Alexander  McNair,  who  became  the 
first  governor  of  Missouri,  was  the  chairman  of  that  meeting.  Thomas  H. 
Benton,  afterwards  the  thirty  years  senator,  was  the  secretary.  When  the 
paper  was  passed  around  Catholic  business  men  put  down  their  subscriptions 
freely.  The  largest  contribution  was  $200,  given  by  Matthew  Kerr.  In  the 
class  of  $50  subscribers  were  three  of  the  most  prominent  members  of  the  old 
Cathedral  parish.  John  Quincy  Adams,  who  became  President,  sent  a  subscrip- 
tion of  $25.  The  site  for  the  church,  the  west  side  of  Fourth  street,  near 
Washington  avenue,  was  purchased  for  $327.  When  Salmon  Giddings  died 
2,000  people,  half  of  the  population  of  St.  Louis,  attended  the  funeral. 

The  Second  Baptist  church  became  that  number  because  the  First  Baptist 
church,  after  a  struggle  of  fourteen  years,  disbanded.  The  first  church  organ- 
ized in  1818,  but  assumed  a  financial  burden  too  heavy  for  the  membership. 
When  John  Mason  Peck,  from  Connecticut,  and  James  Eby  Welch,  from  Ken- 
tucky, the  missionaries,  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1817,  they  could  find  only  seven 
Baptists.  They  organized  a  church  with  eleven  members.  That  year,  1818, 
this  little  Baptist  flock  began  to  build  the  first  Protestant  church  in  St.  Louis, 
at  Market  and  Third  streets,  about  two  blocks  from  the  Catholic  church,  now 
the  old  Cathedral.  The  Baptists  planned  a  building  which  should  serve  for 
worship,  and  bring  in  revenue.  They  called  it  a  meeting  house.  The  structure 
was  of  brick,  was  forty  feet  wide,  sixty  feet  long  and  three  stories  high.  It 
Was  never  fully  completed.  About  $6,000  was  expended.  Mr.  Welch,  the 
missionary,  advanced  $1,200  and  John  Jacoby,  the  treasurer,  $600.  St.  Louis 
became  a  city,  and  widened  Market  street,  cutting  a  slice  of  twelve  feet  off  the 
side  of  the  church.  The  Baptists  claimed  damages.  The  city  replied  that 
a  church  was  not  known  in  law,  and  that  church  trustees  could  not  recover 
damages.  About  that  time  a  hail  storm  broke  all  of  the  windows  on  the  north 
side.  The  mayor  wouldn't  permit  repairs  because  that  side  of  the  church  had 
been  condemned  as  public  property.  The  church  was  sold  for  $1,200,  and  the 
money  was  divided  between  Rev.  Mr.  Welch  and  the  widow  of  Trustee  Jacoby. 
The  first  church  disbanded,  and  the  members  went  into  a  new  organization, 
which  they  called  "the  Second  Baptist  church  of  St.  Louis,"  frankly  saying 
that  they  wanted  to  make  a  fresh  start  without  carrying  the  debts  of  the  other 
organization. 

6- VOL.  II. 


498  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

George  W.  Ogden,  a  Quaker  merchant  of  New  Bedford,  Massachusetts, 
visited  St.  Louis  in  1821.  He  was  greatly  impressed  with  the  site  and  its 
surroundings.  He  wrote:  "For  its  beauty  in  point  of  location  and  healthful- 
ness,  it  can  scarcely  be  surpassed  by  any  place  in  the  world,  and  may  justly 
be  called  'the  Great  City  of  the  West.'  At  this  place  they  have  five  large, 
elegant  new  brick  meeting  houses  of  public  worship,  comprising  the  different 
denominations." 

The  existence  of  the  diocese  of  St.  Louis  dates  from  July,  1826.  But  St. 
Louis  was  the  residence  of  a  bishop  many  years  earlier.  Louis  William  Valen- 
tine Dubourg  was  consecrated  bishop  of  New  Orleans  in  1815.  The  ceremony 
took  place  in  Rome.  Almost  immediately  Bishop  Dubourg  asked  to  have  the 
diocese  divided  and  a  new  see  of  St.  Louis  created.  The  church  documents  of 
that  day  refer  to  St.  Louis  as  situated  variously  in  Upper  Louisiana,  Louisiana 
Superior  and  Alta  Louisiana.  Before  action  was  taken  on  Bishop  Dubourg's 
petition,  the  proposition  was  withdrawn.  From  New  Orleans  came  the  infor- 
mation, through  church  channels,  that  such  a  rebellious  spirit  prevailed  among 
those  in  control  of  the  cathedral  of  New  Orleans,  it  would  not  be  safe  for  Bishop 
Dubourg  to  take  up  his  residence  there.  Investigation  showed  threats  were 
being  made  "that  the  bishop  would  be  shot  in  the  streets  of  New  Orleans  if  he 
dared  set  foot  on  its  soil."  In  the  church  correspondence  of  that  day  New 
Orleans  was  referred  to  as  "Vera  Nova  Babilonia" — a  new  Babylon.  In  order 
that  Bishop  Dubourg  might  reside  within  his  diocese,  the  proposition  to  make 
a  see  of  St.  Louis  was  withdrawn. 

At  Bordeaux,  late  in  the  fall  of  1815,  assembled  the  little  party  to  accom- 
pany Bishop  Dubourg  to  St.  Louis.  At  the  head  of  it  was  Rev.  Joseph  Rosati, 
who  was  chosen  for  the  head  of  the  seminary  to  be  established.  The  authority 
to  make  Joseph  Rosati  vicar  general  was  carried  by  Bishop  Dubourg.  Father 
Rosati  was  a  native  of  Sora  in  Naples.  He  was  educated  in  Rome,  and  when 
the  time  came  for  his  ordination,  the  ceremony  took  place  in  secret,  because  Na- 
poleon, who  had  invaded  Italy,  had  forbidden  ordinations  by  the  Congregation  of 
the  Missions.  In  the  party  which  set  out  from  Bordeaux  were  four  students 
preparing  for  the  priesthood,  three  of  whom  became  prominent  in  the  Catholic 
life  of  St.  Louis.  They  were  Leo  Deys,  a  Belgian ;  Francis  Dahmen,  a  German ; 
Castuc  Gonzales,  a  Spaniard,  and  John  Tichitoli,  an  Italian.  Among  other  mem- 
bers of  the  party  were  French,  Italians  and  Poles.  At  that  early  day  the  polyglot 
character  of  the  population  of  the  new  religious  field  was  recognized  and  pro- 
vided for. 

The  party  came  by  way  of  Baltimore.  It  was  not  deemed  wise  or  safe  to 
enter  the  Mississippi  Valley  by  way  of  New  Orleans.  Crossing  the  mountains 
and  coming  down  the  Ohio,  the  party  stopped  at  Bardstown.  Bishop  Dubourg 
arrived  in  the  United  States  by  way  of  Annapolis  some  months  after  the  rest 
of  the  party  had  come  west.  As  soon  as  it  was  known  the  bishop  was  in  the 
country,  Father  Rosati  came  to  St.  Louis  to  prepare  for  the  reception  of  the 
first  Catholic  bishop  who  was  to  take  up  his  residence  here.  Bishop  Flaget,  of 
Bardstown,  accompanied  Father  Rosati.  Bishop  Dubourg  was  no  stranger  to 
New  Orleans.  He  had  gone  from  that  city  to  Rome  to  be  made  a  bishop.  He 
had  brothers  who  were  business  men  in  New  Orleans.  But  the  extensive  prop- 


RT.  REV.  L.  W.  V.  DUBOURG 


RT.  REV.  JOSEPH  ROSATI 


REV.  P.  T.  DE  SMET,  S.  J. 


BISHOP  P.  J.  RYAN  ARCHBISHOP  KENRICK 

THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  499 

erty  of  the  cathedral  there  had  passed  into  the  hands  of  a  corporation,  three 
priests  in  charge  of  the  cathedral  had  been  suspended,  and  the  excitement  was 
very  great.  Not  knowing  how  far  the  feeling  might  have  spread,  Bishop  Di> 
bourg  did  not  come  to  the  United  States  until  inquiry  had  shown  how  he  would 
be  received  in  St.  Louis.  And  when  he  did  come,  Rosati  and  Bishop  Flaget 
came  over  in  advance  to  be  assured  of  a  friendly  reception  for  Bishop  Dubourg. 
They  found  some  opposition  to  the  reception  of  the  bishop,  but  it  melted  away 
quickly.  Rosati  was  a  man  of  wonderful  tact  and  diplomacy. 

Bishop  Dubourg  was  a  man  of  high  culture.  He  brought  to  St.  Louis, 
before  the  town  organization  had  given  place  to  the  city,  a  library  of  8,000  vol- 
umes. This  collection  was  described  "as  the  most  complete,  scientific  and  lit- 
erary repertory  of  the  western  country,  if  not  of  the  western  world." 

There  is  most  excellent  non-Catholic  authority  for  the  description  of  this 
first  Catholic  bishop  to  take  residence  in  St.  Louis,  as  "a  man  endowed  at  once 
with  the  elegance  and  politeness  of  the  courtier ;  the  piety  and  zeal  of  the  Apostle 
and  the  learning  of  a  Father  of  the  Church." 

In  the  first  St.  Louis  directory,  issued  in  1821,  was  given  this  description 
of  the  Catholic  church  as  the  result  of  Bishop  Dubourg's  efforts : 

The  cathedral  of  St.  Louis  can  boast  of  having  no  rival  in  the  United  States  for 
the  magnificence,  the  value  and  elegance  of  her  sacred  vases,  ornaments  and  paintings, 
and  indeed  few  churches  in  Europe  possess  anything  superior  to  it.  It  is  a  truly  de- 
lightful sight  to  an  American  of  taste  to  find  in  one  of  the  remotest  towns  of  the  Union 
a  church  decorated  with  the  original  paintings  of  Kubens,  Raphael,  Guido,  Paul  Veronese, 
and  a  number  of  others  by  the  first  modern  masters  of  the  Italian,  French  and  Flemish 
schools.  The  ancient  and  precious  gold  embroideries  which  the  St.  Louis  cathedral  possesses 
would  certainly  decorate  any  museum  in  the  world.  All  this  is  due  to  the  liberality  of 
the  Catholics  of  Europe,  who  presented  these  rich  articles  to  Bishop  Dubourg  on  his  last 
visit  through  France,  Italy,  Sicily  and  the  Netherlands.  Among  the  liberal  benefactors 
could  be  named  many  princes  and  princesses,  but  we  will  only  insert  the  names  of  Louis 
XVIII,  the  present  king  of  France,  and  that  of  Baroness  La  Candale  de  Ghysegham,  a 
Flemish  lady,  to  whose  munificence  the  cathedral  is  particularly  indebted. 

A  record  of  great  activity  in  the  Catholic  church  began  with  the  coming 
of  Bishop  Rosati  to  St.  Louis.  Here  was  a  diocese  with  one  bishop,  three  secular 
priests,  five  Lazarist  fathers,  one  Jesuit,  fourteen  ecclesiastical  students,  five 
Jesuit  scholastics  and  from  11,000  to  12,000  laity.  Before  the  first  year  was  out 
Bishop  Rosati  at  the  Cathedral  in  St.  Louis  consecrated  a  bishop,  Michael  Por- 
tier,  for  Alabama  and  the  Floridas.  For  assistants  he  had  no  neighboring 
bishops.  He  called  in  the  chancellor  of  the  little  college  of  Jesuits,  Father  Quick- 
enborne,  and  the  venerable  and  lovable  Father  Donatianus  Olivier.  About  this 
time  Bishop  Rosati  ordained  the  first  priest  born  in  Missouri,  Rev.  Joseph 
Paquin.  In  March,  1827,  Rosati  was  formally  constituted  first  bishop  of  St. 
Louis.  The  next  year  he  ordained  the  first  priest,  who  was  a  native  St. 
Louisan,  Francis  Regis  Loisel. 

There  were  no  bishops  in  Mexico  who  could  give  ordination.  In  1829, 
Bishop  Rosati  began  the  ordination  of  priests  for  the  dioceses  of  that  country. 
Mexican  candidates  by  the  score  for  the  priesthood  visited  Bishop  Rosati. 
Ordination  ceremonies  in  the  cathedral  were  very  frequent,  beginning  in  1829. 


500  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

In  his  first  report  to  Rome,  on  conditions  as  he  found  them  on  taking  charge 
of  the  new  diocese,  in  1825,  Bishop  Rosati  described  St.  Louis  as  "an  important 
city,  the  most  considerable  of  the  whole  state."  He  added: 

French  is  spoken  here  by  the  old  inhabitants;  and  English  by  the  Americans  and 
Irish  -who  have  established  themselves  here  of  late  years.  There  is  only  one  priest  and 
there  ought  to  be  at  least  two  more.  There  are  some  difficulties.  During  the  time  that 
Mgr.  Dubourg  resided  here  a  subscription  was  made  to  build  a  church.  The  expenses 
were  very  great,  and  the  funds  were  found  wanting  as  soon  as  they  were  counted  to- 
gether. This  was  occasioned  by  various  circumstances,  which  debilitated  commerce,  and 
diminished  the  number  of  new  inhabitants  who  had  subscribed.  Four  of  the  principal 
citizens,  who  had  been  elected  as  administrators  of  the  building,  were  obliged  to  pay  a 
debt  of  from  $5,000  to  $6,000  for  which  they  had  passed  their  bonds  to  the  workmen.  In 
order  to  reimburse  themselves  they  have  obtained  from  the  legislature  the  authorization 
to  sell  the  ground  next  to  the  church,  together  with  the  house  which  served  for  habitation 
of  the  bishop  and  priest.  The  bondsmen  threaten  to  proceed  to  the  sale  if  the  money 
they  have  laid  out  is  not  paid  back  to  them. 

Those  were  pioneer  days  of  things  religious.  In  his  report  on  the  new  dio- 
cese, Bishop  Rosati  spoke  of  "Viede  Poche,  Carondelet,  having  about  100 
French  families,  all  very  poor.  When  there  were  more  priests  than  one  in  St., 
Louis,  one  of  them  went  to  the  village  Saturdays  and  Sundays  to  hear  confes- 
sions, to  preach  and  to  say  mass.  At  the  present  it  is  vacant." 

The  see  of  St.  Louis  extended  across  the  river  and  took  in  a  number  of 
parishes.  One  of  these  was  Prairie  du  Rocher,  of  which  Bishop  Rosati  reported: 
"There  is  a  church  and  a  priest.  This  is  Rev.  Father  Olivier,  a  respectable  old 
man  of  seventy-five  years,  almost  blind,  and  unable  to  render  any  service  to  the 
parish.  To  him  I  have  offered  a  room  in  the  seminary.  He  is  a  saint,  who  has 
labored  for  many  years  in  the  service  of  all  the  Catholics  in  these  regions." 

Five  years  after  he  had  been  elected  bishop  and  three  years  after  his  con- 
secration Bishop  Rosati  became  by  transfer  the  first  bishop  of  the  diocese  of  St. 
Louis.  Not  until  1827  did  this  occur.  Even  when  the  country  west  of  the  Miss- 
issippi was  divided  into  two  dioceses  it  was  the  plan  of  His  Holiness  Pope  Leo 
XII  that  Rosati  should  be  bishop  of  New  Orleans  and  that  he  should  admin- 
ister both  dioceses  for  the  time  being.  "Bishop  Rosati  did  all  in  his  power  to  be 
excused  from  accepting  the  diocese  of  New  Orleans,  and  succeeded  in  having 
the  decree  rescinded."  So  reads  the  church  record  in  manuscript.  The  church 
in  St.  Louis  has  reason  to  be  grateful  that  Rosati  stood  so  firmly  by  his  attach- 
ment to  this  city.  Dubourg  had  become  oppressed  and  discouraged  with  con- 
ditions at  New  Orleans.  He  went  to  Europe  in  the  summer  of  1826,  presented 
his  resignation  of  the  see  of  New  Orleans,  and  it  was  accepted.  Then  Bishop 
Rosati  was  given  the  see  of  St.  Louis,  but  he  was  commanded  to  continue  to 
serve  the  diocese  of  New  Orleans  as  administrator  until  the  Holy  See  could  pro- 
vide otherwise.  "Bishop  of  Teagre  and  Administrator  of  St.  Louis  and  New 
Orleans"  was  the  title  borne  at  first  by  Bishop  Rosati. 

On  the  first  of  August,  1831,  occurred  an  event  which  told  of  the  work 
Rosati  was  doing.  The  corner  stone  of  the  new  cathedral  was  laid  on  Walnut 
street  between  Main  and  Second  streets.  This  was  the  fourth  Catholic  church 
built  on  the  lot,  beginning  with  the  house  of  posts  erected  in  1776.  In  1833 
Bishop  Rosati  gave  their  first  resident  priests  to  Chicago  and  Kansas  City.  The 
twenty-sixth  of  October,  1834,  brought  the  consecration  of  the  new  cathedral 


REV.   DR.   M.   McANALLY 


REV.   S.  B.  McPHEETERS 


FIRST  CONGREGATIONAL  CHURCH 
Tenth   and  Locust   streets,   I860 


THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  501 

of  St.  Louis.  Two  bishops  came  to  participate  in  the  ceremonies — Flaget  from 
Bardstown  and  Purcell  from  Cincinnati.  The  second  day  afterwards  occurred 
the  consecration  of  the  bishop  of  Vincennes,  Simon  Brute.  The  laying  of  corner 
stones  for  new  Catholic  churches  was  becoming  frequent.  Bishop  Rosati  that 
year  laid  the  corner  stone  for  Our  Lady  of  Mt.  Carmel  in  Carondelet.  That 
same  year  of  1834  was  memorable  for  another  church  event  in  St.  Louis. 
Bishop  Rosati  recorded:  "Rev.  Lutz  said  mass  in  St.  Mary's  chapel  for  the 
Germans  and  preached  in  German  to  them,  which  in  future  will  be  done  every 
Sunday." 

The  next  year,  1835,  Rosati  began  to  keep  the  annual  counts  of  the  con- 
gregations. He  sent  to  all  of  the  priests  instructions  to  prepare  and  forward 
at  the  end  of  the  year  a  census  of  their  congregations.  The  first  census  of  the 
Catholic  church  in  St.  Louis  showed  8,601  souls,  293  baptisms,  100  marriages, 
97  funerals,  54  converts.  Notable  is  the  column  of  converts  in  these  annual 
census  reports  of  Bishop  Rosati.  There  went  on  among  the  residents  of  St. 
Louis  year  after  year  the  conversion  of  non-Catholics  to  Catholicism. 

In  1829  the  Episcopal  people  completed  a  neat  building.  They  called  it 
Christ  church.  The  location  was  the  corner  of  Third  and  Chestnut  streets, 
where  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  stands.  This  Christ  church  was  the  prede- 
cessor of  Christ  church  cathedral  on  Thirteenth  and  Locust  streets. 

James  Stuart,  a  Scotchman,  who  visited  St.  Louis  in  1830,  and  who  wrote 
a  book  after  his  return  to  his  own  country,  said  of  the  religious  conditions  at 
that  time: 

I  attended  divine  worship  in  the  Presbyterian  church  on  the  day  I  reached  St. 
Louis.  Having  asked  the  landlord  of  the  inn  which  was  the  best  church  to  go  to,  he  at 
once  replied,  'I  go  to  no  church  but  the  Presbyterian  minister  is  the  rage. '  The  Presby- 
terian minister,  Mr.  Potts,  delivered  a  very  good  sermon  upon  this  text,  'The  sting  of 
sin  is  death,'  in  a  very  neatly  seated  church  in  the  upper  part  of  the  town.  It  was  a 
funeral  sermon,  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  Mr.  Woods,  an  English  gentleman  from 
London,  one  of  the  elders  or  deacons  of  the  church.  In  the  afternoon  I  went  into  the 
meeting-house  of  people  of  color.  They  had  one  of  themselves  preaching  sensibly,  though 
it  appeared  he  was  not  a  man  of  much  education.  The  sermon  was,  in  great  measure, 
composed  of  scriptural  quotations,  and  was  delivered  impressively;  but  there  was  far  less 
manifestation  of  excitement  than  in  a  church  of  people  of  color,  which  I  afterward  at- 
tended in  New  York. 

Looking  for  the  promised  land,  the  Mormons  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1831. 
Joseph  Smith  had  founded  the  church  in  New  York  state  and  had  moved  to 
Kirtland,  in  Ohio.  There  he  had  a  revelation  that  his  apostles  must  go  "speedily 
to  the  place  which  is  called  St.  Louis."  Traveling  in  long  trains  of  "mover 
wagons"  the  Mormons  crossed  by  ferry  to  the  foot  of  Market  street.  Other 
bodies  came  by  boat  down  the  Ohio  and  up  the  Mississippi,  landing  at  St. 
Louis.  Some  found  homes  in  St.  Louis  and  established  a  church.  The  others, 
after  resting,  moved  on  to  the  western  part  of  Missouri  to  try  Independence,  and 
Far  West  and  later  Nauvoo,  in  Illinois,  before  they  found  rest  in  Salt  Lake  City. 
Latter  Day  Saints  these  St.  Louis  Mormons  called  themselves.  They  parted 
from  the  Salt  Lake  body,  never  accepting  or  practicing  polygamy.  They  were 
hard  working,  honest  people,  worshipping  according  to  the  dictates  of  their 
consciences.  For  a  living  their  elder  dug  coal  in  and  near  what  is  now  Forest 
Park.  For  a  time  after  settling  in  St.  Louis  the  Saints  held  service  in  a  church 


502  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

on  Third  street;  then  they  rented  a  church  on  Fourth  street.  The  organization 
grew  slowly  in  St.  Louis  as  the  years  went  by,  until  it  numbered  about  300.  It 
built  a  church  on  Elliott  avenue. 

"Tell  my  brethren  of  the  Pittsburg  conference  that  I  died  at  my  post,"  is 
chiseled  in  the  stone  which  marks  a  grave  in  the  Wesleyan  cemetery  on  the  Olive 

°  if 

street  road.  Three  times  the  stone  has  been  put  in  place.  It  quotes  the  dying 
message  of  Rev.  Thomas  Drummond,  an  Englishman,  who  came  to  St.  Louis 
to  take  charge  of  the  Methodist  church  on  Fourth  street  and  Washington  avenue. 
A  year  after  his  coming  Mr.  Drummond  faced  the  cholera  epidemic  of  1835. 
He  was  advised  to  leave  the  city,  but  refused  and  was  stricken.  From  his  death- 
bed he  sent  the  message  to  the  conference  with  which  he  had  been  first  asso- 
ciated in  this  country.  His  body  has  been  buried  in  three  cemeteries,  being 
moved  as  the  city  grew.  From  Twenty-third  and  Franklin  avenue,  it  was  taken 
to  Grand  and  Laclede,  and  later  to  the  cemetery  on  Olive  street  road. 

Robert  B.  Fife,  who  was  not  a  preacher  but  a  student  of  the  Bible  and  a 
religious  man  with  a  short  and  simple  creed,  brought  together  in  Shepard's  school 
opposite  the  court  house,  in  1837,  a  few  people  and  started  services  for  Chris- 
tians. The  meetings  did  not  become  regular  until  five  years  later.  These  Chris- 
tians or  Disciples  of  Christ  grew  strong  in  St.  Louis.  They  formed  a  dozen 
churches,  established  an  orphans'  home  and  built  up  a  vigorous  publishing 
concern. 

In  the  Second  Baptist  church  of  1833  were  represented  the  Cozzens,  Stout, 
Orme,  Kerr  and  other  prominent  families  of  St.  Louis.  The  new  organization 
proceeded  slowly  in  the  matter  of  another  church  structure.  Meetings  were  held 
in  the  school  house  of  Elihu  H.  Shepard  on  Fourth  street  opposite  the  court 
house.  A  lot  on  Morgan  and  Sixth  was  bought,  but  sold  after  a  foundation  had 
been  laid.  The  Episcopal  church  on  Third  and  Chestnut  was  for  sale  at  $12,000, 
and  the  Baptists  bought  it.  As  early  as  1839  the  choir  of  the  Second  Baptist 
church  had  become  so  well  known  that  it  ventured  upon  "a  grand  sacred  con- 
cert." The  church  had  many  pastors,  Rev.  John  Mason  Peck  came  over  from 
his  seminary  at  Rock  Spring  to  preach  during  several  periods.  The  congrega- 
tion overflowed  the  edifice  on  Third  street  and  built  a  $40,000  church  at  Sixth 
and  Locust.  An  incident  which  was  the  talk  of  the  whole  city  was  the  baptism 
of  sixteen  Hollanders  by  Dr.  Peck,  in  1849.  These  Hollanders  had  been  Presby- 
terians. Foreign  immigration  to  St.  Louis  was  at  its  height  when  the  Baptists 
received  the  Hollanders.  J.  B.  Jeter,  Galusha  Anderson  and  A.  H.  Burlingham 
were  among  the  divines  of  national  reputation  who  held  the  pastorate  of  this 
church.  In  1877  came  to  the  Second  Baptist  church  a  pastor  who  was  to  re- 
main and  to  enter  into  the  life  of  the  city — Rev.  W.  W.  Boyd.  A  New  Yorker 
by  birth,  he  had  gone  into  business  life  as  superintendent  of  a  cotton  manufac- 
turing plant  in  Maine.  To  do  something  for  his  operatives  on  Sunday,  Superin- 
tendent Boyd  reopened  a  little  abandoned  Baptist  church  in  the  village,  carried 
on  a  Sunday  school  for  the  children  and  read  Spurgeon's  sermons  to  the  grown- 
ups. The  effect  upon  the  superintendent  was  more  startling  than  upon  the  mill 
people.  Mr.  Boyd  began  to  preach,  went  to  Harvard  to  get  more  education, 
took  special  honors  in  philosophy,  studied  theology  and  was  ordained  to  the 
ministry.  Four  years  later  he  came  to  St.  Louis  to  enter  upon  a  pastorate  of 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  503 

nearly  one-third  of  a  century.  When  E)r.  Boyd  came  to  St.  Louis  the  Second 
Baptist  church  had  moved  westward  to  the  site  on  Beaumont  and  Locust  streets, 
selected  by  William  M.  McPherson,  E.  G.  Obear,  D.  B.  Gale,  Thomas  Pratt  and 
Nathan  Cole.  Only  the  chapel  had  been  completed.  Under  the  inspiration  of 
Dr.  Boyd's  eloquence,  the  main  structure  was  completed  at  a  cost  of  more  than 
$250,000.  That  remained  the  home  of  the  congregation  until  the  removal  to  the 
new  church  on  Kings  Highway  and  Washington  avenue  in  1908. 

In  the  decades  between  1840  and  1860,  one  of  the  most  popular  authors  with 
young  folks  was  the  Rev.  Cicero  Stephens  Hawks,  D.  D.,  bishop  of  Missouri. 
He  came  of  English  and  Irish  ancestors  and  was  born  at  Newbern,  North  Caro- 
lina. He  entered  the  ministry  after  a  university  education,  and  after  the  study 
of  law  in  New  York  city.  He  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1843  to  become  rector  of 
Christ  church,  and  the  next  year  was  elected  unanimously  as  bishop.  Possibly 
that  which  most  endeared  the  bishop  to  the  St.  Louis  people  of  his  generation 
was  his  heroic  conduct  during  the  Asiatic  cholera  epidemic.  When  others  left 
the  city  for  places  of  refuge  Bishop  Hawks  remained  and  devoted  himself  to  the 
care  and  consolation  of  the  sick.  His  writings  included  several  volumes  of  a 
series  called  "Uncle  Phelps  Conversations  for  the  Young."  He  also  wrote 
"Friday  Christian."  He  was  the  editor  of  "The  Boys'  and  Girls'  Library,"  and 
of  the  "Library  for  Our  Young  Country  Women."  Two  brothers  of  the  bishop 
became  very  prominent  ministers  in  the  Episcopal  church,  one  of  them  in  New 
York  city,  the  other  in  Georgia. 

The  beginning  of  St.  George's  Episcopal  church  was  a  sermon  preached 
by  Rev.  Dr.  E.  Carter  Hutchinson  in  the  Benton  school  on  Sixth  street,  near 
Locust. 

Among  the  most  entertaining  and  vigorous  of  St.  Louis  preachers  was 
Rev.  E.  C.  Hutchinson.  He  took  for  his  text  one  Sunday  morning:  "David 
was  a  man  after  God's  own  heart."  He  described  the  career  of  David,  his  duel 
with  Goliath  and  his  other  exploits  wholly  to  his  credit.  It  seemed  as  if  the 
eloquent  rector  did  not  mean  to  refer  to  the  discreditable  event  in  his  hero's 
career,  but  he  did.  Just  before  the  close  pi  the  sermon  the  preacher  said :  "In 
the  matter  of  Uriah,  the  Hittite,  David  must  stand  on  the  same  platform  with 
other  sinners." 

The  Rev.  S.  S.  Gassaway,  while  rector  of  St.  George's,  was  killed  by  the 
explosion  of  a  boiler  on  the  Alton  packet,  Kate  Kearney,  just  as  the  boat  was 
leaving  the  St.  Louis  levee. 

The  impressions  which  the  religious  life  of  St.  Louis  made  upon  Charles 
Dickens  during  his  visit  in  1842,  he  described  in  these  notes: 

The  Eoman  Catholic  religion,  introduced  here  by  the  early  French  settlers,  pre- 
vails extensively.  Among  the  public  institutions  are  a  Jesuit  college,  a  convent  for  "the 
ladies  of  the  Sacred  Heart,"  and  a  large  church  attached  to  the  college,  which  was  in 
course  of  erection  at  the  time  of  my  visit,  and  was  intended  to  be  consecrated  on  the 
2nd  of  December  in  the  present  year.  The  organ  will  be  sent  from  Belgium.  In  addition 
to  these  establishments  there  is  a  Eoman  Catholic  cathedral,  dedicated  to  St.  Francis 
Xavier,  and  a  hospital  founded  by  the  munificence  of  a  deceased  resident,  who  was  a 
member  of  that  church.  It  also  sends  missionaries  from  hence  among  the  Indian  tribes. 

The  Unitarian  church  is  represented  in  this  remote  place,  as  in  most  other  parts  of 
America,  by  a  gentleman  of  great  worth  and  excellence.  There  are  three  free  schools  already 
erected  and  in  full  operation  in  this  city.  A  fourth  is  building  and  will  soon  be  opened. 


504  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

The  reference  of  Mr.  Dickens  in  the  second  note  was  to  Rev.  William  G. 
Eliot,  who  had  a  few  years  previously  settled  in  St.  Louis  and  was  even  then 
giving  vigorous  attention  to  the  subject  of  education. 

The  comprehensive  character  of  the  population  of  St.  Louis  found  illus- 
trations in  the  religious  life  of  the  community.  Near  Park  avenue,  in  1842, 
the  Lazarists  had  an  ecclesiastical  seminary.  At  the  head  of  it  was  Vicar  General 
Joseph  Paquin,  born  at  Florissant,  1799,  practically  a  native  of  St.  Louis.  The 
professors  were  two  Spanish,  one  Italian  and  one  German  "father.  The  teacher 
of  Greek  and  Latin  was  an  Irishman.  The  students  were  Irish,  French,  Italian 
and  Americans.  They  received  instruction  in  the  modern  languages  from  teach- 
ers familiar  with  those  languages  from  early  youth.  In  the  recreation  hour, 
after  supper,  Father  Paquin  encouraged  the  professors  and  students  to  tell  their 
recollections  of  their  respective  countries  and  to  sing  the  songs  of  the  various 
nationalities,  he  leading  with  the  French  chansons  of  early  St.  Louis,  taught  him 
in  his  boyhood. 

In  April,  1840,  a  large  proportion  of  the  population  went  out  into  the  sub- 
urbs to  witness  the  laying  of  the  corner  stone  of  St.  Xavier's  Catholic  church  on 
Ninth  and  Green  streets,  now  Lucas  avenue. 

Of  kindliest  character  were  the  relations  between  Bishop  Rosati  and  the 
clergy  of  the  diocese  of  St.  Louis.  In  1840  the  bishop  went  to  Rome,  expecting 
to  return  shortly.  He  was  asked  by  the  Holy  Father,  Pope  Gregory  XVI.,  if 
he  would  not  take  the  charge  of  Apostolic  Delegate  to  Hayti  to  conclude  a  con- 
cordat between  the  Holy  See  and  that  country. 

Bishop  Rosati  replied  that  he  would  not  like  to  leave  his  diocese  without 
the  services  of  a  bishop  for  so  long  a  time,  but  that  if  His  Holiness  would  give 
him  a  coadjutor  to  govern  during  the  absence  he  would  undertake  the  Haytian 
charge. 

Thereupon  the  Pope  said:  "Well!  My  dear  Lord,  if  you  know  any  good 
priest  whom  you  would  wish  for  your  coadjutor,  just  name  him,  and  I  will 
appoint  him  right  away." 

"Most  Holy  Father,"  said  Bishop  Rosati,  "if  I  could  get  the  Very  Reverend 
Peter  Richard  Kenrick,  the  vicar  general  of  the  Right  Reverend  Francis  Patrick 
Kenrick,  coadjutor  of  the  bishop  of  Philadelphia,  I  would  be  satisfied." 

"Very  well,"  said  His  Holiness,  "you  shall  have  him." 

One  less  thorough  going  in  his  mental  method  than  Bishop  Rosati  would 
perhaps  have  stopped  with  that.  But  the  bishop  of  St.  Louis  was  a  man  who 
left  nothing  uncertain.  He  said  to  the  Pope :  "Your  Holiness !  You  had  the 
kindness  some  time  ago  to  appoint  the  Very  Reverend  John  Timon,  C.  M.,  as 
my  coadjutor,  but  he  refused  the  office,  and  if  Very  Reverend  Peter  Richard 
Kenrick  would  do  the  same  thing,  I  would  be  frustrated,  therefore  I  beg  of  you 
to  oblige  him  under  obedience  to  take  the  office." 

That  the  Pope  acted  on  the  suggestion  was  evident  from  a  letter  which 
Right  Reverend  Francis  Patrick  Kenrick  wrote  from  Philadelphia  to  Bishop 
Rosati.  "The  positive  wishes  of  His  Holiness  have,  I  believe,  secured  my 
brother's  full  acquiescence." 

Right  Reverend  Peter  Richard  Kenrick  was  consecrated  Bishop  in  Phila- 
delphia in  1841  by  Bishop  Rosati  and  came  to  St.  Louis  as  coadjutor.  Bishop 


REV.  WILLIAM   POTTS 
From   a  Daguerreotype  taken   in   the  '50s. 


REV.  ARTEMAS  BULLARD 

Pastor  of  First  Presbyterian  Church,  who 
was  killed  in  the  Gasconade  disaster 


CHURCH  OF  THE  MESSIAH 
Olive  and  Ninth  streets,  before  the  war 


FIRST  PRESBYTERIAN  CHURCH 
Fourteenth  and  Lucas  place,  in  1860 


THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  505 

Rosati  went  to  Hayti,  completed  the  diplomatic  work,  for  which  he  was  sent, 
with  his  usual  painstaking  care,  went  to  Rome,  was  taken  ill  and  died. 

Many  years  afterward,  when  he  had  become  the  head  of  the  church,  Leo 
XIII.  said  to  a  high  representative  of  the  Catholic  church  in  St.  Louis: 

I  have  known  the  first  bishop  of  St.  Louis.  I  traveled  with  him  from  Rome  to 
Paris.  When  he  was  on  his  way  to  Hayti  to  conclude  the  concordat,  I  was  on  my  way 
to  Brussels  as  nuncio.  I  must  say  that  I  have  never  in  my  life  met  with  a  bishop  whom 
I  considered  such  a  holy  man  and  whom  I  found  so  full  of  respect  towards  the  Holy 
Father. 

When  Rev.  Artemas  Bullard  came  to  St.  Louis  to  be  pastor  of  the  First 
Presbyterian  church  in  1838  he  thought  the  place  of  worship  was  too  far  from 
the  center  of  the  city.  The  location  was  near  Fourth  street  and  Washington 
avenue,  but  most  of  the  worshipers  lived  east  or  south  of  the  church.  When 
the  new  church  was  built,  Dr.  Bullard  found  conditions  so  changed  that  he 
advised  a  location  at  Fourteenth  street  and  Lucas  place.  There  was  much 
opposition  to  the  new  site,  many  members  claiming  that  this  was  a  removal  too 
far  to  the  west.  In  its  day  the  First  Presbyterian  church,  on  Fourteenth  street 
and  Lucas  place,  was  regarded  as  having  a  very  handsome  exterior,  and  it  was 
commented  upon  favorably  by  many  travelers.  At  that  time  there  were  few 
buildings  in  the  vicinity  and  the  church  edifice  stood  out  bold  and  strong  in  all 
of  its  architectural  impressiveness.  The  First  Presbyterian  church  regarded 
as  colonies  or  offshoots,  the  Second.  Presbyterian  church,  and  the  Third  Pres- 
byterian church  and  the  Pine  street  church,  with  which  became  identified  for 
many  years  Dr.  Niccolls,  Dr.  Post,  Dr.  Brookes  and  Dr.  Rutherford. 

The  First  Presbyterian  church,  the  most  costly  up  to  that  time,  was  com- 
pleted about  the  middle  of  the  decade,  1850-1860.  It  was  commonly  called  "Dr. 
Bullard's  church,"  long  after  the  beloved  pastor  met  his  death  in  the  Gasconade 
disaster.  Competition  in  church  architecture,  in  those  days,  ran  somewhat  to 
spires.  The  First  church  had  "the  tallest  steeple  in  St.  Louis" — 225  feet.  When 
the  western  city  limits  was  extended  from  Seventh  to  Eighteenth  street,  in 
1841,  there  was  strong  opposition.  The  argument  was  that  the  population  did 
not  justify  the  enlargement;  that  streets  were  not  opened.  Thirteen  years  later, 
while  people  were  still  speaking  of  "the  new  limits,"  this,  most  costly  of  the 
churches,  was  built  almost  on  the  outer  edge  of  the  city. 

Centenary  Methodist  church  had  a  basement  story  wholly  above  ground.  It 
was  on  Fifth  and  Pine  streets,  the  southwest  corner.  Beside  it  was  a  par- 
sonage. 

Rev.  Dr.  D.  R.  McAnally  came  from  Tennessee.  He  had  preached  in  the 
south  and  had  conducted  a  seminary  a  number  of  years  before  he  came  to  St. 
Louis  to  be  editor  of  the  St.  Louis  Christian  Advocate  and  to  conduct  the  Metho- 
dist publishing  house.  Organizing  a  Methodist  church  in  Carondelet,  Dr. 
McAnally  preached  there  seventeen  years.  No  appointment  was  made  by  the 
conference,  the  church  being  left  "to  be  supplied."  In  that  way  the  rule  of 
itineracy  was  avoided.  There  was  a  militant  strain  in  Dr.  McAnally.  The  editor 
sympathized  with  the  south.  He  was  arrested  early  in  the  Civil  war  and  his 
paper  was  suppressed.  In  July,  1861,  he  was  tried  by  court  martial,  but  the 
verdict  was  never  returned  from  Washington.  The  good  doctor  was  put  on 
parole,  forbidden  to  leave  St.  Louis  county.  As  a  vigorous  writer  he  was 


506  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

known  and  greatly  admired  by  two  generations  of  St.  Louis  Methodists.  The 
office  of  the  Christian  Advocate  was  on  Pine  street  next  to  the  church.  Dr. 
McAnally  was  the  son  of  Charles  McAnally,  a  Methodist  minister.  He  began 
his  life  work  in  the  pulpit  when  he  was  nineteen  years  old.  The  Methodist  Book 
Concern  of  St.  Louis  was  started  with  a  capital  of  $1,800.  Dr.  McAnally  built 
up  the  establishment  until  the  books  issued  were  in  the  hundreds  of  thousands. 
The  business  was  equal  to  some  of  the  larger  establishments  in  the  east. 

John  Hogan  of  the  County  Cork  was  favored  with  so  few  educational  op- 
portunities that  when,  an  immigrant  boy,  he  went  to  work  for  a  shoemaker  in 
Baltimore  as  an  apprentice,  the  journeymen  in  the  office  taught  him  his  letters. 
Self  educated,  this  boy  became  a  Methodist  ^minister  of  reputation  through  the 
western  country.  He  published  a  book  called  "Thoughts  of  St.  Louis,"  which 
was  so  well  appreciated  by  the  business  interests  of  the  city  that  a  service  of 
silver  was  given  to  the  author  as  a  testimonial.  Subsequently  he  was  the  author 
of  a  "History  of  Methodism  in  the  West"  and  "The  Resources  of  Missouri." 
There  was  a  clearness  of  style  and  a  freshness  about  his  writings  which  made 
him  very  popular  with  readers  in  1850-1860.  The  Dollar  savings  institution,  on 
which  was  built  the  Exchange  bank,  was  presided  over  for  some  time  by  John 
Hogan.  In  1858  Mr.  Hogan  became,  by  appointment  of  President  Buchanan, 
the  postmaster  of  St.  Louis.  The  wife  of  John  Hogan  was  the  daughter  of 
Joseph  B.  Gamier  of  St.  Louis. 

Union  Presbyterian  church  on  Locust  street  was  unlike  any  other  church 
edifice  in  St.  Louis.  Architects  of  that  period  called  it  the  "Lombardio  style." 
There  were  two  towers  at  the  corners,  one  was  104  feet,  the  other  160  feet  in 
height.  This  church  was  built  by  Henry  D.  Bacon,  the  banker.  It  cost  him 
$70,000.  The  finest  organ  in  the  west  was  installed.  When  the  building  was 
ready  for  dedication,  Mr.  Bacon  offered  to  deed  the  property  to  the  trustees 
for  $30,000,  making  his  contribution  $40,000.  The  offer  was  accepted.  The 
$30,000  was  subscribed  in  three  days.  The  Union  Presbyterian  church  was  or- 
ganized in  1850.  The  pastor  was  Rev.  William  Holmes,  who  became  an  edi- 
torial writer  on  the  Missouri  Democrat. 

The  church  architecture  of  St.  Louis,  before  the  Civil  war,  was  something 
of  which  the  city  could  boast.  The  church  of  the  Messiah,  Dr.  Eliot's,  on  Ninth 
and  Olive,  where  the  Century  building  stands,  cost  $100,000.  It  was  of  massive 
masonry.  Seventy  tons  of  iron  were  used  in  the  metallic  parts.  The  construc- 
tion was  not  given  out  by  contract,  but  was  done  under  the  direction  of  a  com- 
mittee. The  spire,  167  feet  high,  was  a  model  in  proportions.  The  church 
itself  was  considered  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  the  country. 

St.  Louis  churches  kept  pace  with  the  population,  rapid  as  the  growth  was 
before  the  war.  In  1830  the  average  number  of  residents,  young  and  old,  to 
the  churches  was  2,000.  In  1854  there  were'  sixty-five  churches.  The  popula- 
tion was  estimated  to  average  1,900  to  the  church,  although  the  government 
census  did  not  give  that  number  of  residents.  The  city  was  famed  not  only 
for  the  congregations  but  for  the  costly  character  of  the  church  architecture. 
Business  men  responded  with  great  liberality  to  all  church  calls.  When  Rev. 
Dr.  William  G.  Eliot  was  fairly  settled  in  his  church  he  went  among  the  mem- 
bers of  his  congregation  and  raised  $60,000  for  educational  purposes. 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  507 

The  missionary  activities  first  of  Bishop  Rosati  and  second  of  Archbishop 
Kenrick,  from  1830  to  1860,  are  part  of  the  history  of  St.  Louis.  See  after  see 
was  created  and  the  bishop  to  take  charge  was  consecrated  at  St.  Louis  for  the 
new  field.  Diocese  after  diocese  was  cut  off  from  what  had  been  the  original 
diocese  of  St.  Louis.  From  St.  Louis  priests  went  to  the  Indians  far  in  ad- 
vance of  settlement.  They  were  assigned  to  the  posts  of  the  fur  traders.  They 
camped  with  the  lead  miners.  They  traveled  through  the  west  finding  and  bind- 
ing anew  to  the  church  the  families  of  scattered  Catholics.  They  went  with  the 
armies  of  railroad  builders.  And  all  of  the  time  that  the  work  went  on  in  the 
field,  parish  after  parish  was  organized,  and  church  after  church  was  blessed 
in  the  growing  city  of  St.  Louis.  Rosati  was  a  man  of  unlimited  capacity  for 
detail.  Kenrick  was  as  methodical  as  a  clock.  He  had  time  for  everything. 
Year  in  and  year  out  he  walked  westward  from  the  archbishop's  house,  taking 
his  exercise  so  regularly  that  people  on  the  route  had  a  saying  that  it  was  safe 
to  set  the  family  clock  by  the  archbishop's  daily  constitutional. 

Out  from  the  old  Cathedral  of  St.  Louis  to  become  bishops  or  archbishops 
went  Neckere  (New  Orleans),  Timon  (Buffalo),  Lefevre  (Detroit),  Odin 
(New  Orleans),  Feehan  (Chicago),  Hennessy  (Dubuque),  Duggan  (Chicago), 
Hogan  (St.  Joseph),  Ryan  (Philadelphia). 

Italy  and  France  had  been  represented  in  the  bishop  resident  at  St.  Louis. 
Right  Reverend  Peter  Richard  Kenrick,  who  arrived  in  the  winter  of  1841-2, 
was  of  Dublin  birth  and  education.  In  Maynooth  Seminary  he  went  through 
his  higher  studies.  He  was  only  thirty-six  years  old  when  he  came  to  St.  Louis 
as  Bishop  Kenrick.  One  year  he  had  given  to  the  priesthood  in  his  native  Dub- 
lin, and  nine  years  he  had  passed  in  Philadelphia  as  president  of  the  seminary, 
rector  of  the  cathedral  and  vicar  general  to  his  brother,  Bishop  Francis  Patrick 
Kenrick. 

The  year  after  his  arrival  Bishop  Kenrick  established  and  opened  three 
parish  churches  in  St.  Louis.  These  were  St.  Francis  Xavier's,  St.  Mary's  and 
St.  Aloysius.  That  year  Chicago  was  made  a  see  with  Illinois  for  the  diocese 
and  at  the  same  time  Little  Rock  became  a  see.  In  1845  Bishop  Kenrick  opened 
three  more  parish  churches  in  St.  Louis.  These  were  St.  Patrick's,  St.  Joseph's 
and  St.  Vincent's. 

In  July,  1847,  by  papal  bull  the  diocese  of  St.  Louis  became  an  archdiocese, 
and  Bishop  Kenrick  was  appointed  Archbishop  of  St.  Louis.  The  spread  of 
the  Catholic  church,  under  the  management  of  the  head  at  St.  Louis,  justified  the 
recognition.  The  census  of  that  year  showed  50,000  souls,  notwithstanding  the 
dioceses  of  Illinois  and  Arkansas  had  been  created  out  of  the  diocese  of  St. 
Louis.  The  missions  and  stations  of  that  year  were  forty-two.  In  1848,  Pius 
IX.  decreed  that  Archbishop  Kenrick  should  be  invested  with  the  pallium.  The 
ceremony  was  performed  at  Philadelphia  by  the  elder  brother,  the  archbishop  of 
Philadelphia,  who  just  fifteen  years  previously  had  sent  to  Dublin  the  money 
to  pay  the  passage  of  the  younger  to  this  country. 

Three  more  St.  Louis  parishes  were  added  in  1849.  They  were  Sts.  Peter 
and  Paul,  Holy  Trinity  and  St.  Michael's. 

Two  years  later  another  diocese  was  created  and  another  bishop  was  conse- 
crated at  St.  Louis — John  Baptist  Miege.  The  jurisdiction  of  the  archdiocese 


508  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

of  St.  Louis  was  thereby  confined  to  the  state  of  Missouri.     But  the  census 
showed  58,135  Catholics  in  the  state.    Of  these  27,215  were  in  St.  Louis. 

In  1854  the  Bohemians  of  St.  Louis  began  to  build  a  church.  When  this 
building,  St.  John  of  Nepomuk,  was  ready  for  occupancy  the  following  year, 
the  pastor,  Rev.  Henry  Lipowski  was  able  to  say  this  was  the  first  Catholic 
church  for  Bohemians  built  anywhere  on  earth  outside  of  the  kingdom  of 
Bohemia. 

In  1859,  Archbishop  Kenrick  laid  the  corner  stone  for  the  Church  of  the 
Annunciation  at  Sixth  and  Lasalle  streets.  The  parish  priest  was  Patrick  John 
Ryan,  who,  three  years  later  was  to  become  the  spiritual  adviser  of  the  Confed- 
erate prisoners  confined  in  Gratiot  street  prispn ;  to  become  bishop  and  coadjutor 
to  the  archbishop  in  1872,  and  to  become,  in  1884,  archbishop  of  Philadelphia. 
St.  Louis  thus  returned  to  the  Quaker  City  the  favor  extended  in  the  gift  of 
Kenrick  nearly  forty  years  before.  The  year  that  Kenrick  came  as  bishop  to 
St.  Louis,  Ryan  entered  St.  Patrick's  College  at  Carlow  in  Ireland  as  an  affili- 
ated subject  of  the  St  Louis  bishop.  When  his  education  was  completed  he 
came  direct  to  St.  Louis,  was  ordained  here  to  the  priesthood  and  became  rector 
of  the  Cathedral. 

The  association  of  Kenrick  and  Ryan  for  thirty  years  in  St.  Louis  was 
extraordinary.  Kenrick  had  marvelous  capacity  for  organization  and  manage- 
ment. Ryan  was  philosophical  and  eloquent.  One  was  the  complement  of  the 
other.  The  relations  were  more  than  harmonious.  Upon  his  bishop  the  arch- 
bishop leaned  more  and  more.  The  Catholic  church  in  the  archdiocese  of  St. 
Louis  prospered  beyond  comparison.  The  fame  of  Ryan,  as  a  preacher  and  a 
lecturer,  became  national.  Both  of  these  men  maintained  the  friendliest  rela- 
tions with  and  commanded  the  highest  respect  of  the  non-Catholics  of  St.  Louis. 
When  Archbishop  Ryan  was  called  to  Philadelphia,  St.  Louisans,  without  re- 
gard to  religious  affiliations,  tendered  him  a  most  notable  farewell  reception. 

The  spirit  of  church  extension  which  prevailed  among  the  Catholic  clergj 
was  exemplified  in  the  case  of  Rev.  James  Henry,  who  became  one  of  the  best 
known  and  most  respected  clergymen  of  St.  Louis.  As  a  young  man  Father 
Henry  was  given  authority  to  establish  St.  Lawrence  O'Toole's  parish  and  to 
build  a  church  at  O'Fallon  and  Fourteenth  streets.  He  made  a  beginning. 
While  the  parish  was  growing  and  before  it  could  afford  a  residence  Father 
Henry  slept  in  a  nook  of  the  basement.  His  bed  was  just  below  the  bell  tower. 
The  bell  rope  was  within  reach  of  small  boys.  Many  nights  Father  Henry  got 
up  to  discover  that  the  alarms  of  fire  were  false.  In  St.  Lawrence  O'Toole's 
church  an  altar  was  built  to  the  memory  of  Thomas  B.  Hudson,  who  marched 
to  Mexico  with  the  St.  Louis  troops. 

A  city  of  refuge  for  all  creeds  of  religion  as  well  as  for  all  shades  of 
political  opinion  St.  Louis  became  early  in  its  evolution  the  typical  American 
community.  Here  was  freedom  of  political  opinion.  Here  men  worshipped  ac- 
cording to  the  dictates  of  their  conscience.  One  Sunday  morning  in  March  of 
1839,  good  Bishop  Kemper  read  in  Christ  church,  then  on  Fifth  and  Chestnut 
streets  this  notice: 

A  body  of  Lutherans,  having  been  persecuted  by  the  Saxon  government  because 
they  believed  it  their  duty  to  adhere  to  the  doctrines  inculcated  by  their  great  leader 


REV.  JOHN  HOGAN 


BISHOP    CICERO   STEPHEN   HAWKS 


FIRST  METHODIST   EPISCOPAL   CHURCH 
South  Eighth  street  and  Washington  avenue,  in  1859 


THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  509 

and  contained  in  the  Augsburg  Confession  of  Faith,  have  arrived  here  with  the  inten- 
tion of  settling  in  this  or  one  of  the  neighboring  states,  and  having  been  deprived  of  the 
privilege  of  public  worship  for  three  months,  they  have  earnestly  and  most  respectfully 
requested  the  use  of  our  church  that  they  may  again  unite  in  all  the  ordinances  of 
our  holy  religion.  I  have,  therefore,  with  the  entire  approbation  of  the  vestry,  granted 
the  use  of  our  church  for  this  day  from  2  p.  m.  until  sunset  to  a  denomination  whose 
early  members  were  highly  esteemed  by  the  English  reformers,  and  with  whom  our  glorious 
martyrs,  Cranmer,  Ridley  and  others,  had  much  early  intercourse. 

That  act  of  church  hospitality  was  fraught  with  great  consequences,  ma- 
terial as  well  as  spiritual,  to  St.  Louis.  It  added  to  St.  Louis  one  of  the  most 
desirable  elements  of  population.  It  made  this  city  not  only  nationally  but  in- 
ternationally the  capital  of  a  powerful  religious  organization.  A  college,  a 
theological  seminary,  a  publishing  house,  a  hospital  were  established. 

The  steamboats  Rienzi,  Clyde,  Knickerbocker  and  Selma  on  their  first  trips 
up  from  New  Orleans  that  spring  of  1839  brought  700  Lutherans.  The  head 
of  the  party  was  Martin  Stephan,  who  had  been  a  preacher  at  Dresden.  On 
the  journey  these  Lutherans,  who  held  tenaciously  to  the  Unaltered  Augsburg 
Confession,  named  Stephan  as  their  bishop.  They  had,  under  his  leadership, 
gone  back  to  Lutheranism  as  Martin  Luther  taught  it.  These  people  brought 
with  them  personal  effects  and  $120,000.  They  intended  to  buy  land  and  to 
found  colonies  of  their  own.  Part  of  them  went  on  to  Perry  county,  pur- 
chased nearly  5,000  acres  and  established  settlements.  The  others,  who  remained 
in  St.  Louis,  continued  to  worship  for  three  years  in  Christ  church,  the  vestry- 
men of  which  extended  the  privilege. 

Bishop  Martin  Stephan  had  not  the  self  control  to  withstand  the  tempta- 
tion of  his  position.  He  fell  into  evil  ways,  was  tried  and  expelled  from  the 
church.  For  a  time  it  seemed  as  if  the  movement  would  end  in  disorganization. 

Among  those  who  had  come  out  to  establish  this  old  faith  in  a  new  country 
were  two  young  preachers — Otto  Hermann  Walther  and  Carl  Ferdinand  Wil- 
helm  Walther.  They  were  sons  of  a  Lutheran  pastor  in  Saxony,  highly  educated. 
They  had  studied  and  prayed  their  way  to  what  they  believed  to  be  sound 
Lutheranism.  Otto  Hermann  Walther  was  the  pastor  of  the  congregation  which 
worshipped  in  Christ  church  and  which  became  Trinity,  the  first  German  Luth- 
eran church  in  St.  Louis. 

In  their  distress  and  demoralization  following  the  downfall  of  Bishop 
Stephan,  the  Lutherans  turned  to  Ferdinand  Walther.  The  young  preacher  was 
less  than  thirty  years  of  age.  He  accepted  the  leadership.  He  restored  material 
order,  but  more  than  that  he  led  the  sorely  tried  colonists  back  to  their  spiritual 
ideals.  Hermann  Walther  died.  Ferdinand  Walther  succeeded  him  here  as 
pastor  of  Trinity.  St.  Louis  became  the  center  of  Lutheran  teaching  and  Luth- 
eran influence.  For  forty-eight  years  Ferdinand  Walther  was  the  dominant 
figure  in  the  movement.  He  had  been  ordained  only  the  year  before  he  joined 
the  colony  and  left  Saxony.  When  the  end  of  his  work  came  in  1887,  he  was 
seventy-six  years  of  age.  Church  after  church  of  the  Lutheran  faith  was  or- 
ganized in  St.  Louis,  until  they  numbered  nearly  a  score.  Concordia  college 
grew  from  its  humble  beginning  in  1850  into  one  of  the  great  educational  in- 
stitutions of  the  city. 


510  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

As  early  as  1844  the  St.  Louis  Lutherans  supported  Walther  in  making 
their  movement  more  than  local.  The  Lutheraner  was  published  semi-monthly. 
It  called  upon  Lutherans  everywhere  in  the  United  States  to  come  back  to  the 
old  faith.  Lutherans  had  been  coming  to  this  country  long  before  the  colony 
reached  St.  Louis.  They  were  numerous  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  and 
North  Carolina.  They  had  spread  into  Ohio  and  Tennessee,  Indiana  and  Illi- 
nois. But  they  had  adopted  much  doctrine  which,  in  the  opinion  of  Walther 
and  his  St.  Louis  following,  was  not  sound.  Die  Lutheraner's  appeals  aroused 
great  interest  east  of  the  Mississippi.  Much  correspondence  followed.  There 
were  meetings  and  conferences.  In  1847,  at  Chicago  was  organized  a  Lutheran 
synod  with  a  constitution  drafted  by  Walther  and  with  the  St.  Louis  theologian 
as  president.  It  embraced  many  of  the  eastern  Lutherans.  Walther  came  back 
to  St.  Louis  and  entered  upon  his  great  career  as  a  teacher  of  pure  Lutheran 
theology.  He  prepared  hundreds  of  pastors  for  churches.  His  theology  went 
direct  to  the  Bible  for  substantiation.  The  leader  of  orthodox  Lutheranism  had 
many  controversies  with  other  Lutherans.  He  courted  these  discussions.  Upon 
his  suggestion,  the  Lutheran  bodies  of  the  United  States  held  free  conferences 
to  discuss  their  doctrinal  differences.  And  after  every  one  of  these  conferences 
Lutherans  got  nearer  together  and  Ferdinand  Walther  was  more  a  leader  of 
Lutheran  thought  than  before.  He  went  to  Europe  to  present  his  views.  He 
edited  Lutheran  periodicals  which  obtained  wide  circulation.  The  Lutheran 
publishing  house  in  St.  Louis  became  a  far  famed  institution. 

Ferdinand  Walther  was  an  ardent  lover  of  music  all  of  his  life.  He  was 
a  man  of  humor,  which  he  masked  with  a  serious  face.  He  wrote  his  sermons 
and  committed  them  to  memory  so  that  he  spoke  without  manuscript  before 
him.  He  was  an  orator  of  national  fame.  Lutheran  churches  of  St.  Louis  with 
but  few  exceptions  have  attached  to  them  parochial  schools,  in  which  the  chil- 
dren of  Lutherans  are  educated.  Square  miles  of  South  St.  Louis  and  North 
St.  Louis  are  occupied  almost  exclusively  by  these  Lutherans.  As  a  class  they 
are  home  owners  and  well  to  do  people. 

An  English  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  was  organized  in  1867  with  Rev. 
Dr.  M.  Rhodes  as  pastor,  developing  into  one  of  the  strong  religious  organiza- 
tions of  St.  Louis. 

When  Daniel  Sylvester  Tuttle  was,  in  1866,  elected  bishop  of  Montana, 
with  jurisdiction  over  Idaho  and  Utah,  he  was  compelled  to  confess  to  the 
committee  sent  to  notify  him  that  he  was  only  twenty-nine  years  old.  The 
church  law  required  a  candidate  to  be  thirty  years  old.  Bishops  Potter  and 
Whitehouse  were  the  committee.  They  had  picked  out  Mr.  Tuttle,  a  man  of 
stalwart  frame,  as  peculiarly  well  fitted  for  such  missionary  field  as  the  three 
frontier  territories  offered  at  that  day.  They  were  not  willing  to  relinquish  their 
plan.  So  they  said  to  Mr.  Tuttle,  "My  brother,  go  home  to  Morris  to  your 
work,  continue  in  it  quietly  and  steadily  till  after  January  26,  1867,  when  you 
will  be  thirty  years  old.  After  that  you  will  doubtless  receive  from  the  pre- 
siding bishop  information  to  guide  you  in  your  next  step."  Thus  it  came  about 
that  in  1867,  with  a  little  missionary  band,  Bishop  Tuttle  started  for  Montana, 
within  the  bounds  of  which  no  Episcopal  clergyman  had  set  foot  up  to  that 
time.  The  bishop  rode  across  the  plains  on  a  stage  coach,  every  man  carrying 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  511 

a  rifle  and  a  revolver  for  protection  against  Indians.  Tlje  first  thing  he  did 
on  reaching  Salt  Lake  was  to  call  upon  Brigham  Young,  telling  him  for  what  he 
had  come.  Ten  days  afterwards,  the  bishop  confirmed  eleven  persons.  He 
went  on  to  Montana  and  lived  in  a  log  cabin  in  the  mining  town  of  Virginia 
City.  That  year  a  telegram  came  to  the  bishop  in  his  cabin  from  Rev.  Mont- 
gomery Schuyler  of  St.  Louis,  reading:  "Elected  bishop  of  Missouri  at  Kirk- 
wood,  May  29th,  on  first  ballot."  Bishop  Tuttle  sent  back  his  declination.  His 
sole  companion  in  the  cabin  at  Virginia  City  was  his  cat  "Dick."  Nineteen 
years  later  a  second  telegram  from  Dr.  Schuyler  found  Bishop  Tuttle  in  a 
mining  camp  of  Utah  and  notified  him  that  for  the  second  time  he  had  been 
elected  bishop  of  Missouri.  This  time  acceptance  was  sent.  Bishop  Tuttle  came 
to  St.  Louis  in  1886. 

Religious  journalism  in  the  west  owed  a  great  deal  to  Rev.  John  W.  Allen, 
of  Ohio  birth,  who  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1873.  Mr.  Allen  founded  the  St.  Louis 
Evangelist,  which  became  the  Mid-Continent.  He  was  in  charge  of  the  mission- 
ary work  of  the  Presbyterians  many  years. 

John  Calvin  Learned,  a  scholarly  man,  a  student  all  of  his  life,  served  the 
Church  of  the  Unity  a  quarter  of  a  century.  He  was  born  in  Dublin,  New 
Hampshire.  His  influence  was  not  confined  to  the  pulpit.  He  taught  ethics 
and  political  economy  in  Washington  University  and  developed  one  of  the 
strong  literary  organizations  of  St.  Louis — the  Unity  Club. 

Rev.  Dr.  James  Wilderman  Lee  was  born  on  a  Georgia  farm  and  educated 
in  a  Methodist  college  of  his  native  state.  His  "Footprints  of  the  Man  of 
Galilee"  and  his  "Romance  of  Palestine"  gave  him  high  standing  in  religious 
literature. 

Three  of  the  greatest  of  American  sees  have  drawn  archbishops  from  the 
clergy  of  St.  Louis.  At  the  Vatican  they  sometimes  speak  of  St.  Louis  as  "the 
Rome  of  America."  Not  less  to  priests  than  to  bishops  and  archbishops  does 
the  city  owe.  Priests  like  Henry,  McCaffery,  Walsh  stood  for  education  and 
for  morality  in  great  sections  of  the  city  as  well  as  for  religious  teaching.  The 
crusade  of  Coffey  against  the  wine-room  was  an  act  of  best  citizenship.  Zieg- 
ler's  sturdy  and  unyielding  battle  to  save  his  parish  from  invasion  by  the  red 
light  won  the  admiration  of  all  good  people.  When  the  high  prelates  came 
from  other  cities  and  counties  to  attend  the  corner  stone  laying  of  the  new 
cathedral  in  1908,  they  marveled  at  the  work  of  Father  Dunne  among  newsboys 
and  of  Father  Dempsey  among  homeless  men. 

These  are  the  years  of  our  Lord,  in  St.  Louis.  Along  Lindell,  Kings  High- 
way, Delmar  and  Union,  the  citizen  walks  and  marvels.  Dome,  tower,  column 
and  chimes  give  continuous  impression.  Such  a  period  of  church  building  the 
city  has  never  before  known.  Possibly  the  first  decade  of  the  century  will  show 
greater  expenditure  for  church  construction  in  St.  Louis  than  all  of  the  136 
years  preceding.  This  interesting  and  notable  part  of  the  building  of  St.  Louis 
is  not  confined  to  any  creed.  Every  denomination  can  point  to  a  new  house  of 
worship,  admirable  in  architecture,  modern  in  appointments,  a  credit  to  the  city. 

In  1906-08  the  Catholics  of  St.  Louis  completed  or  started  construction 
on  twelve  new  churches  in  St.  Louis.  In  1908  they  had  four  large  churches 
under  construction — Visitation,  Holy  Ghost,  St.  Henry  and  St.  Bernard.  But 


512  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

the  great  contribution  to  the  church  architecture  of  the  city,  that  in  which  the 
whole  community  had  an  interest,  was  the  cathedral,  with  its  foundation  walls 
above  ground  and  awaiting  the  corner  stone  of  Missouri  granite.  It  is  no  de- 
traction from  the  reverence  and  religious  fervor  of  the  Catholic,  that  the  St. 
Louisan  forecasts  with  civic  pride  the  completion  of  a  cathedral  which  will 
surpass  any  other  in  the  country.  And  by  the  same  sign  it  is  none  the  less  a 
fitting  subject  for  civic  pride  that  this  monumental  creation  of  the  architect 
and  the  artist  had  as  its  inspiration  the  religious  motive. 

The  sun  sent  slanting  rays  through  banks  of  clouds  into  the  faces  of  an 
army  with  banners  marching  out  Lindell  avenue  on  Sunday,  the  i8th  of  Oc- 
tober, 1908.  Pageants  of  different  kinds  St.  Louis  had  seen,  but  never  before 
one  like  that.  Of  military  and  of  civic  demonstrations  there  had  been  many. 
But  now  moved  with  the  precision  and  array  of  an  army  the  men  of  the  Catholic 
churches.  This  mighty  host  gave  new  meaning  to  the  79  parishes  of  the  city. 

East  and  west  of  Newstead  avenue  spread  a  mass  of  humanity  which 
crowded  sidewalks  and  lawns  and  encroached  upon  the  broad  asphalt  until 
only  by  strenuous  effort  of  the  police  was  a  pathway  kept  open  for  the  moving 
column.  Above  the  heads  of  the  marchers  and  spectators  hung  from  the  long 
arm  of  a  great  crane  a  massive  block  of  granite  with  the  words  "Christo  Vic- 
tori."  Over  the  foundations  of  the  new  cathedral,  tier  above  tier,  sat  the  hun- 
dreds of  frocked  priests  and  seminarians.  In  front  were  grouped  about  the 
Apostolic  Delegate,  Diomede  Falconio,  most  reverend  archbishops  and  the  right 
reverend  bishops,  in  their  purple  robes.  A  full  head  above  the  other  dignitaries, 
erect  of  figure,  his  face  alight  with  the  spirit  of  the  event,  stood  the  young 
metropolitan  of  St.  Louis,  John  J.  Glennon. 

A  striking  feature  in  the  celebration  of  the  laying  of  the  corner  stone  was 
the  interest  shown  by  the  entire  community.  Lindell  boulevard,  the  great  resi- 
dence, church  and  club  avenue  of  the  city  of  St.  Louis,  from  Grand  avenue 
to  Kings  Highway,  a  distance  of  nearly  two  miles,  was  filled  with  waving  colors. 
In  response  to  the  invitation  of  the  central  committee  having  charge  of  the 
celebration  the  residents  and  the  institutions  on  the  avenue  almost  without  ex- 
ception hung  out  the  American  flag.  The  request  of  the  committee  was  that 
the  colors  of  the  country  be  displayed.  Directly  opposite  the  scene  of  the  cere- 
mony, American  flags  festooned  the  windows  of  the  Lindell  Avenue  Methodist 
church. 

Among  the  seated  guests  upon  the  stand  overlooking  the  corner  stone  were 
men  of  all  religious  beliefs,  responsive  by  their  presence  to  the  general  sentiment 
that  the  whole  city  had  a  living  sympathetic  interest  and  pride  in  the  ceremony. 

Nearly,  if  not  quite  one-half  of  the  population  of  the  city  of  St.  Louis  is 
Roman  Catholic.  This  population  is  divided  into  seventy-nine  parishes,  all  of 
which  participated  as  units  in  the  parade  of  the  i8th  of  October,  making  the 
largest  demonstration  in  number  ever  seen  in  the  city  of  St.  Louis  and  one  of 
the  largest  in  the  history  of  the  country.  Besides  numbers  the  procession  was 
of  extraordinary  character  in  the  nationalities  represented.  There  were: 

Forty-four  American  parishes. 

Twenty-one  German  parishes. 

Four  Polish  parishes. 


REV.  P.  G.  ROBERT 


REV.  DR.  JOSEPH  BOYLE 


CENTENARY   METHODIST   EPISCOPAL 
SECOND  BAPTIST  CHURCH  CHURCH 

Sixth  and  Locust  streets,  before  the  Fifth  and  Pine  streets,  in  1859.     Dr.  McAnally's 

war  Christian  Advocate   Office   on   Pine   street 


THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  513 

One  Slavak  parish. 

One  colored  parish. 

One  Croatian  parish. 

One  Syro-Maronite  parish. 

Three   Italian   parishes. 

Two  Bohemian  parishes. 

One  Greek-Ruthenien  parish. 

The  rule  adopted  for  the  order  of  the  procession  in  honor  of  the  laying 
of  the  corner  stone  of  the  cathedral  gave  the  parishes  position  according  to 
the  dates  of  the  original  formation.  This  brought  to  the  head  of  the  column 
the  first  Catholic  parish  organization  in  St.  Louis  in  1770.  The  Old  Cathedral 
parish,  as  it  is  known,  had  been  in  continuous  existence  138  years.  It  was  or- 
ganized six  years  after  Laclede  founded  the  settlement  of  St.  Louis. 

The  Latin, .  cut  deep  into  the  geological  formation  which  is  the  founda- 
tion of  all  terrestrial,  dedicates  the  building  to  the  Saviour  and  in  the  same  sen- 
tence honors  the  city.  The  sentiment  is  reverent  and  patriotic.  It  is  happily 
framed.  When  the  archbishop  approached  the  matter  of  the  inscription,  he 
thought  much  about  what  sentiment  should  be  embraced  in  it.  'To  well  known 
Latin  scholars  he  sent  out  his  request  for  counsel.  He  told  them  that  the 
words  should  be  few,  that  they  should  impress  primarily  the  religious  char- 
acter of  the  edifice,  the  consecration  to  the  Catholic  faith.  And  then  he  added 
that  recognition  of  the  patron  and  of  the  city  should  be  included.  And  finally 
the  archbishop  desired  that  the  participation  of  the  entire  diocese  in  the  build- 
ing of  this  cathedral  should  be  given  imperishable  tribute. 

The  Benedictines  are  famous  for  their  learning  and  skill  in  the  crypto- 
gram. They  were  asked  to  suggest  a  form  of  inscription.  The  archbishop 
did  not  stop  with  the  Latinists  of  the  United  States.  He  gave  some  of  the 
scholars  of  Europe  opportunity  to  compete.  A  St.  Louis  priest  supplied  the 
text  which,  with  slight  alteration,  was  decided  to  express  best  the  sentiments. 
He  used  fewer  than  forty  words,  most  of  them  very  short.  In  the  Latin,  St. 
Louis  becomes  "S.  Ludovici." 

The  translation,  following  closely  the  concise  Latin,  is : 

"To  Christ  the  victor,  and  in  honor  of  St.  Louis,  King  of  France,  patron 
of  the  bounteous  city  and  archdiocese,  this  stone,  inaugural  of  the  metropoli- 
tan church,  erected  by  the  bounty  of  the  faithful  of  the  whole  diocese,  was 
placed  on  October  18,  by  the  Most  Reverend  Delegate  of  the  Holy  See." 

The  inscription  was  the  composition  of  Rev.  F.  G.  Holweck,  rector  of  St. 
Francis  de  Sales  church  on  the  Gravois  road  in  the  southern  part  of  the  city. 
Father  Holweck  is  one  of  the  foremost  classical  scholars  in  the  country.  He  is 
the  censor  librorum  of  this  archdiocese.  Catholic  books  intended  for  publication 
here  are  submitted  in  manuscript  to  him  because  of  his  ability  to  detect  errors. 
Out  of  all  of  the  forms  suggested  for  this  corner  stone,  Rector  Holweck's  ex- 
pressed most  perfectly  the  sentiments  the  archbishop  desired. 

The  parade  of  the  parishes  preceded  the  laying  of  the  corner  stone.  When 
the  head  of  the  column  led  by  the  grand  marshal,  Amedee  Valle  Reyburn,  a 
descendant  of  one  of  the  oldest  families  of  St.  Louis,  reached  the  site  of  the 
new  cathedral,  it  was  met  by  a  procession  of  prelates  and  priests,  the  most 


7- VOL.  II. 


514  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

notable  ever  seen  in  the  Mississippi  valley.  The  Apostolic  Delegate,  Most  Rev- 
erend Diomede  Falconio,  was  escorted  by  the  seven  archbishops,  thirty  bishops 
and  seven  hundred  priests  from  the  Sacred  Heart  convent,  on  Maryland  avenue, 
to  the  site  of  the  cathedral,  arriving  there  just  as  the  procession  of  the  parishes 
came  marching  up  from  the  other  direction. 

The  procession  of  the  parishes  was  three  hours  in  passing  the  reviewing 
stand  upon  which  the  distinguished  prelates  took  their  positions.  When  the 
procession  of  the  parishes  had  filed  by,  the  laying  and  blessing  of  the  corner 
stone  took  place  in  accordance  with  the  usual  forms  of  the  Catholic  church.  It 
was  preceded  by  the  blessing  of  a  great  cross  which  had  been  erected  for  the 
occasion.  After  the  blessing  of  the  cross  Qame  the  blessing  of  the  foundation 
of  the  new  structure,  and  then  the  procession  of  prelates  and  priests  marched 
back  to  the  stone  which  was  first  blessed  and  then  placed  by  the  Apostolic 
Delegate.  The  ceremony  concluded  with  the  drawing  of  the  cross  by  the  trowel 
upon  the  side  of  the  corner  stone. 

The  Catholics  of  St.  Louis  had  been  preparing  for  this  work  of  building  a 
grand  cathedral  a  generation  or  more.  Archbishop  Kenrick,  during  his  life- 
time, conceived  and  made  some  preliminary  plans  looking  to  a  cathedral.  The 
late  Archbishop  Kain,  who  succeeded  Archbishop  Kenrick,  also  devoted  atten- 
tion to  the  project  and  started  the  fund  for  it.  It  remained,  however,  for  the 
present  archbishop  of  St.  Louis,  Most  Rev.  John  J.  Glennon,  to  take  up  pre- 
liminaries and  to  bring  the  project  to  the  actual  construction.  Archbishop 
Glennon  was  made  coadjutor  bishop  of  St.  Louis  under  Archbishop  Kain's 
administration  during  1903,  and  the  same  year,  on  the  death  of  Archbishop 
Kain,  Bishop  Glennon  became  archbishop  of  St.  Louis,  being  the  youngest 
prelate  of  that  rank  in  the  country. 

It  was  well  that  the  movement  progressed  slowly.  An  earlier  beginning 
might  have  been  a  mistake  as  to  location.  On  the  28th  of  April,  1871,  was 
taken  the  formal  step  for  the  cathedral,  the  corner  stone  of  which  was  laid 
October  18,  1908.  Archbishop  Kenrick,  Bishop  Ryan  and  Vicar-General  Muehl- 
siepen  were  at  the  head  of  the  movement.  The  men  of  means  of  that  day 
who  participated  in  the  incorporation  of  the  St.  Louis  Cathedral  Building 
association  were  James  H.  Lucas,  Henry  S.  Turner,  Joseph  O'Neil,  John 
Withnell,  Nicholas  Schaeffer,  H.  J.  Spaunhorst,  J.  B.  Ghio,  Bernhard  Crick- 
hard,  Julius  S.  Walsh,  John  Byrne,  Jr.,  Bernard  Slevin,  Charles  P.  Chouteau, 
Charles  Slevin,  James  Magnire,  Joseph  Garneau.  The  site  tentatively  selected 
was  the  block  bounded  by  Twenty-second  and  Twenty-third  streets,  Pine  and 
Chestnut  streets,  now  largely  occupied  by  light  manufacturing  establishments. 

The  cathedral  of  St.  Louis  will  be  longer,  wider  and  higher  than  the 
Westminster  of  London.  Definite  time  for  the  completion  of  this  cathedral 
has  not  been  set.  The  archbishop  of  St.  Louis,  Most  Rev.  John  J.  Glennon, 
lifted  the  first  spade  of  soil  on  the  first  day  of  May,  1907.  Eighteen  months 
brought  the  builders  to  the  ceremony  of  corner  stone  laying.  Not  before 
1915,  probably,  will  the  cathedral  be  ready  for  occupancy. 

For  the  cathedral  of  St.  Louis  has  been  chosen  the  Byzantine  style  of 
architecture.  This  means  an  exterior  impressive  for  its  magnitude,  its  strength, 
its  simplicity.  It  also  means  an  interior  of  almost  limitless  opportunity  for 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  515 

sacred  art,  for  mosaics,  for  statuary.  The  interior  is  so  planned  that  the 
preacher  delivering  a  sermon  can  look  into  three  thousand  faces. 

Sunday  observance  has  been  repeatedly  an  issue  to  which  St.  Louis  news- 
papers have  given  attention.  The  Whig  party  in  St.  Louis  went  to  pieces 
and  the  Native  American  idea  became  popular  about  1846.  A  Sunday  law 
was  passed  by  the  common  council.  The  city  government  was  under  control 
of  the  Native  American  party.  The  new  law  prohibited  the  running  of  omni- 
buses "on  Sunday  after  the  hour  of  2  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  for  the  purpose 
of  carrying  passengers  from  point  to  point."  This  ordinance  applied  to  any 
"omnibus  or  vehicle  capable  of  containing  more  than  four  persons."  The 
ordinance  upon  omnibus  service  was  denounced  editorially. 

Mayor  O.  D.  Filley  was  elected  by  the  Free  Soil  party  shortly  before  the 
war.  In  August,  1859,  the  people  of  St.  Louis  voted,  7,544  to  5,543,  against 
the  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors  on  Sunday.  The  Missouri  Republican,  com- 
menting on  the  result  said: 

The  triumphant  vote  by  which  the  people  of  St.  Louis  declared  their  opposition  to  the 
sale  of  intoxicating  liquors  on  Sunday  is  a  matter  of  sincere  congratulation  to  all  our 
best  citizens.  It  was  not  a  party  vote;  it  had  nothing  to  do  with  party,  but  was  the  free 
declaration  of  mind  of  all  parties  and  nationalities  against  the  excesses  which  have  been 
superinduced  by  a  special  law  of  the  legislature  passed  two  years  ago  in  effect  giving 
unlimited  license  in  the  absence  of  a  proper  police  to  these  houses  being  kept  open  on 
Sunday  *  *  *  *  Not  only  the  beer  gardens  in  the  suburbs,  to  which  men  retire  as 
a  place  of  pleasure  and  relaxation — on  Sunday,  but  all  the  beer  saloons  and  dancehouses 
and  five  or  six  theaters  have  been  opened  on  Sunday  night  on  every  prominent  street  in 
the  city.  This  is  the  evil  that  is  mainly  complained  of  by  our  citizens. 

In  defiance  of  the  vote  against  the  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors  on  Sunday, 
the  common  council  passed  an  ordinance  legalizing  the  keeping  open  of  saloons 
on  Sunday  until  9  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  after  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 
This  action  was  severely  condemned  by  the  newspapers.  It  was  rebuked  in  a 
ringing  message  by  Mayor  Filley. 

The  nearest  approach  to  a  religious  riot  in  St.  Louis  occurred  in  1844, 
at  Ninth  street  and  Washington  avenue.  The  Native  American  movement 
had  reached  large  proportions.  It  had  in  some  parts  of  the  country  taken  the 
form  of  mob  violence  against  Catholic  institutions.  It  gained  considerable 
strength  in  St.  Louis,  but  did  not  assume  the  phase  of  religious  intolerance, 
being  directed  against  foreign  immigation  on  political  grounds  mainly  Phila- 
delphia was  disgraced  by  the  sacking  of  churches  and  by  bloodshed.  Several 
other  American  cities  passed  through  periods  of  serious  disturbance.  What 
occurred  in  this  city  is  given  upon  high  Catholic  authority,  the  language  being 
that  of  a  member  of  the  clergy  who  was  in  St.  Louis  at  the  time : 

It  so  happened  that  the  Jesuits  had  already  built  a  fine  church  of  St.  Xavier,  and 
near  it  was  their  house  of  residence  and  a  splendid  college  then  chartered  as  a  state 
university,  to  which  a  college  of  medicine  had  been  annexed.  To  the  latter  was  attached 
a  dissecting  house,  and  owing  to  some  shameful  neglect  on  the  part  of  the  professors  or 
students  of  medicine,  human  remains  were  left  exposed  in  the  yard  adjoining  and  seen 
through  interstices  of  the  wooden  partition  separating  it  from  the  public  street.  Soon  a 
crowd  collected,  and  then  imaginations  or  passions  became  strongly  excited.  Wild  rumors 
spread  abroad  that  all  the  horrors  of  the  Spanish  Inquisition  were  being  renewed  in  St. 
Louis  by  the  Jesuits,  that  men  and  women  had  been  tortured  and  put  to  death.  Cries 
were  raised  in  the  streets  and  the  mob  began  to  arm  for  an  onslaught  on  the  college. 


516  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

At  this  moment  the  brave  Judge  Bryan  Mullanphy,  and  another  brave  Irishman  named 
John  Conran  collected  a  posse  of  Catholics  and  friendly  Protestant  citizens  armed  with 
rifles.  The  American,  Irish  and  German  Catholics  assembled  in  great  force  around  the 
Jesuits'  college,  prepared  to  defend  it  if  necessary,  even  to  the  last  extremity.  The  oppos- 
ing bands  met  and  determined  upon  a  desperate  struggle.  However,  Judge  Mullanphy 
went  boldly  forward  and  asked  to  be  heard  by  the  opposing  mob,  then  sending  forth  wild 
yells  and  imprecations.  Having  obtained  a  hearing  with  great  difficulty,  and  speaking 
with  the  coolness  and  deliberation  his  true  courage  and  sense  of  duty  inspired,  the  judge 
gave  a  correct  and  brief  explanation  of  the  case,  and  he  declared  that  every  effort  should 
be  made  to  detect  and  punish  the  delinquents,  who  had  offered  such  an  outrage  to  public 
decency  and  to  common  humanity.  The  mob  finally  dispersed,  and  with  them  the  party 
of  defenders.  Terrible  rumors  prevailed  all  that  day  in  St.  Louis,  that  our  Catholic 
churches  and  houses  would  be  burned  or  wrecked.  Some  faithful  and  brave  Irishmen 
had  armed  for  defense  of  our  seminary,  and  contrived  to  let  us  know  through  the  chinks 
of  our  planked  enclosure  that  we  were  in  some  danger  of  attack.  It  was  only  on  the  day 
following,  we  learned  all  of  the  particulars  of  excitement  that  had  taken  place  in  the 
city.  When  the  daily  papers  had  published  the  details,  popular  indignation  was  quelled. 
Only  the  natural  expression  of  wounded  feeling  found  vent  in  the  various  journals. 

In  the  fall  of  1850  came  Father  Matthew,  the  Irish  apostle  of  temperance. 
There  had  already  been  organized  in  St.  Louis  a  Catholic  Total  Abstinence 
society.  The  zealous  president  of  it  was  Rev.  John  T.  Higgenbotham,  to  whom 
Father  Matthew  had  administered  the  pledge  in  St.  John's  college,  Waterford. 
Father  Matthew  was  made  a  guest  of  Archbishop  Kenrick  and  began  his  work 
in  St.  Louis.  He  preached  in  the  principal  churches.  He  delivered  addresses 
from  platforms  in  public  places.  Following  his  sermons  and  his  speeches, 
Father  Matthew  administered  personally  the  pledge  to  all  who  came  forward 
to  take  it.  The  occasion  was  made  as  impressive  as  possible.  Every  day  the 
Apostle  as  he  was  commonly  called  received  in  the  parlor  at  the  archbishop's 
house.  He  had  two  secretaries.  His  callers  included  all  classes  from  mer- 
chants to  roustabouts.  One  day  a  gigantic  riverman  staggered  into  the  recep- 
tion room,  stretched  himself  out  on  the  archbishop's  sofa  and  dropped  into  a 
drunken  slumber.  One  of  the  priests  suggested  to  Father  Matthew  that  the 
visitor  was  hardly  a  promising  subject  for  his  effort. 

"My  dear,"  replied  the  Apostle,  in  his  mild  serious  manner,  "I  am  quite 
sure  he  will  take  the  pledge  so  soon  as  he  awakes  and  comes  to  consciousness, 
for  he  will  then  be  sober  and  ashamed  of  his  past  course  of  life  when  I  speak 
to  him." 

He  would  not  permit  the  drunken  man  to  be  disturbed.  Father  Matthew 
continued  his  temperance  work  in  St.  Louis  until  the  beginning  of  winter.  His 
doings  Were  reported  at  length  in  the  papers.  When  the  Apostle  left  St.  Louis 
he  was  escorted  to  the  boat  by  thousands  of  "total  abstainers." 

Two  notable  events  of  philanthropic  character  distinguished  the  year  1847. 

From  across  the  water  came  reports  that  Ireland  and  Scotland  had  sus- 
tained almost  total  failure  of  crops.  It  was  said  that  hundreds  had  died  for 
want  of  proper  nourishment  and  that  thousands  more  would  perish  unless 
relief  reached  them.  St.  Louis  acted  promptly.  The  friends  of  Ireland  met, 
with  Colonel  John  O'Fallon  presiding.  They  chose  a  citizens'  committee  and 
obtained  contributions  in  money  and  food.  About  the  same  time  citizens  of 
St.  Louis  who  were  of  Scottish  descent,  organized  under  the  leadership  of 


BISHOP  C.  F.  ROBERTSON 


THE  CATHOLIC  CATHEDRAL 


CHRIST  CHURCH 

Thirteenth  and  Locust  streets,  as  it 

appeared  in  1860 


ST.   PAUL'S  EPISCOPAL   CHURCH 
Seventeenth  and  Olive  streets, 
before  the  war 


THE  RELIGIOUS  LIFE 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  517 

Kenneth  McKenzie,  the  fur  trader.  They  raised  a  considerable  sum  of  money, 
which  was  forwarded  to  Scotland. 

From  conversions  of  non-Catholics,  the  Catholic  church  gained  strength 
in  St.  Louis  before  the  war.  As  early  as  1848  Archbishop  Kenrick  began  a 
notable  undertaking.  He  had  public  announcement  made  that  during  Lent  he 
would  deliver  evening  lectures.  His  subjects  were  such  as  Evidences  of  Chris- 
tianity, Divine  Revelation,  Mysteries  of  Religion,  Doctrines  of  the  Church, 
Ritual  Observances  and  so  on  through  an  elaborate  course  of  information  on 
the  Catholic  faith.  About  the  same  time  that  the  archbishop  announced  his 
lectures,  a  Catholic  newspaper  called  the  St.  Louis  Newsletter  was  started. 
Father  O'Hanlon  was  made  the  editor.  The  Newsletter  was  published  weekly 
and  it  made  a  feature  of  the  archbishop's  lectures.  Not  only  was  the  public 
given  to  understand  that  the  lecture  course  would  be  open  to  anybody  who 
chose  to  come  but  a  special  effort  was  made  to  show  non-Catholics  that  they 
were  welcome.  Owners  of  pews  threw  them  open  to  all  comers.  It  soon 
became  apparent  that  a  considerable  proportion  of  the  attendants  upon  these 
lectures  were  non-Catholics.  The  cathedral  was  thronged,  the  attendance  in- 
cluding some  of  the  most  prominent  people  in  the  city.  The  editor  of  the 
Newsletter  of  1848  has  left  a  record  of  this  religious  awakening  in  St.  Louis: 

It  was  scarcely  possible  to  understand  how  the  archbishop  could  find  a  moment's 
time  to  prepare  and  arrange  the  heads  of  these  discourses,  much  less  to  deliver  them  in 
that  orderly  and  logical  manner  in  which  they  were  molded;  but  they  were  indeed  most 
instructive  to  the  priests,  as  to  the  laity  present,  for  while  each  lecture  evinced  a  pro- 
found knowledge  of  the  subject,  it  was  enforced  by  reasoning  and  illustrations  which 
carried  conviction  to  the  minds  of  all  dispassionate  hearers.  I  found  that  the  archbishop 
was  accustomed  to  jot  down  on  a  small  sheet  of  paper  the  divisions  of  his  sermon  for 
each  evening,  while  he  trusted  to  a  well  stored  memory  for  the  abundant  matter  hia 
theological  erudition  had  gleaned,  and  a  measured  fluency  and  accuracy  of  language 
came  to  his  aid  without  any  apparent  effort.  I  was  fortunate  to  procure  these  notes  after 
they  had  been  used,  and  soon  the  archbishop  undertook  to  revise  my  reports,  before  they 
were  sent  to  the  printer.  I  have  reason  to  know  these  resumes  served  a  very  useful  pur- 
pose and  they  formed  a  feature  of  the  Newsletter  which  was  particularly  interesting  to 
all  its  readers.  The  result  of  this  course  of  instruction  was  to  bring  an  additional  num- 
ber of  non-Catholic  visitors  to  the  cathedral.  As  their  interest  and  spirit  of  inquiry  grew, 
many  of  them  desired  interviews  with  the  archbishop  to  receive  further  explanations  and 
instruction.  Several  well-disposed  and  distinguished  persons  were  thus  prepared  for  ad- 
mission to  the  church.  Whether  conditionally  or  unconditionally  administered,  baptism 
was  received  by  many,  and  afterwards  these  became  practical  and  fervent  Catholics.  Not 
alone  the  archbishop  but  several  of  his  priests  engaged  in  the  duty  of  catechising  and 
receiving  converts  of  the  greatest  respectability  and  of  a  thoughtful  intelligent  class.  As 
in  the  Apostolic  time,  the  Lord  daily  added  to  His  church  those  who  were  to  be  saved. 
So  St.  Louis  began  to  acquire  a  distinction  for  Catholicity. 

Archbishop  Kenrick  gave  a  great  deal  of  attention  to  the  Newsletter.  He 
not  only  contributed  articles  but  advised  as  to  editorial  policy.  He  counseled 
that  while  in  its  main  feature  it  should  be  distinctively  a  Catholic  newspaper, 
yet  it  should  maintain  a  high  literary  character  through  essays,  reviews  and 
especially  in  well  selected  reprint.  He  used  to  recommend  the  use  of  scissors 
and  paste  pot,  saying  to  the  editor,  "Selected  sense  is  much  better  than  original 
nonsense." 

Thirty  years  after  Archbishop  Kenrick  had  inaugurated  and  carried  out 
a  policy,  if  that  word  may  be  used,  of  interesting  and  impressing  non-Catholics, 


ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

another  great  preacher  with  remarkable  power  for  awakening  religious  thought 
came  forward  in  the  Catholic  church  of  St.  Louis.  It  is  told  of  Patrick  John 
Ryan  that  when  he  was  thirteen  years  old,  in  Naughton's  school  in  the  parish 
of  Rathmines,  he  was  chosen  as  the  spokesman  to  deliver  a  special  address  to 
Daniel  O'Connell,  imprisoned  in  1844  at  Richmond,  Bridewell.  The  boy  was 
the  born  orator.  He  had  a  taste  for  literary  effort.  His  schoolmates  selected 
him  to  prepare  the  address  and  read  it  to  the  patriot. 

Father  Ryan  was  only  a  deacon  when  with  a  determination  to  become  a 
missionary  priest  in  America,  he  reached  St.  Louis  toward  the  close  of  1852 
and  was  sent  to  Carondelet.  With  him  came  Patrick  A.  Feehan,  who  became 
bishop  of  Nashville  and  afterwards  archbishop  of  Chicago.  The  two  young 
deacons  were  sent  to  the  seminary  to  remain  until  of  age  for  ordination  to  the 
priesthood.  Father  Ryan  became  a  bishop  in  1872  but  long  before  that  he 
was  famed  for  his  eloquence.  After  his  ordination  in  1854,  he  was  attached 
to  the  cathedral.  He  became  best  known  as  pastor  of  St.  John's,  where  for 
twenty  years  he  preached  regularly,  his  sermons  drawing  non-Catholics  in  large 
numbers.  It  became  the  custom  with  strangers  in  the  city  over  Sunday  to 
attend  St.  John's  on  Sixteenth  and  Chestnut  to  hear  a  sermon  by  Father  Ryan. 

Father  Tom  Burke,  the  Dominican  of  international  fame  as  an  orator, 
came  to  St.  Louis  between  1870  and  1880  and  remained  some  time.  He  was 
on  a  lecture  tour  of  the  United  States.  While  he  was  here  Father  Tom,  for 
that  everybody  called  him,  heard  Bishop  Ryan  then  but  recently  consecrated. 
There  was  no  jealousy  of  Father  Ryan;  the  humility  of  the  man  forbade  it, 
but  intense  admiration  for  his  power  as  a  speaker.  The  St.  Louis  priests 
asked  Father  Tom  what  he  thought  of  their  pulpit  orator. 

"Well,  in  good  truth,"  replied  Father  Burke,  "when  I  heard  Lacordaire  in 
Paris,  I  thought  the  whole  church  could  not  produce  his  equal,  but  now  that 
I  have  heard  your  good  and  great  assistant  bishop,  I  do  not  hesitate  to  say 
that  as  a  pulpit  orator  he  immeasurably  surpasses  that  celebrated  preacher  of 
our  order." 

After  the  manifold  duties  of  bishop  made  it  impossible  to  preach  weekly 
at  St.  John's,  Father  Ryan  adopted  the  custom  of  occupying  the  pulpit  on  the 
first  Sunday  of  the  month,  unless  he  was  too  far  away  to  get  home.  "Bishop 
Ryan's  Sunday"  obtained  a  fixed  place  on  the  religious  calendar  of  St.  Louis. 
On  those  Sundays  St.  John's  was  uncomfortably  crowded. 

The  outside  calls  upon  Bishop  Ryan  grew  numerous  and  pressing.  By 
invitation,  the  eloquent  prelate  preached  twice  before  the  Missouri  legislature. 
He  was  very  obliging.  Twice  he  went  to  Columbia  to  address  the  students  of 
the  University  of  Missouri.  The  Sanctity  of  the  Church  and  Modern  Skep- 
ticism were  two  subjects  upon  which  Bishop  Ryan  preached  or  lectured  in 
the  leading  cities  of  the  country.  The  last  traced  popular  opinion  through 
various  phases  with  deductions  in  favor  of  Catholicism.  In  1882,  Bishop  Ryan 
delivered  one  of  the  most  notable  of  his  many  lectures  before  an  audience 
which  filled  Mercantile  Library  hall.  It  was  explanatory  and  conciliatory, 
calculated  to  win  consideration  of  the  principles  of  Catholicism.  The  audience 
included  several  pastors  of  Protestant  churches. 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  519 

From  the  days  of  his  student  life,  Father  Ryan  had  a  liking  for  the  press. 
He  wrote  much  for  periodicals  when  other  duties  permitted.  Out  of  Father 
Ryan's  eloquent  preaching  and  the  interest  it  aroused  in  Catholicism  developed 
one  of  the  most  notable  features  in  the  history  of  St.  Louis  journalism.  Joseph 
B.  McCullagh,  editor  of  the  Globe-Democrat,  printed  in  full  one  of  the  bishop's 
addresses.  Bishop  Ryan  had  two  kinds  of  sermons,  the  dogmatic  and  the 
moral.  Mr.  McCullagh  selected  a  dogmatic  discourse,  one  that  brought  out 
the  salient  and  distinctive  qualities  of  the  Catholic  faith.  Then  he  opened  the 
columns  of  the  paper  to  all  creeds.  For  months  "The  Great  Controversy"  was 
carried  on  in  the  Globe-Democrat,  filling  in  the  aggregate  some  hundreds  of 
columns. 

Archbishop  Kenrick  rarely  spoke  of  the  experiences  he  had  in  the  mis- 
sionary work  which  made  Catholicism  so  strong  in  St.  Louis  and  vicinity  during 
the  period  of  great  immigration  ten  years  before  the  Civil  war.  He  had  a 
free  colored  servant,  "William."  In  a  vehicle,  accompanied  by  William,  the 
archbishop  drove  through  the  country  without  regard  to  seasons  or  weather. 
One  day  he  insisted  on  fording  a  swollen  creek  in  St.  Charles  county  and  went 
under,  having  a  narrow  escape.  But  of  these  incidents  he  was  reticent. 

The  archbishop's  advice  to  young  priests,  probably,  revealed  the  lesson  of 
his  own  experience.  He  was  accustomed  to  say  that  when  a  profession  is 
embraced  the  first  duty  is  to  acquire  all  the  knowledge  necessary  to  discharge 
it  fully  and  conscientiously.  Until  that  is  done  extraneous  duty  should  be 
avoided.  "Therefore,"  he  said,  to  young  priests,  "lose  no  day  that  you  shall 
not  apply  some  part  of  it  to  the  learning  of  dogmatic  and  moral  theology  as 
also  to  the  reading  of  commentaries  on  the  Scriptures."  The  history  of  the 
church  and  the  lives  of  the  saints,  he  recommended  also,  and  he  deemed  it 
highly  important  to  have  a  favorite  book  of  devotion  to  "nourish  piety  within 
the  soul."  Careful  preparation  for  preaching  was  recommended. 

The  extraordinary  growth  of  Catholicism  in  St.  Louis,  the  theological 
strength  of  the  clergy,  the  thousands  of  conversions  of  residents,  not  so  much 
from  other  churches  as  from  the  mass  of  the  indifferent,  are  better  understood 
when  the  example  and  precepts  of  Peter  Richard  Kenrick  are  known. 

"The  archbishop's  bank"  was  a  financial  institution  of  St.  Louis  for  many 
years,  beginning  about  1850.  A  German  priest,  Rev.  Father  Heim,  originated 
the  idea.  To  accommodate  the  working  people  of  his  parish,  Father  Heim 
received  their  savings  on  deposit  and  took  care  of  the  money.  There  was 
distrust  of  banks  by  these  people  to  such  a  degree  as  to  discourage  savings. 
John  Byrne,  Jr.,  looked  into  the  plan  of  Father  Heim  and  advised  Archbishop 
Kenrick  to  extend  it.  An  office  was  opened  near  the  cathedral,  books  were 
prepared  and  accounts  were  opened.  Laboring  people,  especially  those  new 
in  the  country,  flocked  in  numbers  to  the  bank  and  made  their  deposits,  on 
which  interest  was  allowed.  The  money  was  loaned  to  priests  and  religious 
orders  to  build  and  mortgages  were  taken,  revenues  being  pledged  for  the 
payment  of  interest  on  the  mortgages  and  for  their  final  redemption.  The  city 
was  growing.  New  parishes  were  being  established.  There  was  demand  for 
the  money  and  the  security  was  good.  Archbishop  Kenrick  conducted  his 
banking  business  in  no  perfunctory  manner.  He  was  an  actual  manager.  He 


520  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

supervised  all  of  the  departments.  He  looked  closely  after  the  balancing  of 
the  accounts  with  an  expedition  and  accuracy  which  amazed  those  who  had 
known  him  previously  as  a  wonderfully  successful  preacher.  For  a  long  time 
the  archbishop  held  title  deeds  to  property  given  for  new  churches,  schools 
and  institutions.  He  was  charged  with  almost  countless  obligations.  He  called 
to  his  assistance  when  the  business  became  too  burdensome  the  help  of  Joseph 
O'Neil.  Gradually  the  business  of  the  archbishop  was  wound  up  in  a  most 
satisfactory  manner  and  modern  methods  took  the  place  of  "the  archbishop's 
bank." 

Three  times  the  Young  Men's  Christian  association  was  started  before 
it  secured  a  permanent  and  flourishing  hold  in  St.  Louis.  In  1853,  nine  years 
after  the  original  Young  Men's  Christian  association  was  founded  in  London, 
a  St.  Louis  association  was  started.  Samuel  Cupples  and  Henry  Hitchcock 
were  officers.  The  Civil  war  caused  this  association  to  disband.  After  several 
years  another  beginning  was  made  by  Rev.  Shepard  Wells  and  General  Clinton 
B.  Fisk.  This  movement  failed.  In  1875  twelve  young  men  met  at  the  Union 
Methodist  church,  then  on  Eleventh  and  Locust  streets,  and  organized  the 
Y.  M.  C.  A.,  which  has  grown  to  the  present  impressive  strength.  The  officers 
were  H.  C.  Wright,  Frank  L.  Johnson,  Dr.  L.  H.  Laidley,  Charles  C.  Nichols, 
and  E.  Anson  More.  The  association  occupied  one  rented  room  after  another 
down  town,  until  in  1879  Mr.  Moody  conducted  one  of  his  revivals.  The 
evangelist  appealed  to  the  business  men  of  St.  Louis  to  provide  the  Young 
Men's  Christian  association  with  a  building.  Stephen  M.  Edgell,  Carlos  S. 
Greeley  and  John  R.  Lionberger  headed  a  subscription  which  reached  $40,000. 
The  Union  Methodist  church  was  bought  for  $37,500.  In  1885  the  association 
occupied  the  former  residence  of  John  D.  Perry  on  Pine  and  Twenty-ninth 
streets  and  built  a  gymnasium.  In  1892  the  property  on  Eleventh  and  Locust 
was  sold  for  $125,000.  A  lot  on  Grand  and  Franklin  avenues  was  bought  for 
$51,250  in  1894.  On  this  a  building  which  cost  $200,000  was  erected.  The 
business  management  of  the  association  has  been  excelled  only  by  its  Christian 
influence.  In  its  third  of  a  century  the  St.  Louis  Young  Men's  Christian  Associa- 
tion has  had  two  general  secretaries — Wralter  C.  Douglas  and  George  T.  Coxhead. 
The  latter  has  held  the  position  twenty-three  years.  For  many  years  the  asso- 
ciation had  one  presiding  head — Thomas  S.  McPheeters.  It  has  added  branch 
after  branch  to  the  central  until  the  whole  city  is  its  field  of  operation.  In 
the  northern  and  southern  parts  of  the  city  the  branches  occupy  their  own 
buildings  and  grounds.  The  railroad  branch  occupies  a  model  Y.  M.  C.  A. 
building  erected  at  a  cost  of  $80,000,  to  which  Miss  Helen  Gould  was  the 
chief  contributor.  This  branch  was  dedicated  in  October,  1907,  with  Miss 
Gould  in  attendance.  Queen  Victoria  knighted  the  man  who  first  thought  of 
the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  put  his  thought  into  action.  The  honor  roll  of  most 
useful  citizens  contains  the  names  of  the  men  who  have  made  the  St.  Louis 
Young  Men's  Christian  association. 

In  fifty  years  the  St.  Louis  Provident  Association  has  expended  for  the 
relief  of  the  poor  of  St.  Louis  $1,450,000,  has  investigated  175,000  cases. 
About  1860  the  most  charitable  man  in  St.  Louis,  by  common  consent,  was 
James  E.  Yeatman.  He  lived  on  Olive  street  in  what  was  called  Yeatman's 


THE  SECOND  PRESBYTERIAN  CHURCH 
Type  of  church   architecture,   1909 


THE   RELIGIOUS   LIFE  521 

row.  The  poor,  Mr.  Yeatman  had  always  with  him.  One  very  bad  night  he 
was  called  to  the  door  and  was  told  a  tale  of  distress  by  a  woman  who  repre- 
sented that  her  child  was  desperately  ill  and  that  she  had  no  means  to  buy 
food  or  medicine.  Mr.  Yeatman  took  the  address,  gave  some  temporary  help 
and  went  back  to  his  fire.  He  couldn't  rest.  He  got  his  overcoat  and  started 
out.  Around  the  corner  at  Tenth  and  Locust  streets  lived  Dr.  Pope,  the  emi- 
nent surgeon.  He  was  just  leaving  the  house  to  take  his  buggy  for  a  visit 
to  a  patient.  Mr.  Yeatman  insisted  that  Dr.  Pope  go  with  him  to  see  the  sick 
child.  The  doctor  demurred  and  then  yielded.  The  two  good  Samaritans 
made  their  way  to  an  alley  above  Franklin  avenue  and  found  the  house.  But 
the  supposed  abode  of  distress  was  lighted  and  a  sound  of  revelry  came  through 
the  cracks  of  door  and  window.  Mr.  Yeatman  knocked.  The  door  was  opened. 
There  stood  the  woman  holding  a  child.  Behind  her  surrounding  a  table  upon 
which  stood  the  beer  bought  with  Mr.  Yeatman's  charity  were  three  or  four 
lusty  fellows. 

"Where  is  that  sick  child?"  asked  Mr.  Yeatman. 

"Here  she  is,"  said  the  woman,  indicating  the  one  in  her  arms. 

Dr.  Pope  looked  at  the  little  sleeper  closely  and  said  with  some  emphasis, 
"I  prescribe  soap  and  water.  Good  night." 

The  next  day  Mr.  Yeatman  invited  a  few  business  men  to  meet  him.  That 
was  the  genesis  of  the  St.  Louis  Provident  Association,  which  handles  from 
$35,000  to  $50,000  a  year,  helping  the  poor  to  help  themselves  and  protecting 
charity  from  abuse. 

Once  in  its  history  the  St.  Louis  Provident  Association  faced  a  crisis  which 
threatened  to  close  its  doors.  Philanthropy  knows  what  a  panic  means.  The 
winter  of  1893-4  drained  the  resources  of  the  charity  organizations.  One  day 
Mr.  Scruggs  and  Mr.  Cupples  found  themselves  facing  an  empty  treasury 
and  the  demands  for  relief  almost  without  precedent.  They  sent  for  Adolphus 
Busch  and  on  a  Sunday  afternoon  the  three  men  sat  in  the  parlor  of  Mr. 
Cupples'  home  and  discussed  ways  and  means  to  keep  the  institution  open. 
The  next  day  Mr.  Busch  came  back.  He  brought  $10,000.  Half  of  it  was  his 
individual  gift.  The  remainder  was  from  Mr.  Lemp  and  other  brewers.  The 
Provident  Association  did  not  suspend. 

More  than  one  hundred  philanthropic  organizations  occupy  the  St.  Louis 
field.  With  very  few  exceptions  they  are  conducted  upon  the  cardinal  principle 
of  helping  the  unfortunate  to  help  themselves.  The  heart  of  St.  Louis  is 
charitable  but  in  the  exercise  of  charity  practical  judgment  goes  with  the 
humane  sentiment.  That,  in  large  measure,  explains  why  St.  Louis  has  no 
slums,  like  the  plague  spots  of  the  other  large  cities  of  the  country.  As  he 
rode  about  St.  Louis  in  the  fall  of  1908,  Archbishop  Farley  of  New  York 
commented : 

"In  St.  Louis  the  workingmen  and  poorer  classes  are  much  better  taken 
care  of  in  their  homes  than  similar  classes  in  New  York.  This  results  in  con- 
tentment and  prevents  social  troubles.  I  have  seen  no  districts  in  St.  Louis 
that  I  could  call  squalid.  In  fact,  there  seems  to  be  no  real  squalor  in  the  city." 


CHAPTER   XXI. 
THE  GROWING  OF  ST.  LOUIS 

Laclede's  Landing  Place — Market  Street  the  Dividing  Line — Law  of  the  City's  Development — 
Francis  P.  Blair's  Prophecy  in  1872 — Earliest  Land  Titles — Improvement  Within  a  Year 
and  a  Day  the  Condition — Deed  of  Mill  Creek  Valley — Auction  Sales  at  the  Church  Door 
on  Sunday — The  Livre  Terrien — St.  Ange's  Land  System  Accepted  by  Spanish  Governors 
— Inchoate  Titles  in  1804 — Bights  of  Settlers  Confirmed  by  Congress — Houses  of  Posts — 
Southern  Exposure  vs.  East  Piazza — The  Universal  Gallery  of  Colonial  Times — American 
Mistakes  in  Architecture — "Laclede's  House" — Stone  Mansions — Wooden  Pegs  for  Nails 
— Suburban  Estates  Below  Chouteau  Avenue — The  Founder's  Plan  of  Streets — A  Place 
Public  on  the  Biver  Front — The  Towpath  Custom — After  the  Fire  of  1849 — Sales  Based 
on  Laclede  's  Assignments — The  First  Addition — ' '  The  Hill ' ' — Enterprise  of  James  H. 
Lucas — Jeremiah  Conner's  Plan  for  Washington  Avenue — St.  Louis  as  Flagg  Saw  it  in 
1836 — George  B.  Taylor's  Skyscraper — Yeatman's  Bow — The  American  Street — Newman's 
Folly — Quality  Row — Henry  Clay's  St.  Louis  Speculation — Stoddard  Addition — Conception 
of  Grand  Avenue — The  Lindells — Henry  Shaw's  Garden — Growth  of  the  Park  System — 
The  Financial  Street — Separation  of  City  and  County — Local  Nomenclature. 

I  believe,  my  fellow  citizens,  that  this  project  will  be  fully  completed ;  that  this  enterprise 
will  be  realized ;  that  there  will  be  a  great  park  here ;  that  in  a  short  space  of  time  it  will  be 
surrounded  by  elegant  private  residences,  and  that  the  talk  about  a  narrow  gauge  railway  to 
reach  it  will  be  superseded  by  the  actual  fact  of  street  railways  reaching  it.  All  of  the  great 
cities  of  this  country  have  outgrown  anticipation.  This  has  been  the  case  with  our  own  city, 
and,  in  my  judgment,  and  indeed  in  the  judgment  of  others  who  have  given  this  matter  critical 
attention,  St.  Louis  will  continue  increasing  in  population  and  developing  in  size  until  it  will 
outgrow  all  the  other  cities  in  the  country. — Francis  P.  Blair,  Opening  of  Forest  Park,  1872. 

Laclede's  hardy  colonists,  "the  first  thirty,"  poling  their  bateau  along  the 
western  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  made  their  landing  and  later  their  permanent 
settlement  about  the  foot  of  Market  street.  In  1911  Market  street  is  still  the 
dividing  line  with  half  of  the  city  north  and  half  of  the  city  south  of  it.  Busi- 
ness has  spread  naturally  north  and  south.  The  residence  section  has  moved 
westward.  This  has  been  the  law  of  the  evolution  of  St.  Louis  through  the 
generations. 

The  river  frontage  of  the  city  for  twenty  miles  is  given  up  to  railroad 
yards  and  heavy  manufacturing  plants.  The  overflow  of  manufacturing  and 
the  crowding  of  traffic  find  relief  either  by  crossing  the  river  to  the  great 
American  bottom  or  by  following  certain  natural  valley  routes  north  and  south 
of  the  main  residence  district.  As  the  city  grows  the  business  district  expands. 
Year  by  year  it  encroaches  upon  the  residence  sections.  To  accommodate  those 
residents  who  must  move  and  those  who  come  to  St.  Louis  to  make  new  homes, 
the  succession  of  rising  ridges  and  plateaus  to  the  westward  must  be  occupied. 

The  growth  in  population  of  the  United  States  from  1890  to  1900  was  21 
per  cent.  The  growth  of  St.  Louis  in  the  same  period  was  27  per  cent.  The 
growth  of  one  western  residence  section  of  St.  Louis  between  those  years 
was  239  per  cent.  This  section  is  from  Vandeventer  avenue  westward  to  and 
along  the  north  side  of  Forest  Park.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Page 
avenue.  Within  this  residence  section  there  were  14,286  people  in  1890;  there 
were  48,492  in  1900;  there  were  55,843  in  I9°3-  Since  the  World's  Fair  in 

523 


524  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

1904,  the  development  of  this  section  has  been  even  more  astonishing  than 
before.  Could  he  see  Forest  Park  and  its  surroundings  in  1909,  Francis  P. 
Blair  would  marvel  at  the  fulfillment  of  his  own  prophecy. 

The  first  land  titles  were  issued  from  Laclede's  house.  Two  years  since 
the  founding  had  barely  passed  before  settlers  were  seeking  deeds.  The  land 
was  Spain's,  given  away  by  Louis  XV  to  his  "dear  cousin,"  Charles.  But 
Spain  was  having  trouble  to  reconcile  the  republican  Frenchmen  of  New  Orleans 
to  the  new  authority.  No  Spanish  officer  had  come  to  establish  the  new  sover- 
eignty over  St.  Louis.  St.  Ange  de  Bellerive  was  here.  After  delivering  Fort 
Chartres  down  the  river  on  the  east  side  to  the  English  captain,  Sterling,  St. 
Ange  and  his  French  soldiers  had  come  ov.er  to  St.  Louis.  In  January,  1766, 
he  began  to  exercise  functions  of  government.  Up  to  that  time  the  word  of 
Laclede  had  been  law.  But  Laclede  had  fur  trading  business  to  look  after. 
There  were  forms  of  authority,  details  of  government,  with  which  the  founder 
could  not  concern  himself.  St.  Ange  became  de  facto  governor.  Four  years 
the  French  officer  maintained  order,  issued  the  deeds  which  confirmed  the 
verbal  grants  of  land  and  acted  as  military  commander  of  the  post.  Then 
on  the  2Oth  of  May,  1770,  came  Don  Pedro  Piernas,  the  first  Spanish  lieutenant- 
governor.  St.  Ange  retired.  His  acts  were  confirmed.  In  recognition  of  his 
services  he  was  offered  a  commission  as  captain  in  the  Spanish  army. 

The  first  title  to  land  in  St.  Louis  was  issued  in  April,  1766.  It  was  for 
a  lot  upon  which  to  build  a  house.  Several  other  titles,  or  concessions  as 
they  were  called,  were  granted.  Then,  in  August  of  that  year,  the  St.  Ange 
government  enlarged  its  activities  and  deeded  to  Laclede  a  large  tract  in  what 
is  now  Mill  Creek  valley.  The  deed  was  in  French.  Translated  it  read: 

We,  Louis  St.  Ange  de  Bellerive,  captain  commanding  for  the  King  at  the  post  of 
St.  Louis,  upon  the  Spanish  part  of  Illinois,  and  Joseph  Lefebvre  de  Inglebert,  sub-dele- 
gate of  the  Intendant  of  Louisiana,  and  justice  of  the  peace,  in  virtue  of  the  power  to  us 
given  by  the  governor  and  intendant  of  Louisiana,  and,  upon  the  demand  of-  Mr.  Laclede 
Liguest,  a  settler  of  the  post  of  St.  Louis,  have  conceded  and  hereby  do  concede  to  him, 
in  fee  simple,  a  tract  of  land  situated  on  the  prairie  of  the  village  of  St.  Louis,  of  eight 
arpens,  adjoining  on  one  side  the  land  taken  by  the  settler  named  Tayon,  and  the  frontage 
extending  upon  the  Little  Eiver,  with  a  depth  of  eighty  arpens,  according  to  lines  which 
shall  be  given  by  the  person  detailed  to  survey  the  land,  which  tract  of  eight  arpens  and 
more  if  any  is  found  towards  Little  Eiver  the  said  Mr.  Laclede,  or  his  assigns  shall  enjoy 
in  fee  simple,  under  the  condition  that  this  land  shall  be  improved  within  one  year  and 
a  day,  provided  also  the  same  shall  remain  liable  to  the  public  and  other  charges  that 
it  may  please  his  majesty  to  place  thereon. 

Given  in  St.  Louis  the  llth  of  August,  1766. 

(Signed)  ST.  ANGE, 

LEFEBVRE, 
LABUXIEEE. 

Lefebvre,  who  joined  in  the  making  of  the  deed,  had  come  from  the  east 
side  of  the  Mississippi  with  St.  Ange  a  few  months  previously.  He  was  a 
lawyer,  one  of  two  in  the  settlement.  The  other  was  Labuxiere,  who  had 
moved  to  St.  Louis  from  the  English  side  of  the  river.  In  April,  1766,  a  deed 
was  given  to  Labuxiere,  or  as  sometimes  written,  Labusciere.  The  Labuxiere 
deed  was  signed  by  St.  Ange.  It  established  title  to  a  lot  fronting  300  feet 
on  Rue  Royale,  now  Main  street  and  extending  eastward  150  feet  to  the  river 
front. 


RESIDENCE  OF  THOMAS   F.  RIDDICK,  1818 


GREEN  ERSKINE  GEORGE  R.  TAYLOR 

THE  CITY'S   EVOLUTION 


THE    GROWING   OF    ST.    LOUIS  525 

Quite  naturally  Labuxiere  and  Lefebvre,  having  taken  up  residence  in  the 
new  settlement,  set  about  the  practice  of  their  profession.  They  found  the 
settlers  occupying  the  ground  which  Laclede  had  allotted  them.  There  were 
no  deeds.  Transactions  in  realty  were  out  of  the  question.  As  soon  as  St. 
Ange  was  ready  to  act,  Lefebvre  and  Labuxiere  were  prepared  with  the  legal 
forms.  Laclede  as  founder  of  the  settlement  was  entitled  to  early  considera- 
tion. He  asked  to  have  formally  confirmed  to  him — what?  His  home  on  the 
square  between  the  Place  d'Armes  and  the  church  lot?  Not  at  all.  Laclede's 
engineering  bent  of  mind  had,  immediately  after  locating  St.  Louis,  grasped 
the  advantage  of  the  mill  site.  The  Little  river,  La  Petite  Riviere,  the  settlers 
had  named  it,  meandered  more  than  three  miles  through  what  is  now  the 
network  of  railroad  tracks,  the  Mill  Creek  valley.  It  was  a  constant  stream 
of  considerable  head.  Its  source  was  Rock  Spring.  Two  other  great  springs 
fed  it.  Near  what  is  now  Seventh  street,  the  topography  favored  a  dam. 
At  small  cost  of  labor  a  fall  of  ten  or  twelve  feet  could  be  created.  Laclede 
located  on  Little  river  a  mill  site.  Soon  after  the  land  office  of  1766  was  ready 
to  do  business,  he  secured  the  formal  title  to  his  property.  Nowhere  near  the 
settlement  was  there  another  water  power. 

The  dam  was  built.  The  mill  was  running  very  early  in  the  history  of 
St.  Louis.  It  formed  a  considerable  part  of  the  estate  which  Laclede  left  at 
his  death  in  1778.  Auguste  Chouteau  was  administrator  of  his  stepfather's 
property.  In  conformity  with  the  custom  of  those  days  the  mill  was  offered 
to  the  highest  bidder.  Not  once  but  three  times,  upon  different  dates,  the 
mill  was  publicly  offered.  The  final  report  of  the  constable,  or  huissier,  as 
he  was  called,  is  an  interesting  document.  It  is  a  revelation  of  the  methodical 
official  procedure  which  was  observed  at  a  time  when  St.  Louis,  in  the  view  of 
some  historical  writers,  was  only  a  temporary  trading  post.  De  Mers  was  the 
constable.  His  report  of  the  sale  of  the  mill  opens: 

In  the  year  1779,  on  Sunday,  the  20th  of  June,  in  virtue  of  the  decree  of  Don  Fer- 
nando de  Leyba,  captain  in  the  regiment  of  infantry  of  Louisiana,  commander-in-chief 
and  lieutenant-governor  of  the  western  part  of  Illinois,  dated  the  19th  day  of  the  current 
month,  annexed  at  the  bottom  of  the  petition  of  Mr.  Auguste  Chouteau,  who  is  the  admin- 
istrator of  the  estate  of  the  late  Mr.  Laclede,  dated  on  the  same  day,  I,  Francis  De  Mere, 
constable  (huissier),  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Illinois,  residing  in  St.  Louis,  purposely  went 
before  the  main  door  of  ingress  and  egress  of  the  parochial  church  of  the  said  post  of 
St.  Louis,  at  the  end  of  the  great  mass,  from  which  church  people  went  out  in  great 
number.  There  I  have,  with  high  and  intelligible  voice,  declared  and  made  known  to  the 
public  that  I  was  to  proceed  forthwith  (for  the  first  adjudication)  to  the  sale  of  a  water 
flour  mill,  moving  and  turning  with  two  sets  of  stones  with  its  building  in  wood  and 
machinery  and  tools,  as  the  same  exists  at  this  day,  situated  near  the  village  of  St.  Louis, 
upon  the  creek  called  the  Little  river,  belonging  to  the  estate  of  the  said  late  Mr.  La- 
clede, where  all  persons  shall  be  admitted  to  bid,  provided  they  give  good  and  sufficient 
securities  who  reside  in  this  post,  which  persons  shall  pay  the  amount  of  the  adjudication 
in  deer  or  beaver  skins  in  good  order  at  the  St.  Louis  price,  one-half  within  one  year 
from  this  day  and  one-half  within  one  year  later  which  will  be  the  month  of  June,  1781. 
By  my  repeated  clamor,  the  public  being  assembled,  the  said  mill  and  dependencies  were 
bidden  for  by  the  person  named  Moreau  in  the  sum  of  1,500  livres  in  peltries.  After  many 
announcements  often  repeated,  no  person  presenting  himself  to  bid  over,  I  have  declared 
that  the  second  auction  of  the  mill  shall  take  place  the  next  Sunday,  the  27th  day  of  the 
current  month,  at  the  same  time  and  place,  when  and  where  all  persons  shall  be  admitted 


526  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

to  bid  under  the  conditions  explained.     I  left  with  my  witnesses  who  signed  with  me,  the 

undersigned  constable  in  the  year  and  day  as  above. 

DE  MEBS, 
DIEGO  BLANCO, 
L.  RICHABT. 

In  the  same  form  the  huissier  reported  the  procedure  of  the  2/th  of  June 
when  Moreau  again  bid  1500  livres  and  a  person  named  Cambas  bid  1501 
livres.  The  third  and  closing  sale  was  on  the  next  Sunday  the  4th  day  of 
July.  The  huissier's  report  announced  the  result: 

The  said  mill  and  its  dependencies  were  bidden  for  by  Cambas  to  1,500  livres,  by 
the  person  named  Deschapine  to  1,600  livres,  by  the  said  Moreau  to  1,700  livres,  by  Cam- 
bas to  1,800  livres,  by  Deschapine  to  1,900  livres,  and  by  Auguste  Chouteau  to  2,000  livres, 
in  peltries.  After  I  had  made  many  announcements,  no  person  bidding  any  more,  and 
after  I  had  waited  until  noon,  the  public  going  away,  the  Mr.  Auguste  Chouteau  asked 
for  the  deed  of  his  bidding  which  was  granted  him.  The  said  mill  and  dependencies 
were  adjudged  to  Mr.  Chouteau  by  Mr.  Fernando  de  Leyba,  the  aforesaid  lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, for  the  sum  of  2,000  livres  in  deerskins  which  the  said  Mr.  Chouteau  has  promised 
to  pay  to  the  said  estate,  in  conformity  with  the  terms  before  explained,  under  the  special 
and  general  mortgage  of  all  of  his  movable  and  immovable  goods  present  and  future. 
Mr.  Chouteau  has  offered  as  his  security  Mr.  Sylvester  Labbadie,  merchant  in  this  post, 
who  has  voluntarily  accepted  the  said  security,  and  binds  himself  to  pay  the  sum  when 
it  becomes  due  in  default  of  the  said  Mr.  Chouteau,  under  the  obligation  of  a  mortgage 
of  all  of  his  movable  and  immovable  goods,  a  schedule  of  which  he  has  submitted  tr 
this  jurisdiction.  The  following  persons  have  signed  the  original  with  us.  Don  Fernand* 
de  Leyba,  lieutenant-governor,  the  constable  De  Mers  and  the  assisting  witnesses,  Diego 
Blanco,  a  sergeant  in  the  troops  of  this  garrison,  and  Louis  Eichart,  a  soldier  of  said 
garrison. 

(Signed) 

CHOUTEAU, 
LABBADIE, 
DE  MEBS, 

DON  FERNANDO  DE  LEYBA. 
Louis  EICHART, 
DIEGO  BLANCO. 

A  copy  conformable  to  the  original  at  St.  Louis,  the  said  year  and  day. 

(Signed) 

FERNANDO  DE  LEYBA. 

The  arpen,  or  arpent  as  it  was  spelled  in  later  times,  was  French  measure- 
ment of  land.  An  arpent  was  the  equivalent  of  three-fourths  of  an  acre.  The 
original  plot  acquired  by  Laclede  for  his  mill  site  was  640  arpents,  or  480 
acres.  But  this  was  increased  by  Laclede  to  noo  acres.  The  founder  of  St. 
Louis  owned  in  Mill  Creek  valley  a  body  of  land  nearly  as  large  as  Forest 
Park.  Back  to  this  sale  by  De  Mers  at  the  church;  back  of  that  to  the  St. 
Ange  deed  of  August,  1766,  is  the  chain  of  title  to  millions  of  dollars  worth 
of  realty  now  occupied  by  Cupples  station  and  the  terminal  tracks. 

While  he  awaited  the  coming  of  the  Spanish,  St.  Ange  did  a  land  office 
business.  In  the  four  years  that  he  performed  the  duties  of  commandant  he 
issued  the  titles  of  many  grants  to  settlers.  The  record  of  these  grants  was 
kept  in  the  "Livre  Terrien."  Real  estate  men  of  later  generations  knew  these 
as  the  "provincial  land  books."  When  Piernas,  the  first  Spanish  lieutenant- 
governor,  came  in  1770,  he  accepted  in  a  general  way  the  forms  that  St.  Angft 
had  used  and  issued  similar  titles  to  grants*  A  little  more  elaboration  of  official 


THE    GROWING   OF    ST.    LOUIS  527 

signatures  was  about  the  only  modification.  Successors  to  Piernas  perpetuated 
the  system  of  real  estate  record  devised  by  Labusciere,  notary,  and  approved 
by  St.  Ange.  This  went  on  for  thirty  years  until  the  time  of  Delassus.  Six 
books  of  the  "Livre  Terrien"  series,  each  bound  in  leather,  contained  the 
records  of  the  grants.  It  does  not  appear  that  St.  Ange,  or  the  Spanish 
governors,  required  any  payment  to  the  government  for  these  grants.  The 
smaller  concessions  of  land  were  homesteads.  They  confirmed  to  the  settler 
the  right  to  the  soil  he  had  occupied  and  improved.  The  larger  grants  were 
in  consideration  of  some  service  rendered  to  the  royal  government. 

But  while  St.  Ange  exercised  authority  to  issue  the  titles  to  grants  at  St. 
Louis,  and  while  the  successive  governors  continued  to  do  the  same,  these 
titles  were  not  complete.  Survey  of  the  land  granted  was  an  essential  step. 
And  furthermore  it  was  a  provision  of  Spanish  law  that  the  grant  made  by 
the  lieutenant-governor  at  St.  Louis  must  go  to  the  governor-general  at  New 
Orleans  for  final  confirmation. 

The  land-holding  settlers  at  St.  Louis  were  not  wise  in  their  generation. 
They  secured  their  forms  of  title  from  the  lieutenant-governors.  As  soon  as 
Piernas  came  a  "surveyor  of  the  colony  of  Illinois"  in  the  person  of  Martin 
Duralde  was  named.  The  grants  were  surveyed.  The  property  included  in 
the  grants  was  definitely  described.  So  far  the  provincial  land  books  were  in 
order.  The  transfer  of  sovereignty  to  the  United  States  found  the  great, 
majority  of  the  St.  Louis  landholders  napping.  Only  eleven  of  them  had  com- 
pleted their  titles.  During  thirty-four  years  the  habitants  of  St.  Louis  had 
held  their  lands  or  had  traded  them  without  regard  to  final  confirmation,  save 
in  the  few  exceptions  mentioned.  The  treaty  of  San  Ildefonso  in  1800  con- 
veyed back  to  France  the  Province  of  Louisiana.  It  made  no  provision  to 
cover  rights  of  property.  It  was  a  secret  treaty.  The  habitants  of  St.  Louis 
went  on  trading  in  realty  of  defective  title.  Not  until  1802  was  the  treaty 
announced  at  Barcelona  by  proclamation.  And  then  the  King  said  he  hoped 
the  French  Republic  "would  protect  the  inhabitants  in  the  peaceful  possession 
of  their  property,  and  that  all  grants  of  property,  of  whatever  denomination, 
made  by  my  government,  may  be  confirmed,  though  not  confirmed  by  me." 
Six  months  later,  April  30,  1803,  France,  in  ceding  the  Louisiana  Territory 
to  the  United  States  put  into  the  treaty  this  clause : 

The  inhabitants  of  the  ceded  territory  shall  be  incorporated  in  the  union  of  the 
United  States  and  admitted  as  soon  as  possible,  according  to  the  principles  of  the  Federal 
Constitution,  to  the  enjoyment  of  all  the  rights,  advantages,  immunities  of  citizens  of  the 
United  States,  and  in  the  meantime  they  shall  be  protected  in  the  free  enjoyment  of  their 
liberty,  property,  and  the  religion  which  they  profess. 

"Inchoate"  was  the  term  which  applied  to  the  title  of  almost  every  piece 
of  property  in  the  settlement  when  the  American  captain  raised  the  flag  over 
St.  Louis,  March  10,  1804.  The  landholders  awoke.  Before  the  month  was 
out  Congress  had  acted.  The  first  legislation  for  the  Louisiana  Territory  was 
upon  this  chaos  of  property  rights.  The  initial  law  for  St.  Louis  and  all  of 
the  rest  of  the  Purchase  was  approved  by  President  Jefferson  on  March  26, 
1804.  It  recognized  the  strength  of  the  rudimentary  titles.  It  sought  to  quiet 
the  fears  of  the  habitants  who  were  in  actual  possession  of  land  without  com- 
plete titles.  It  was  of  general  character,  laying  the  basis  for  investigation  and 


528  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

adjustment  of  all  claims.  Before  every  Congress,  for  a  quarter  of  a  century, 
were  measures  relating  to  land  titles  in  St.  Louis.  Not  until  1866  did  the 
legislation  cease.  Congress  finally  sent  to  the  United  States  District  court  for 
adjudication  the  few  claims  remaining  unsettled. 

So  far  as  the  earlier  land  records  of  St.  Louis  went,  they  seemed  to  have 
been  kept  well.  The  trouble  with  them  was  in  part  indefiniteness  of  survey, 
but  more  the  general  failure  to  complete  the  titles.  Settlers  occupied  and 
claimed  their  land.  They  recorded  their  holdings.  Communication  with  New 
Orleans  where  the  governor-general  lived  was  a  matter  of  months  of  travel. 
There  were  no  mails.  It  is  not  difficult  to  understand  why  the  grants  were 
not  presented  for  final  confirmation. 

To  the  credit  of  the  United  States  is  the  fact  that  the  rights  of  the  settlers 
under  the  inchoate  titles  were  respected  scrupulously.  To  confirm  all  claims 
that  could  be  established  was  the  policy  prompting  Congress.  The  first  act, 
passed  in  March,  1804,  confirmed  the  grants  made  to  actual  settlers  before, 
December  20,  1803.  This  act  limited  holdings  to  one  square  mile.  The  next 
act  of  Congress  confirmed  grants  made  prior  to  March  20,  1804.  The  next 
year  Congress  provided  that  habitants  having  duly  registered  warrants  from 
French  or  Spanish  authority  for  land  upon  which  they  were  living  should  have 
their  titles  confirmed  to  them.  Congress  went  still  farther.  An  act  confirmed 
their  holdings  to  persons  who  had  settled  on  land  before  December  20,  1803, 
and  were  still  in  possession.  Congress  appointed  a  recorder  of  titles  and 
associated  with  him  two  commissioners.  This  commission  took  up  the  investi- 
gation of  claims  and  proceeded  to  apply  the  laws  which  Congress  had  passed. 
The  commission  issued  1,342  confirmation  certificates.  Many  claims  were  not 
approved  because  the  provisions  of  the  laws  did  not  meet  the  cases.  The  com- 
missioners advised  that  the  government  be  more  liberal  in  its  treatment  of 
claimants.  Another  law  was  enacted.  This  was  in  1812,  a  few  months  after 
the  first  commission  had  finished  a  three  years'  investigation.  The  second 
examination  conducted  under  the  more  liberal  provisions  resulted  in  1,746  con- 
firmations additional  to  the  first  lot.  On  801  claims  rejection  was  recommended. 
In  1832  Congress  provided  for  another  commission  to  report  upon  claims  still 
existing.  This  commission  reported  and  the  report  was  confirmed.  But  dis- 
satisfied claimants  continued  to  agitate.  They  importuned  at  Washington. 
Their  assertions  affected  values  at  St.  Louis.  In  1866  Congress  made  a  finality 
of  legislation  on  land  titles  in  St.  Louis  by  sending  all  remaining  claims  to  the 
Federal  court.  These  claims  were  not  numerous,  but  they  echoed  in  the  court 
for  many  years. 

Some  mistakes  were  made  in  the  earlier  legislation  by  Congress.  These 
were  corrected  in  subsequent  acts.  Honest  intention  of  the  American  govern- 
ment to  give  the  founders  and  original  landholders  of  St.  Louis  their  property 
rights  was  evident.  In  some  cases  these  rights  were  but  little  more  definite 
than  squatters  might  acquire.  Congress  after  Congress  took  action.  Com- 
mission after  commission  investigated  and  reported.  Some  cases  were  in  the 
courts  through  generations.  Justice  at  times  seemed  blind  and  slow.  In  the 
end  the  equity  of  the  first  comers  won  out  almost  invariably.  The  title  of 
possession  and  occupancy  proved  more  potent  than  technicality.  The  sanctity 


RESIDENCE   OF  MAJOR  WTLLIAM    CHRISTY 
Built    of    stone,    1818 


JOSEPH  K.  BENT  ROBERT    W.    POWELL 

THE   CITY'S    EVOLUTION 


THE    GROWING   OF    ST.    LOUIS  529 

of  the  inchoate  titles  of  the  French  and  Spanish  periods  was  upheld  with  all 
the  power  of  the  United  States  authority.  The  realty  of  St.  Louis  rests  upon 
record  as  firm  as  the  physical  foundations  of  the  city. 

The  St.  Louisan  of  the  first  decade  did  not  go  far  for  his  building  material. 
Upon  his  quarter  or  half  or  whole  block  of  ground  was  growing  the  wood. 
Laclede  noted  that  fact  when  he  marked  the  trees  for  Auguste  Chouteau  in 
December,  1763.  Along  the  river  front  and  outcropping  in  many  places  else- 
where was  a  ledge  of  limestone  easily  quarried.  Architecture  varied  much, 
according  to  means  and  taste.  The  post  house  was  most  popular.  Early 
settlers  in  St.  Louis  did  not  build  many  log  houses  after  the  plan  of  American 
pioneers  on  the  Atlantic  seaboard.  They  chose  trees  of  less  diameter  and  set 
them  on  end.  For  the  better  of  this  class  of  houses  the  post  was  hewed  about 
nine  inches  square.  The  cheaper  houses  were  built,  sides  and  ends,  of  round, 
undressed  posts  set  as  closely  as  possible  three  feet  deep  in  the  ground.  When 
the  house  builder  went  to  the  trouble  of  hewing  his  posts,  he  sometimes  set 
them  on  a  stone  foundation  above  the  earth.  This  preserved  the  post  longer. 
The  flooring  was  of  slabs.  The  ceiling  was  seldom  over  ten  feet  from  the 
floor.  Almost  every  house  in  St.  Louis  had  some  kind  of  a  porch,  or  gallery 
as  it  was  called,  in  front.  The  size  of  the  gallery  indicated  the  circumstances 
of  the  habitant.  Wooden  houses  were  from  twenty  to  thirty  feet  in  length 
and  were  divided  into  two  or  three  rooms.  The  chimneys  were  of  stone,  built 
often  in  the  center  of  the  house  in  such  manner  as  to  give  fireplaces  on  both 
sides. 

Brackenridge,  after  close  observation  of  the  early  architecture  of  St.  Louis, 
concluded  that  the  French  settlers  were  wise.  He  said: 

In  the  building  of  these  houses  the  logs  instead  of  being  laid  horizontally,  as  ours, 
are  placed  in  a  perpendicular  position.  The  interstices  are  closed  with  earth  or  stone,  aa 
with  us.  This  constitutes  a  more  durable  dwelling,  and  it  retains  its  shape  much  longer. 
The  roof  is  extremely  broad,  extending  out  with  a  gradual  slope  for  the  purpose  of  afford- 
ing a  covering  for  the  gallery.  The  houses  are  built  in  a  very  singular  form,  and,  it  is 
said,  copied  from  the  West  Indies.  They  do  not  exceed  one  story  in  height  and  those 
of  the  more  wealthy  are  surrounded  with  spacious  galleries;  some  only  on  one  or  two 
sides.  These  galleries  are  extremely  useful;  they  render  the  house  cool  and  agreeable  in 
summer,  and  afford  a  pleasant  promenade  in  the  heat  of  the  day. 

The  case  of  S.  E.  vs.  E.  P.  has  been  on  trial  with  seven  generations  of 
St.  Louisans.  The  first  house  built  in  St.  Louis  had  an  E.  P.  In  those  days 
the  east  piazza  was  not  mentioned.  But  nearly  every  house  erected  in  St. 
Louis  for  forty  years  had  a  gallery.  And,  if  possible,  the  gallery  was  on  the 
east  side.  Where  the  house  did  not  front  to  the  east,  the  house  owner  felt 
that  he  lived  at  a  disadvantage  unless  he  had  a  gallery  on  the  east  side.  The 
gallery  was  the  almost  universal  feature  of  home  architecture.  If  the  house 
was  of  a  single  story  and  space  was  scant  within  the  four  walls,  the  roof  pro- 
jected forward  and  made  a  covering  for  the  gallery.  If  the  house  was  the 
mansion  of  a  fur  trader  grown  opulent,  it  might  have  a  gallery  for  the  second 
as  well  as  for  the  first  story.  Be  it  ever  so  humble,  there  was  no  real  home 
without  a  gallery  in  St.  Louis  until  after  1800.  And  nowhere  in  the  archives 
or  the  correspondence  of  the  first  two  generations  of  St.  Louis  is  there  a 
reference  to  a  hot  summer.  "The  year  of  the  hard  winter," — 1'annee  du  grand 

8- VOL.  II. 


530  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

hiver — is  recorded.  That  was  in  1799.  It  was  intensely  cold.  "The  year  of 
the  smallpox" — 1'annee  de  la  picotte — was  in  1801.  It  left  its  mark  on  the 
community  and  was  duly  recorded.  "The  year  of  the  flood" — 1'annee  des 
grandes  eaux — was  1785.  The  great  waters  covered  the  American  bottom  on 
the  east  side  and  extended  to  the  bluffs.  But  there  was  no  summer  in  the 
forty  so  hot  that  the  habitants  thought  to  chronicle  it.  Suppose  the  temperature 
rose  higher  than  the  average,  the  St.  Louisan  of  1764-99  lengthened  his  stay 
on  the  gallery.  If  the  night  was  sultry  he  sat  late  on  the  gallery  until  the 
southern  breeze  crept  up  the  river  and  swept  along  the  gallery.  Facing  east, 
open  to  the  north  and  south,  the  gallery  invited,  coaxed  a  draft,  if  there  was 
a  breath  of  air  stirring. 

Then  came  the  American  with  his  imitation  of  Boston,  New  York,  Phila- 
delphia and  Baltimore  residential  architecture.  He  built  flush  to  the  street; 
often  in  rows;  with  southern  exposure  if  possible.  Southern  exposure  was 
the  American's  substitute  for  the  gallery  or  the  east  piazza.  It  was  the  only 
concession  the  newcomer  made  to  the  climate.  The  American  sweltered  for 
his  high-priced  front  foot  and  the  St.  Louis  summer  gained  an  evil  reputation. 

Writing  from  St.  Louis  about  1811,  John  Bradbury,  the  English  naturalist, 
described  the  climate  as  he  had  found  it  from  experience  extending  through 
several  seasons: 

The  climate  is  very  fine.  The  spring  commences  about  the  middle  of  March  in  the 
neighborhood  of  St.  Louis,  at  which  time  the  willow,  the  elm,  and  maples  are  in  flower. 
The  spring  rains  usually  occur  in  May,  after  which  month  the  weather  continues  fine, 
almost  without  interruption,  until  September,  when  rain  again  occurs  about  the  equinox, 
after  which  it  remains  again  fine,  serene  weather  until  near  Christmas,  when  the  winter 
commences.  About  the  beginning  or  middle  of  October  the  Indian  summer  begins,  which 
is  immediately  known  by  the  change  that  takes  place  in  the  atmosphere,  as  it  now  be- 
comes hazy,  or  what  they  term  smoky.  This  gives  to  the  sun  a  red  appearance,  and  takes 
away  the  glare  of  light,  so  that  all  the  day,  except  a  few  hours  about  noon  it  may  be 
looked  at  with  the  naked  eye  without  pain;  the  air  is  perfectly  quiescent  and  all  is  still- 
ness, as  if  nature,  after  her  exertions  during  the  summer,  was  now  at  rest.  The  winters 
are  sharp,  but  it  may  be  remarked  that  less  snow  falls,  and  they  are  much  more  moder- 
ate on  the  west  than  on  the  east  side  of  the  Alleghanies  in  similar  latitudes). 

St.  Louis  owed  in  some  part  its  widespread  reputation  as  a  fiery  furnace 
in  summer  time  to  the  newspaper  treatment  of  the  heated  periods  forty  years 
ago.  One  of  the  morning  papers  of  Tuesday,  August  27,  1872,  thus  opened  its 
account  of  the  conditions  of  the  preceding  day: 

The  heat  yesterday  was  terrific;  it  was  fearful  and  its  results  absolutely  appalling 
to  the  sick  and  the  infirm.  The  blazing  atmosphere  smote  them  and  scorched  them  like 
an  avenging  Nemesis.  Even  the  strong  man  whose  imprudence  led  him  to  invest  himself 
in  physical  exertion  was  stricken  down  and  compelled  to  pay  the  debt  of  nature.  There 
were  seventy  deaths  in  the  city  that  were  reported,  of  which  twenty-seven  were  from  the 
direct  effects  of  prostration  by  heat  or  through  the  effects  of  heat  and  whisky.  There 
were  thirteen  cases  of  sunstroke  reported  in  which  the  patients  were  not  dead. 

This  account  of  the  visitation  was  headed  "A  Terrible  Scourge."  The 
newspapers  impressed  the  dangers  of 'the  heated  term  in  this  language: 

We  warn  all  readers  during  this  intensely  hot  weather  to  beware  of  whiskey  and 
beware  of  exertion.  We  advise  everybody  as  they  value  their  lives  to  seek  a  shade  and 
do  just  as  little  work  as  possible.  We  verily  hope  that  the  terrible  scourge  which  is  upon 
us  may  speedily  pass  by. 


THE    GROWING   OF    ST.    LOUIS  531 

The  gallery,  under  the  modern  name  of  piazza,  has  come  back  to  St.  Louis 
home  architecture.  And  it  is  placed  upon  the  east  side  of  the  house  wherever 
practicable.  The  passing  of  the  monotonous  row  is  evident.  The  lungs  of 
the  St.  Louis  before  the  American  occupation  are  being  restored  in  the  parks 
and  playgrounds  of  1909.  In  the  case  of  E.  P.  vs.  S.  E.  the  verdict  is  for  the 
plaintiff. 

Two  stone  buildings  Laclede  erected  on  his  block.  One  was  fifty  feet 
front  by  thirty  feet  deep.  This  was  the  business  and  store  house  of  Maxent, 
Laclede  &  Co.  The  other  was  sixty  feet  front  by  twenty-three  feet  deep. 
It  had  a  gallery  across  the  front  which  faced  east  upon  the  Plaza.  This  was 
familiarly  known  as  "Laclede's  House."  It  was  the  seat  of  government.  The 
ground  surrounding  was  three  hundred  feet  square. 

"Laclede's  House"  had  one  principal  story  above  a  high  basement.  When 
St.  Ange  marched  in  from  Fort  Chartres  the  soldiers  were  quartered  tempo- 
rarily in  the  basement.  This  ground  floor  was  used  also  for  storage  purposes. 
The  main  floor  was  divided  into  a  central  room  and  side  rooms.  There  La- 
clede had  his  office.  There  St.  Ange  ruled  and  after  him  the  Spanish  governors 
until  the  roof  began  to  leak  and  the  wood  work  to  show  need  of  extensive 
repair. 

Laclede  planned  this  house  and  selected  the  material  for  it.  The  other 
stone  houses,  some  smaller,  followed  closely  the  type  Laclede  had  fashioned. 
They  had  the  basement  story  and  the  high  gallery.  They  divided  the  main 
floor  into  central  and  end  rooms,  making  five  or  four  or  three  according  to 
individual  preference. 

One  of  the  most  imposing  stone  residences  was  built  in  what  was  at  the 
time  the  extreme  southwestern  part  of  the  settlement,  about  Elm  street  and 
Broadway,  for  Rene  Buet,  who  moved  over  from  Cahokia.  The  house  had  a 
frontage  of  forty  feet;  it  stood  on  half  a  block  of  ground,  one  of  Laclede's 
early  land  grants.  Buet  was  a  single  man  of  means.  Michael  Lami  bought 
the  house  and,  with  the  Duchouquette  family,  lived  there  until  his  death  in  1784. 
The  Duchouquette  family  lived  in  the  house  until  1800,  when  the  place  was 
sold  to  Dr.  Saugrain.  The  Saugrain  family  occupied  the  house  nearly  sixty 
years.  In  Dr.  Saugrain's  time  a  botanical  garden  was  maintained. 

The  habitants  builded  well  with  the  material  at  hand.  Among  the  an- 
tiquities preserved  in  the  Desloge  family  is  a  shingle  from  the  old  Pratte  home- 
stead in  the  lead  country  south  of  St.  Louis.  The  cedar  wood  seems  as  sound 
as  the  day  it  was  roughly  fashioned.  It  served  its  purpose  in  the  roof  "more 
than  a  hundred  years  to  the  day."  There  wasn't  a  metallic  nail  in  the  old 
mansion.  The  shingle  was  fastened  in  its  place  with  a  wooden  pin.  When  the 
house  was  demolished  it  was  found  to  be  so  well  put  together  that  a  charge 
of  dynamite  under  one  corner  was  the  most  economical  form  of  wrecking. 
In  this  house  lived  a  family  of  twenty-six  children.  Perhaps  this  was  the 
largest  family  of  the  colonial  period  of  St.  Louis  and  vicinity.  Families  of 
ten  children  were  not  extraordinary  during  the  first  and  second  generations 
in  St.  Louis.  Charles  Gratiot  had  that  number;  so  did  Gregoire  Sarpy;  so 
did  Joseph  Robidou,  whose  son  founded  the  present  city  of  St.  Joseph.  Joseph 
Marie  Papin  had  fourteen  children  and  Hyacinthe  St.  Cyr  had  fifteen. 


532  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

Dr.  Robert  Simpson,  the  second  postmaster,  who  became  an  authority  on 
fishing  for  bass  and  croppie  in  Chouteau's  Pond,  described  St.  Louis  as  it 
appeared  to  him  when  he  came,  an  assistant  surgeon  of  the  army  in  1809: 

The  town  was  all  under  the  hill,  and  laid  out  in  squares,  and  these  squares  were 
divided  into  four  lots  so  that  each  owner  had  room  for  a  garden  and  some  fruit  trees. 
There  were  no  brick  houses,  but  many  of  stone,  some  few  frame,  but  mostly  log  buildings, 
some  cabin  fashion  and  others  in  French  style,  large  logs  dressed  on  two  sides  set  some 
eight  feet  in  the  ground  with  shingle  roofs.  Just  such  a  house  was  the  one  I  purchased 
in  the  fall  of  1811  and  in  which  I  lived  for  a  number  of  years.  The  shingles  were  thick, 
and  instead  of  nails  were  hung  with  pegs  or  straps  across  the  rafters  and  made  a  very 
good  roof,  but  was  rather  musical  in  windy  weather.  . 

In  the  colonial  period  St.  Louis  grew  southward  much  faster  than  north- 
ward. South  of  Chouteau  avenue,  along  the  river  front,  were  the  country  seats, 
the  choice  residence  section  of  St.  Louis,  between  1780  and  1800.  Shortly 
after  Gabriel  Cerre  moved  over  from  Kaskaskia,  he  obtained  a  concession  of 
about  sixty-four  acres.  His  north  line  was  Park  avenue.  Cerre  was  of  Cana- 
dian birth.  He  had  been  in  business  at  Kaskaskia  a  quarter  of  a  century  before 
he  came  to  St.  Louis.  Here  he  continued  as  a  merchant  another  quarter  of 
a  century.  In  the  winter  he  lived  in  his  town  house.  When  summer  came  he 
moved  to  this  country  place,  which  was  highly  improved.  Gabriel  Cerre's 
youngest  daughter  married  Antoine  Soulard,  the  civil  engineer  who  had  been 
in  the  French  navy  and  who  was  highly  educated.  Soulard  became  the  official 
surveyor  under  appointment  by  the  Spanish  governor  of  St.  Louis  soon  after 
his  arrival.  In  the  division  of  Gabriel  Cerre's  estate,  the  country  place  went 
to  the  Soulards.  When  the  city  expanded  below  Chouteau  avenue  this  country 
seat  of  Gabriel  Cerre,  in  part,  was  known  as  Soulard's  addition. 

Joseph  Brazeau  obtained  a  concession  of  eighty-five  acres  adjoining  Gabriel 
Cerre  on  the  south.  He  built  his  residence  near  the  river  front  and  farmed 
the  land.  There  were  no  children  in  the  family ;  the  condition  of  the  Brazeaus 
was  exceptional  for  that  period  in  the  growing  of  St.  Louis.  When  Joseph 
Brazeau  died,  his  widow,  following  his  wishes,  transferred  this  and  other  prop- 
erty to  John  B.  Duchouquette.  The  consideration  was  that  she  should  receive 
an  annuity  of  $350  as  long  as  she  lived.'  Duchouquette  had  married  Marie 
Brazeau,  a  niece  of  Joseph  Brazeau.  Marie  Brazeau  had  three  brothers  and 
four  sisters,  all  of  whom  married.  She  bore  six  children,  among  whom  the 
Duchouquette  place,  as  it  had  become  known,  was  divided.  Out  of  the  Brazeau 
or  Duchouquette  country  place  were  made  the  Lesperance,  Picotte,  Papin  and 
Duchouquette  additions  to  the  city,  Barton  street  was  the  southern  boundary. 

Benito  Vasquez,  who  decided  to  retire  from  Spanish  army  life  and  spend 
the  rest  of  his  days  in  St.  Louis,  was  given  the  next  place  on  the  river  front." 
His  concession  was  not  so  large.  It  was  two  arpents  front  on  the  river  and 
ran  back  to  what  is  now  Broadway.  The  place  passed  through  several  hands 
and  became  the  home  of  ex-Governor  Delassus  after  his  return  to  St.  Louis 
in  1816.  In  1831  the  buildings  were  remodeled  into  a  powder  mill.  Benito 
Vasquez  received  a  second  concession  of  forty-two  acres  adjoining  his  grant. 
This  property  in  time  passed  to  the  possession  of  Dr.  William  Carr  Lane. 
With  the  growth  of  the  city  along  the  river  front,  the  years  came  when  the 
owners  of  the  estates  having  water  frontage  saw  the  business  advantage  of 


RESIDENCE  OF  PIERRE  CHOUTEAU,  JR.,  BEFORE 
THE  CIVIL  WAR 


JAMES   STEWART 


THEOPHILE  PAPIN 


RESIDENCE  OF  MRS.  JULIA  MAFFITT 

Type  of  mansions  on  Lucas   place   in   1870-90 

THE  GROWING  OF  ST.  LOUIS 


THE   GROWING   OF   ST.   LOUIS  533 

turning  their  acres  of  orchard  and  garden  into  lots.  As  early  as  1836,  Dr. 
Lane,  the  first  mayor,  established  the  town  of  St.  George,  a  community  in- 
dependent of  St.  Louis.  St.  George  was  between  Lynch  and  Victor  streets. 
It  had  a  river  frontage  and  was  bounded  on  the  west  by  Carondelet  avenue, 
now  Broadway.  To-day  St.  George  is  a  part  of  the  manufacturing  district 
along  the  river  south  of  Chouteau  avenue. 

The  next  of  these  river  front  country  seats  belonged  to  Eugene  Poure, 
who  was  better  known  from  New  Orleans  to  Prairie  du  Chien  as  Beausoleil. 
His  head  reminded  those  who  saw  it  of  a  "bright  sun."  Poure's  widow  sold 
the  place  for  $200.  The  ground  was  fenced.  There  was  a  house  of  posts. 
John  J.  Matoid  added  a  barn  and  sold  for  $600.  John  Rice  Jones  of  Kaskaskia 
greatly  fancied  the  place  and  agreed  to  give  Hubert  Lacroix,  the  owner  in 
1796,  the  price  of  $1,000  cash,  $1,000  in  three  years,  1,000  pounds  of  flour 
and  500  pounds  of  bacon.  The  place  had  been  improved  with  three  houses, 
a  barn,  a  lime  kiln,  a  bake  house.  After  the  cash  payment  Jones  defaulted. 
Lacroix  asked  to  have  the  property  appraised.  Charles  Gratiot  and  Charles 
Sanguinet,  two  of  the  most  prominent  men  of  St.  Louis  in  that  day,  were  ap- 
pointed. They  concluded  that  "they  could  not  conscientiously  appraise  the 
property  at  more  than  $200."  The  next  step  was  to  sell  at  auction.  The  place 
brought  $201.  Manuel  Lisa  bought  on  speculation.  He  sold  his  bargain  to 
Pat  Cullen  and  Joseph  Berry  for  800  silver  dollars  or  800  pounds  of  good  powder. 
That  was  the  year  the  Americans  took  possession.  Cullen  and  Berry  held  the 
place  three  years  and  sold  to  Silas  Bent.  The  tract  of  fifty-six  acres  was  im- 
proved with  a  fine  stone  house  and  other  buildings.  It  was  the  home  of  the 
judge  for  twenty  years,  and  was  known  to  two  generations  as  "the  Bent  place." 
It  adjoined  the  arsenal  on  the  north. 

On  what  are  now  the  arsenal  grounds  and  Lyon  Park  was  for  some 
years  in  the  early  history  of  St.  Louis  an  Indian  village.  Some  Delawares  and 
Shawnees  who  wished  to  travel  the  white  man's  road  lived  there.  Part  of  this 
ground,  fifty-seven  acres,  was  embraced  in  a  concession  to  Joseph  Marie  Papin 
in  1787.  It  remained  in  the  possession  of  the  Papin  family  until  the  govern- 
ment bought  land  and  established  the  arsenal.  Just  below  the  arsenal  stood  for 
nearly  a  century  a  small  stone  house.  It  was  put  there  to  perfect  the  title  of 
John  Mullanphy,  who  bought  forty  acres  for  $500.  The  tract  was  in  the  vicinity 
of  President  street.  In  early  days  the  landing  of  the  Cahokia  ferry  was  located 
there.  Still  further  south  was  the  Dubreuil  place  of  twenty-seven  acres,  origin- 
ally a  concession  by  the  Spanish  governor  to  Sylvestre  Sarpy.  This  tract  changed 
hands  in  1838  for  $680. 

These  country  seats,  with  their  white  limestone,  wide  galleried  mansions, 
their  gardens  and  orchards  and  well  tilled  fields  along  the  river  front  from 
Chouteau  avenue  to  where  the  city  workhouse  is  now  gashing  the  palisades,  were 
the  glory  of  St.  Louis  one  hundred  years  ago.  Almost  from  Chouteau  avenue 
to  the  arsenal  the  land  along  the  river  was  originally  "covered  with  heavy 
timber,"  according  to  both  Auguste  and  Pierre  Chouteau.  About  where  the 
Anheuser-Busch  brewery  is  the  timber  line  gave  way  to  an  open  space  called 
by  the  first  settlers  "Petite  Prairie."  The  Peoria  Indians  under  their  chief, 
Petit  Dinde  or  Little  Turkey,  were  allowed  to  build  a  village  at  the  lower  edge 
of  this  forest,  near  the  Little  Prairie. 


534  ST.    LOUIS,   THE    FOURTH    CITY 

Laclede's  plan  of  St.  Louis  located  three  streets  parallel  with  the  river, 
but  on  the  plateau  above  it.  There  was  no  street  immediately  upon  the  river 
front.  The  first  of  the  streets  was  Rue  Royale.  As  the  reverence  for  royalty 
diminished  with  the  habitants,  they  called  this  street  Rue  Principale.  Quite 
naturally,  with  the  Americanizing  of  St.  Louis,  the  name  was  changed  to  Main 
street.  Houses  fronted  on  the  east  side  of  Rue  Royale  and  their  back  yards 
extended  to  the  edge  of  the  limestone  cliff,  thirty-five  feet  above  the  sandy  shore 
of  the  river.  The  second  parallel  street  was  Rue  de  1'Englise.  It  took  its  name 
from  the  church.  The  first  Americans  called  this  Church  street.  Pennsylvanians 
were  strong  in  numbers  and  influence  during  the  formative  period  following  the 
acquisition.  They  gave  to  the  city  the  first  mayor.  They  introduced  the  system 
of  numbering  streets.  Church  street  become  Second  street.  Laclede's  third  par- 
allel street  was  Rue  des  Granges, — the  street  of  the  barns.  The  Americans  called 
it  Barn  street.  This  name  was  appropriate,  for  the  barns  of  many  of  the  early 
settlers  were  on  this  street,  convenient  to  the  pasture  and  common  fields  which 
stretched  away  to  the  westward.  Laclede  did  not  lay  off  the  settlement  beyond 
Barn  street.  When  the  Americans  came,  with  their  ideas  of  real  estate  specu- 
lation, they  turned  Barn  street  into  Third  street  and  added  Fourth,  Fifth  and 
other  streets  as  rapidly  as  the  market  would  absorb  the  supply  of  town  lots.  In 
the  talk  of  the  town  Fourth  street  for  years  was  called  "American  street." 

When  the  time  came  to  make  up  the  official  history  of  this  early  surveying 
and  platting  and  naming,  Auguste  Chouteau  and  others  told  interesting  facts 
bearing  upon  the  colonial  period  of  St.  Louis.  They  testified  before  Theodore 
Hunt,  who  had  been  appointed  by  the  United  States  government  to  gather  this 
important  evidence  before  the  witnesses  passed  away.  Auguste  Chouteau,  de- 
scribing the  plan  of  the  settlement  as  Laclede  gave  it  to  him  and  as  it  was 
carried  out,  said :  "The  main  streets  were  laid  out  to  be  thirty-six  feet  wide 
and  all  the  cross  streets  were  laid  out  to  be  thirty  feet  wide.  The  blocks  were 
generally  laid  out  to  be  240  feet  fronting  on  main  streets  and  running  back  300 
feet  to  other  main  streets."  This  was  the  French  measure.  The  French  foot 
was  nearly  thirteen  English  inches. 

The  Civic  League  of  1911  regretted  the  utilitarianism  which  turned  the 
public  square  on  the  river  front  to  commercial  account.  In  his  testimony  of 
1825  before  Commissioner  Hunt,  Auguste  Chouteau  told  that  the  first  intention 
had  been  to  lay  out  a  street  on  the  edge  of  the  limestone  cliff  overlooking  the 
river.  This  would  have  given  St.  Louis  the  esplanade  which  the  Civic  League, 
145  years  afterwards,  thought  would  be  an  ideal  water  front.  The  question  at 
issue  was  whether  the  market  square  was  inherited  by  the  municipality,  or  was 
to  be  considered  government  property,  and  as  such  to  be  classed  as  school  land 
under  the  Act  of  Congress.  Auguste  Chouteau  stoutly  maintained  that  this 
square  belonged  to  the  inhabitants  of  St.  Louis,  not  to  the  Spanish  or  any  other 
government.  He  gave  a  deposition  on  the  subject.  He  said  that  "when  he  first 
came  and  laid  out  the  town  under  the  direction  of  Laclede  they  established 
the  warehouse  where  the  market  house  now  stands.  They  intended  then  to  have 
a  street  fronting  the  Mississippi  with  lots  running  back  300  feet.  After  that  the 
plan  was  altered  and  a  main  street  was  laid  out,  leaving  lots  of  about  150  feet 
deep  between  it  and  the  river.  The  town  was  laid  out  and  surveyed  by  this 


THE  COUNTRY  HOME  OF  PIERRE  CHOUTEAU,  SR. 
IN  HIS  OLD  AGE 


JOSIAH   H.  OBEAR 


CHARLES    H.    PECK 


RESIDENCE  OF  CHARLES  P.  CHOUTEAU 

About  1880,  on  the  bluffs  overlooking  the   Mississippi   river 
THE  GROWING  OF  ST.  LOUIS 


THE    GROWING   OF    ST.    LOUIS  535 

deponent  upon  this  plan.  After  this  the  warehouse  was  removed  to  the  square 
where  he  at  present  resides."  (The  west  side  of  Main  between  Market  and 
Walnut.)  "When  the  Spanish  authorities  came  to  this  town,  Piernas  and 
Perez,  the  lieutenant-governors,  they  granted  the  south  part  of  the  square  to 
Benito  Vasquez  and  Bonaventure  Collel.  The  balance  was  reserved  for  a  Place 
Public.  To  the  knowledge  of  this  deponent,  Madame  Loisel,  the  midwife  of 
the  place,  applied  to  Perez  for  a  lot  in  this  square.  Mr.  Perez  told  her  it  should 
not  be  granted,  but  should  be  reserved  for  the  use  of  the  inhabitants.  And  it 
has  so  remained  from  that  time  to  this  day.  The  deponent  does  hereby  declare 
that  this  square  belongs  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  of  St.  Louis  for  their 
use  as  a  public  place.  And  if  any  persons  should  contend  that  it  does  not,  but 
that  it  belongs  to  the  school  lands,  that  he  having  been  the  first  in  possession 
of  the  same  will  contend  to  his  right  for  the  same,  he  only  relinquishing  it  for 
the  benefit  of  the  mayor,  aldermen  and  citizens  of  the  town  of  St.  Louis  as  a 
Place  Public." 

Charles  DeHault  Delassus,  the  last  of  the  Spanish  governors,  testified  be- 
fore Commissioner  Hunt  in  substantiation  of  Auguste  Chouteau,  that  this  square 
"was  considered  a  public  place  of  rendezvous,  and  so  much  so  that  while  acting 
as  lieutenant-governor  under  the  Spanish  government,  although  he  had  power 
to  grant  lots  or  land,  he  would  not  and  could  not  have  granted  that  place  which 
was  used  as  the  Place  of  Arms  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  of  St.  Louis." 

John  Baptist  Trudeau  stated  that  when  he  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1774 
he  was  told  the  whole  square  had  been  reserved  for  the  use  of  the  inhab- 
itants. In  1825  he  said  he  could  say  that  to  his  knowledge  this  square  of  right 
belonged  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  of  St.  Louis. 

As  early  as  1810,  Henry  N.  Brackenridge  expressed  the  regret  which 
this  generation  feels  over  the  treatment  of  the  river  front: 

It  is  to  be  lamented  that  no  space  has  been  left  between  the  town  and  the  river;  for 
the  sake  of  the  pleasure  of  the  promenade,  as  well  as  for  business  and  health,  there  should 
have  been  no  encroachment  on  the  margin  of  the  noble  stream. 

Edmund  Flagg,  coming  a  quarter  of  a  century  later,  was  impressed  in 
the  same  way: 

Water  street  is  well  built  up  with  a  series  of  lofty  limestone  warehouses;  but  an 
irretrievable  error  has  been  committed  in  arranging  them  at  so  short  distance  from  the 
water.  On  some  accounts  this  proximity  to  the  river  may  be  convenient;  but  for  the 
sake  of  a  broad  arena  for  commerce;  for  the  sake  of  a  fresh  and  salubrious  circulation  of 
air  from  the  water;  for  the  sake  of  scenic  beauty,  or  a  noble  promenade  for  pleasure, 
there  should  have  been  no  encroachment  upon  the  precincts  of  the  "eternal  river." 

In  the  great  fire  of  1849  St.  Louis  had  an  experience  similar  to  those 
of  other  American  cities  visited  in  the  same  manner.  The  fire  destroyed 
twenty-three  steamboats.  It  swept  Front  street  from  Locust  to  Market,  with 
the  exception  of  two  or  three  houses.  It  burned  over  some  fifteen  blocks  in 
the  business  district.  The  loss  of  the  boats  and  their  cargoes  was  $439,000. 
The  total  value  of  property  destroyed  was  over  $3,000,000.  Instead  of  par- 
alyzing the  community  or  retarding  its  progress  the  great  fire  proved,  to  quote 
the  words  of  one  who  suffered  temporarily  from  it,  "a  benefit  and  a  blessing 
like  the  tree  that  gathers  more  vigor  when  cropped  of  its  luxuriance."  Not 
only  was  St.  Louis  rebuilt  with  a  better  class  of  structures,  but  property  holders 


536  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

on  Main  street  secured  the  widening  of  that  principal  business  thoroughfare. 
They  met  immediately  after  the  fire  and  petitioned  the  Council  to  set  back  the 
building  lines  at  their  own  expense.  This  was  done  and  the  street  was  widened 
to  the  limits  it  now  has.  St.  Louis  went  ahead  at  a  pace  more  rapid  than  it 
had  ever  known  before  the  fire.  This  has  since  been  the  experience  of  Chicago 
and  of  Baltimore. 

Unfortunately,  one  of  the  movements  inaugurated  to  take  advantage  of 
the  fire  and  to  improve  the  business  front  of  the  city  was  not  carried  out.  It 
was  proposed  that  the  city  should  buy  the  property  between  the  levee  and  Com- 
mercial street,  from  Vine  street  to  Market  street,  and  leave  the  space  open  for 
future  treatment  as  a  part  of  the  levee.  It  was  argued  that  this  would  prevent 
any  fire  that  might  start  among  the  steamboats  from  spreading  to  the  business 
district.  It  was  urged  that  the  restriction  of  business  buildings  to  the  west 
line  of  Commercial  street,  or  Commercial  alley,  as  it  was  afterwards  more 
commonly  called,  would  avert  the  occasional  damage  caused  by  unusual  rise 
of  the  river.  In  brief,  this  movement  to  leave  open  the  long  strip  of  the  city 
front  has  been  renewed  several  times  since  the  fire,  and  in  1908  took  the  form 
of  a  proposed  riverside  park.  The  movement  failed  just  sixty  years  ago  because 
the  city,  crippled  somewhat  by  the  losses  of  the  fire,  did  not  feel  able  to  pur- 
chase the  blocks  which  it  was  proposed  should  not  be  rebuilt.  When  the 
steamboat  business  was  at  its  height  in  that  period,  this  levee  property  was 
held  at  $1,000  a  front  foot.  Luther  M.  Kennett,  one  of  the  most  enterprising 
of  St.  Louis  mayors  before  the  war,  advocated  earnestly  the  purchase  by  the 
city  of  the  strip  from  Locust  to  Walnut  street  east  of  Commercial  alley.  It 
was  found  that  the  cost  to  the  city  would  be  between  $1,500,000  and  $2,000,000. 
Afterwards  this  property  declined  to  a  fraction  of  the  value  of  the  flush  steam- 
boat times. 

Baptiste  Riviere  came  to  St.  Louis  "in  the  first  boat"  with  Auguste  Chou- 
teau.  He  was  about  twelve  years  old.  His  father  drove  the  cart  which  brought 
Madame  Chouteau  and  the  children  a  few  weeks  later  from  Kaskaskia  to 
Cahokia.  When  he  was  eighty  years  old  Baptiste  Riviere  gave  before  Com- 
missioner Hunt  his  recollections  of  the  site  and  the  suburbs  of  St.  Louis. 
"Immediately  where  the  town  stands,"  he  said,  "was  heavy  timber.  But  back 
of  the  town  it  was  generally  prairie  with  some  timber  growing.  But  where 
the  timber  did  grow,  it  was  entirely  free  of  undergrowth.  The  grass  grew 
in  great  abundance  everywhere  and  of  the  best  quality."  Riviere  was  one  of 
the  principal  witnesses  before  Theodore  Hunt.  His  recollections  were  stated 
in  clear  and  positive  terms.  Auguste  Chouteau  gave  this  sworn  certificate  of 
Riviere's  character:  "He  has  known  Baptiste  Riviere  au  Baccane  for  sixty 
years,  and  said  Baptiste  Riviere  has  always  sustained  the  character  of  an  honest 
man  and  a  man  of  truth." 

The  settlement  as  Laclede  drew  the  plan  and  Auguste  Chouteau  laid  it 
out  was  between  the  river  and  Third  street.  Franklin  avenue,  first  called 
Cherry  street,  on  the  north  and  Poplar  street  on  the  south  were  the  other 
boundaries.  It  was  divided  into  forty-nine  squares,  of  which  fifteen  were  along 
the  river  front,  nineteen  between  Main  and  Second,  and  fifteen  between  Second 
and  Third  streets. 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  537 

Pierre  Chouteau,  Sr.,  described  to  Theodore  Hunt  the  custom  of  granting 
barn  lots.  He  said  he  was  well  acquainted  with  the  grants  made  for  barn 
lots  by  the  Spanish  authorities  and  likewise  with  the  grants  made  for  barn  lots 
by  the  French  authorities.  The  French  granted  many  more  barn  lots  than  the 
Spanish.  It  never  was  the  custom  to  give  more  for  a  barn  lot  than  60  to  80 
feet  square. 

Francis  Duchouquette  was  one  of  the  pioneer  settlers  whose  testimony 
helped  to  establish  the  fact  that  the  government  reserved  the  rights  to  the  river 
frontage.  He  told  Theodore  Hunt  that  "in  the  grants  for  town  lots  by  the 
Spanish  authorities  there  was  always  understood  to  be  a  reservation  between 
the  lots  fronting  the  river  for  a  tow  for  the  boats.  He  said  he  had  known  that 
when  a  fence  or  fences  were  put  up  so  as  to  interfere  with  the  tow  or  road 
such  fence  or  fences  were  pulled  down  by  persons  who  found  themselves 
obstructed.  This  was  always  considered  the  custom  of  the  country." 

Auguste  Chouteau  testified  that  he  was  well  acquainted  with  what  was 
the  custom  as  to  the  grants  for  the  lots  fronting  the  Mississippi  river  in  this 
town.  There  was  always  left  a  space  between  the  lots  so  situated  and  the 
river  for  a  tow  or  road.  He  never  did  know  during  the  time  the  French  or 
Spanish  governed  this  country  of  any  lot  being  fenced  to  the  river  either  to 
high  or  low  water  mark. 

Former  Governor  Delassus  said:  "No  concession  could  be  granted  to 
obstruct  or  impede  the  public  ways.  Concessions  on  navigable  waters  could 
not  extend  farther  near  the  edge  of  high  water  than  20  or  30  feet,  which  space 
was  reserved  for  the  public  use  as  a  tow  road  or  path." 

Laclede  crossed  his  three  parallel  streets  with  two  or  three  east  and  west 
thoroughfares  and  with  several  lanes.  One  of  the  streets  was  Rue  de  la  Place. 
It  led  from  the  river  westward  past  La  Place,  the  public  square,  past  Laclede's 
house,  past  the  church  and  the  graveyard  and  up  to  "the  Hill."  The  plaza,  or 
public  square,  gave  the  street  its  name.  When  the  Pennsylvanians  applied  the 
Philadelphia  plan,  they  bestowed  upon  Laclede's  cross  streets  and  lanes  the 
names  of  trees.  Rue  de  la  Place  became  Walnut  street.  On  the  north  fronts 
of  La  Place,  of  Laclede  block,  of  the  church  and  graveyard  block,  was  another 
principal  east  and  west  street — Rue  de  la  Tour.  It  led  up  the  hill  to  Fort  San 
Carlos,  or  St.  Charles,  the  principal  feature  of  which  was  the  round  tower. 
The  street  of  the  tower — Rue  de  la  Tour — was  appropriate  in  its  time.  But 
the  Americans  turned  La  Place  to  utility.  They  could  not  be  content  with  their 
practical  minds  to  see  an  open  square  on  the  valuable  river  front  where  the 
keel  boats  unloaded  and  where  commerce  centralized.  They  built  a  market 
house  on  La  Place.  The  tower  at  the  fort  was  doomed.  Rue  de  la  Tour 
became  Market  street. 

Transactions  in  St.  Louis  realty  did  not  wait  on  written  titles.  Laclede's 
verbal  grants,  or  assignments,  were  good  enough  for  some  investors.  James 
Denis  was  a  joiner.  He  was  given  a  lot  on  the  southeast  corner  of  Second  and 
Walnut  streets.  On  the  lot  he  built  a  house  of  posts.  In  January,  1766,  which 
was  before  the  first  written  deed  passed,  Denis  sold  the  house  and  lot  to  Antoine 
Hubert,  the  merchant.  The  consideration  was  $220.  This  was  probably  the 
first  real  estate  transaction  in  the  history  of  St.  Louis.  Denis  estimated  the 


ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

value  of  the  house  at  $200.  The  lot,  which  he  had  held  about  eighteen  months 
under  Laclede's  verbal  assignment  to  him,  was  valued  at  $20.  This  transfer 
o'f  real  estate  in  the  new  settlement  was  recorded  with  care  by  Labusciere. 
who  that  very  month  began  to  keep  the  records  of  St.  Louis.  It  is  the  first 
transfer  on  the  record.  Denis  was  evidently  a  born  real  estate  man.  In  March, 
1766,  which  was  also  before  the  issue  of  written  titles  by  the  St.  Ange  govern- 
ment, Denis  made  another  sale.  This  second  transaction  was  the  transfer  of  a 
lot  sixty  feet  front.  It  joined  the  first  one,  fronting  on  Second  street.  Hubert 
was  again  the  investor.  The  lot  was  not  improved.  Hubert  gave  for  it  $20 
and  six  quarts  of  rum.  This  was  a  notable  advance  in  real  estate  values  of 
St.  Louis. 

Pierre  Berger  gave  Francois  Latour  a  mortgage  in  September,  1766.  This 
was  the  first  instrument  of  the  kind  in  St.  Louis.  It  covered  all  that  Pierre 
had.  It  called  for  the  delivery  of  a  certain  number  of  bundles  of  deerskin  to 
Francois  within  a  specified  time.  If  Pierre  failed  to  make  delivery  his  property 
was  to  go  to  Francois.  There  were  some  financial  transactions  of  those  times 
wherein  the  number  of  skins  was  given  as  the  consideration.  They  were 
between  individuals  usually.  In  trade  and  commerce  the  rule  was  to  give  the 
skins  a  fixed  value  by  the  pound  and  thus  establish  their  value  as  currency. 
When  Judge  J.  B.  C.  Lucas  bought  his  first  piece  of  real  estate  in  St.  Louis  the 
price  was  "six  hundred  dollars  in  deerskins." 

The  thoroughgoing,  business  character  of  Auguste  Chouteau  was  shown 
in  the  prompt  action  he  took  to  get  the  title  to  the  mill  tract  of  nearly  1,200 
acres  confirmed  by  the  United  States  government  after  1804.  He  was  so  suc- 
cessful that  it  is  said  "there  has  never  been  a  single  suit  instituted  about  lands 
derived  from  Auguste  Chouteau  or  his  legal  representatives."  The  Laclede 
grant,  after  the  purchase  at  the  church  door,  became  known  as  the  Auguste 
Chouteau  tract.  It  was  confirmed  by  Spanish  authority  and  was  accepted  by 
the  United  States  as  binding.  It  escaped  all  disputes  and  controversies  of 
title.  No  land  commission  ever  raised  question  as  to  the  legality  of  the  grant. 
In  1832  most  of  the  property  still  remained  in  the  possession  of  the  Auguste 
Chouteau  estate.  It  was  divided  among  seven  children.  The  subdivision  was 
in  parcels  of  five  acres  as  far  west  as  Seventeenth  street.  Beyond  Seventeenth 
street  the  parcels  were  from  ten  to  twenty  acres.  The  extreme  western  part 
of  the  tract  was  divided  into  parcels  of  sixty-five  acres.  Some  sales  of  property 
in  the  Auguste  Chouteau  tract  were  in  considerable  tracts.  About  1840  Robert 
Ranken  purchased  from  Henri  Chouteau  sixty-four  acres  for  $7,000.  Later 
Mr.  Ranken  secured  another  tract  of  sixty-four  acres  from  Edward  Chouteau 
for  $6,500.  The  land  thus  acquired  remained  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Ranken 
and  his  heirs  until  it  was  valued  at  millions  of  dollars. 

The  Missouri  Pacific  Railroad  company  bought  of  the  Auguste  Chouteau 
tract  eleven  acres,  where  the  railroad  shops  stand,  for  $11,000.  The  company 
also  bought  four  blocks  which  are  now  covered  with  tracks  between  Seventh 
and  Eleventh  streets,  for  $120,000. 

The  first  addition  to  the  town  of  St.  Louis  was  made  jointly  by  Auguste 
Chouteau  and  J.  B.  C.  Lucas  about  1815.  The  Chouteau  tract,  acquired  in 
the  settlement  of  the  Laclede  estate,  came  almost  to  Chestnut  street  on  the 


DOUBLE  RESIDENCE  AT   SIXTH  AND  OLIVE  STREETS 
•About   1869,  occupied  by   Mrs.   Maffitt   and   C.   P.   Chouteau 


C.    G.    GERHART 


W.   A.   RUTLEDGE 


ONE  OF  THE  EARLY  ROWS  BUILT   IN   ST.  LOUIS 
Presented  by  Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.,  to  his  daughter  and  son 


THE    GROWING   OF    ST.    LOUIS  539 

north.  North  of  the  Auguste  Chouteau  tract  lay  a  long  strip  of  land  from 
Fourth  street  westward  and  from  St.  Charles  street  southward,  which  J.  B.  C. 
Lucas  had  acquired  by  purchase.  Auguste  Chouteau  and  J.  B.  C.  Lucas 
donated  to  the  city  of  St.  Louis  the  square  on  which  the  court  house  stands, 
bounded  by  Fourth,  Fifth,  Market  and  Chestnut  streets.  They  then  laid  out 
their  property  to  the  westward  as  an  addition  to  the  city. 

"The  Hill"  where  the  court  house  and  the  Planters  House  are  was  more 
of  an  elevation  than  now  appears.  When  Fourth  street  was  graded,  between 
1830  and  1840,  it  was  cut  down  four  feet.  Francois  Gunell,  the  tradition  is, 
had  the  contract  to  grade.  In  the  block  on  which  the  Planters  stands  was  a 
depression  or  a  gully,  thirty  feet  deep.  J.  B.  C.  Lucas,  who  owned  the  ground, 
offered  Gunell  three  cents  a  cubic  yard  to  dump  the  dirt  he  was  taking  from 
Fourth  street  into  the  hole.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  job  the  contractor  brought 
in  a  bill  for  $60  against  Judge  Lucas.  At  this  point  the  story  becomes  almost 
incredible.  Judge  Lucas  offered  to  deed  Gunell  one-half  of  the  ground  to  pay 
the  bill  of  $60.  The  contractor  declined,  saying  he  needed  the  money.  In 
1911,  a  lot  twenty-seven  feet  front  on  Olive  street,  between  Sixth  and  Seventh 
streets,  having  a  depth  of  105  feet,  was  sold  for  $300,000,  which  was  more 
than  $11,000  a  front  foot  or  $106  a  square  foot.  ,, 

When  James  H.  Lucas  and  Mrs.  Anne  Lucas  Hunt  came  into  their  inher- 
itance on  the  death  of  Judge  J.  B.  C.  Lucas,  the  estate  was  in  land.  It  amounted 
in  the  values  of  that  day  to  $45,000  or  $50,000.  The  land  was  unimproved, 
but  it  was  burdened  with  no  debts.  James  H.  Lucas  began  to  build.  His  first 
improvement  was  on  the  Fourth  street  block  opposite  the  Planters.  Borrowing 
$20,000  in  Philadelphia,  he  erected  a  building  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Fourth 
and  Chestnut.  Then  he  put  two  buildings  about  midway  of  the  Fourth  street 
block.  As  he  could  command  the  means  Mr.  Lucas  covered  the  Fourth  street 
front  from  Chestnut  to  Pine  with  renting  property.  That  ground  was  cleared 
and  built  over  a  second  time  after  the  death  of  Mr.  Lucas.  It  is  occupied  now 
by  the  third  improvement — the  Pierce  building. 

Mr.  Lucas  increased  his  estate  by  steadily  improving  the  ground  until 
he  was  worth  $7,000,000.  Determination  and  patience  were  his  marked 
characteristics. 

When  James  H.  Lucas  was  supposed  to'  be  worth  at  least  $2,000,000  he 
told  a  friend  in  conversation  at  the  Planters  one  day  that  he  frequently  found 
himself  without  enough  ready  money  to  go  to  market  with.  Mr.  Lucas  was  a 
quiet,  self-contained  man  except  in  the  presence  of  a  few  intimates.  When 
this  reserve  was  thrown  aside  he  could  be  very  entertaining.  Although  he 
accumulated  a  great  fortune,  he  was  much  of  the  time  a  borrower.  When 
he  had  money  he  was  ready  to  invest  it  in  public  enterprises.  Most  of  the 
gifts  of  Mr.  Lucas  for  public  purposes  took  the  form  of  real  estate.  Mr. 
Lucas  gave  to  the  city  the  lot  at  Sixth  and  Chestnut  on  which  the  stone  jail 
stood  until  the  Four  Courts  was  occupied.  He  gave  the  space  known  as 
Twelfth  street,  building  a  long,  narrow  market  house  for  public  convenience 
in  the  center  of  it,  from  Olive  to  Chestnut.  The  hay  market  was  in  the  wide 
space  at  one  end  and  the  coal  market  was  at  the  other  end.  Mr.  Lucas  gave 
the  site  on  which  the  Planters  was  built.  He  gave  the  Historical  society  its 


540  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

location.  He  gave  Missouri  park.  He  subscribed  to  every  public  enterprise 
that  was  started.  For  a  time  the  Planters  bore  the  name  of  Lucas.  Missouri 
park  was  at  first  known  as  Lucas  park.  The  select  residence  section  west  of 
the  park  was  called  Lucas  place.  The  market  was  known  as  Lucas  market, 
and  the  spacious  Twelfth  street  was  long  known  as  Lucas  Market  place.  In 
1908  a  member  of  the  family  with  a  tinge  of  bitterness  in  manner  called  atten- 
tion to  the  fact  that  the  name  of  "Lucas"  had  disappeared  from  all  of  these. 

With  what  estimation  his  fellow  citizens  held  James  H.  Lucas  was  seen 
in  the  presentation  of  a  marble  bust  to  Mrs.  Lucas  by  a  voluntary  association 
of  business  men  of  the  city.  This  bust  was  the  work  of  J.  Wilson  McDonald, 
and  was  given  to  Mrs.  Lucas  with  some  ceremony  in  May,  1870.  In  the 
address  of  presentation  this  tribute  was  paid: 

He  has  liberally  contributed  toward  the  erection  of  churches  and  charitable  institu- 
tions all  over  the  city.  He  has  donated  property  for  public  uses,  laid  out  streets  and  ave- 
nues, and  improved,  built  up  and  adorned  many  portions  of  the  city  with  elegant  and 
costly  edifices.  He  has  made  the  market  which  bears  his  name,  and  Lucas  Place  monu- 
ments of  his  liberal,  public  spirit,  enterprise  and  good  taste.  His  name  is  inseparable  with 
the  history  of  St.  Louis.  He  has  literally  grown  with  her  growth  and  in  strength  with 
her  strength. 

In  1872,  when  he  was  72  years  of  age,  James  H.  Lucas  made  partial  dis- 
tribution of  his  estate.  He  gave  to  his  wife  and  eight  children  property  valued 
at  $2,000,000.  The  year  before  the  distribution  the  taxes  on  the  estate  amounted 
to  $126,000.  At  that  time  Mr.  Lucas  owned  225  stores  and  dwellings  and  had 
over  300  tenants.  His  income  was  $40,000  a  month. 

To  an  Irish  bachelor,  St.  Louis  is  indebted  for  the  artery  of  the  wholesale 
district.  Jeremiah  Connor  was  the  second  sheriff,  succeeding  James  Rankin.  He 
lived  in  a  one-story  stone  house  on  the  west  side  of  Second  street  about  midway 
between  Pine  and  Olive.  The  house  had  two  rooms  and  a  porch;  the  lot  ran 
back  to  Price's  orchard,  which  was  on  Third  street.  Connor  lived  alone.  The 
front  room  was  his  office.  In  the  back  room  the  sheriff  slept.  When  the  common 
fields  lying  over  "the  Hill"  were  divided  into  long  strips,  an  arpent  front  and 
forty  arpents  deep,  Connor  secured  two  of  the  strips.  This  gave  him  a  piece  of 
land  380  front  on  Fourth  street  and  a  mile  and  a  half  deep,  to  Jefferson  avenue. 
He  laid  it  out  with  an  east  and  west  avenue  eighty  feet  wide  through  the  center, 
with  lots  150  feet  deep  on  either  side.  In  those  days  a  street  of  that  width 
seemed  extravagant.  There  was  no  other  subdivision  to  compare  with  this  in 
liberality  of  street  dedication.  Connor  had  his  own  way.  He  gave  nearly  twenty- 
five  per  cent  of  his  real  estate  to  public  use.  Lucas  and  Chouteau  had  laid  off 
the  first  addition  to  St.  Louis  on  the  south  of  Connor,  and  Christy  had  laid  off 
a  strip  on  the  north.  The  Irishman  outdid  them  in  the  magnificence  of  his  real 
estate  plan.  He  didn't  live  to  see  houses  built  on  the  first  avenue  of  St.  Louis. 
He  died  in  1823. 

The  site  of  St.  Louis  University  on  Washington  avenue  between  Ninth  and 
Eleventh  streets  was  the  gift  of  Jeremiah  Connor.  The  early  St.  Louis  sheriff 
presented  this  ground  through  Bishop  Dubourg.  The  time  was  1820.  In  placing 
the  property  in  the  hands  of  the  Jesuit  Fathers  for  educational  purposes,  the 
bishop  wrote  a  letter.  He  demonstrated,  even  at  that  early  day,  when  St.  Louis 
had  about  2,500  inhabitants,  the  remarkable  judgment  which  the  Catholic  clergy 


THE    GROWING   OF    ST.    LOUIS  541 

of  St.  Louis  have  shown  in  forecasting  the  future  of  the  city.    The  letter  was 
to  Father  Van  Quickenborne  at  the  head  of  the  institution.    The  bishop  wrote: 

And  it  may  well  be,  that  if  the  town  increases  and  spreads,  as  it  now  promises  to 
do,  these  two  blocks  will  advance  in  value  to  the  degree  that  in  the  end  they  will  furnish 
you  the  means  wherewith  to  establish  yourself  more  permanently  and  with  larger  and 
better  buildings  at  some  other  site,  which  in  that  future  day  becomes  more  desirable. 

In  1886  the  ground  was  sold  by  the  university  for  $462,000.  It  is  now  the 
heart  of  the  wholesale  district  and  worth  several  times  that  amount. 

How  much  is  a  city  block  in  .St.  Louis?"  That  depends.  Auguste  Chouteau, 
to  whom  Laclede  gave  the  plan  of  the  settlement,  said  the  settlers  who  moved 
over  from  the  east  side  of  the  river  in  the  spring  of  1764,  "commenced  building 
their  cabins  and  entered  their  lines  agreeably  to  the  lines  of  the  lots  which  I 
had  drawn  following  the  plan  which  Monsieur  Laclede  had  left  with  me."  The 
ideal  of  Laclede  was  a  block  240  feet  front  on  the  streets  parallel  with  the 
river  and  running  back  300  feet.  He  made  the  north  and  south  streets  36  feet 
wide  and  the  cross  streets  30  feet  wide. 

When  the  first  Spanish  governor,  in  1770,  yielded  to  the  petition  of  the 
residents  for  a  survey  of  their  lots,  he  appointed  Martin  Duralde  "surveyor 
of  the  colony  of  Illinois."  Duralde  said  the  way  he  surveyed  the  property  hold- 
ings in  this  settlement,  then  six  years  old,  was  as  follows:  "I  caused  to  ac- 
company me  the  proprietor  and  his  nearest  neighbors,  to  serve  as  witnesses 
and  to  point  out  to  me  precisely  the  true  situation  of  the  concessions.  I  at- 
tained my  object  and  caused  the  land  to  be  bounded  in  my  presence,  with  stones 
at  the  four  corners." 

Sixty  years  later  errors  in  boundaries  were  corrected  by  corner  stones  which 
Duralde  set.  Twenty  years  after  that,  Henry  W.  Williams,  a  marvelously  pains- 
taking and  accurate  investigator  of  titles,  found  chains  of  titles  going  back  to 
Laclede's  verbal  assignments  and  Duralde's  stone  corners  without  concession  by 
French  or  Spanish  government  and  without  confirmation  by  the  United  States. 
They  rested  on  possession  for  eighty-four  years  and  were  good. 

How  much  is  a  city  block  in  St.  Louis?  Lucas  said  it  should  be,  not  what 
Laclede  decreed,  but  338  feet  square.  This  was  agreed  to  by  Auguste  Chouteau. 
The  two  of  them  laid  off  the  streets  and  blocks  between  Clark  avenue  and  St. 
Charles  street  on  this  basis.  O'Connor,  who  got  the  narrow  farm  adjoining  on 
the  north,  did  not  believe  in  cross  streets.  When  the  streets  were  opened  north 
from  St.  Charles  to  Lucas  avenue  it  was  necessary  to  condemn.  Then  came  the 
jogs,  or  offsets,  in  the  street  lines.  Christy  and  Carr  decided  that  the  ideal 
block  was  376  feet  long.  They  used  that  as  the  unit  in  their  additions.  A  little 
farther  north,  in  the  vicinity  of  Cass  avenue,  the  Mullanphys  thought  270  feet 
was  a  proper  frontage  for  a  block.  Still  farther  out  real  estate  owners  adopted 
500  feet  for  a  block.  Thus  the  city  has  spread  with  an  arrangement  of  streets 
which  makes  a  map  of  St.  Louis  look  little  more  symmetrical  than  a  patchwork 
quilt. 

For  many  years  St.  Louis  grew  and  spread  by  accretions,  block  by  block, 
street  by  street.  Transportation  and  manufacturing  interests  preempted  the 
river  front  and  the  lower  levels,  avoiding  the  grades.  Residence  streets  followed 
the  undulations  of  the  higher  ground.  There  was  the  minimum  of  method  or 


542  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

foresight  in  the  making  of.  the  city.  A  partial  awakening  came  when  Henry 
Shaw  established  his  world-famed  Missouri  Botanical  Gardens  and  added  thereto 
Tower  Grove  Park,  endowing  them  permanently  for  the  benefit  of  the  city. 
Thirty-five  years  ago,  in  face  of  much  opposition,  St.  Louis  acquired  1,376  acres 
of  natural  woodland  in  the  then  unimproved  suburbs  and  created  Forest  Park, 
one  mile  wide  and  two  miles  long,  at  that  time  the  largest  park  save  Fairmount, 
Philadelphia,  possessed  by  any  city  in  the  United  States.  Forest  Park,  with 
its  10,220  feet  length  east  and  west,  was  added  to  the  other  considerations  which 
determined  for  generations  the  trend  of  the  city's  residence  growth. 

Notwithstanding  the  irregularities  of  growth,  St.  Louis  made  a  pleasing 
impression  upon  many  of  the  early  comers.  Edmund  Flagg,  fresh  from  the 
Atlantic  seaboard,  in  1836,  to  become  a  St.  Louis  editor,  wrote  of  the  city  which 
was  like  none  other: 

There  is  about  it  a  cheerful  village  air,  a  certain  rus  in  urbe,  in  which  the  grena- 
dier preciseness  of  most  of  our  cities  is  the  antipodes.  There  are  but  few  of  those  recti- 
linear avenues  cutting  each  other  into  broad  squares  of  lofty  granite  blocks,  so  character- 
istic of  the  older  cities  of  the  north  and  east,  or  of  those  cities  of  transmontane  origin 
so  rapidly  rising  within  the  boundaries  of  the  valley.  There  yet  remains  much  in  St. 
Louis  to  remind  one  of  its  village  days;  and  a  stern  eschewal  of  mathematical,  angular 
exactitude  is  everywhere  beheld.  Until  within  a  few  years  there  was  no  such  thing  as 
a  row  of  houses;  all  were  disjoined  and  at  a  considerable  distance  from  each  other;  and 
every  edifice,  however  central,  could  boast  its  humble  stoop,  its  front  door  plat,  bedecked 
with  shrubbery  and  flowers  and  protected  from  the  inroads  of  intruding  man  or  beast  by 
its  own  tall  stockade.  All  this  is  now  confined  to  the  southern  or  French  section  of  the 
city;  a  right  Eip  Van  Winkle-looking  region,  where  each  little  steep-roofed  cottage  yet 
presents  its  broa'd  piazza,  and  the  cozy  settee  before  the  door  beneath  the  tree  shade,  with 
the  fleshy  old  burghers  soberly  luxuriating  on  an  evening  pipe,  their  dark-eyed,  brunette 
daughters  at  their  side.  There  is  a  delightful  air  of  "old-fashioned  comfortableness"  in  all 
this  that  reminds  us  of  nothing  we  have  seen  in  our  own  country,  but  much  of  the  anti- 
quated villages  of  which  we  have  been  told  in  the  land  beyond  the  waters.  Among  those 
remnants  of  a  former  generation  which  are  yet  to  be  seen  in  St.  Louis  are  the  venerable 
mansions  of  Auguste  and  Pierre  Chouteau,  who  were  among  the  founders  of  the  city. 
These  extensive  mansions  stand  upon  the  principal  street,  and  originally  occupied,  with 
their  grounds,  each  of  them  an  entire  square,  enclosed  by  lofty  walls  of  heavy  masonry, 
with  loopholes  and  watch  towers  for  defense.  The  march  of  improvements  has  encroached 
upon  the  premises  of  these  ancient  edifices  somewhat;  yet  they  are  still  inhabited  by  the 
posterity  of  their  builders,  and  remain,  with  their  massive  walls  of  stone,  monuments  of 
an  earlier  era. 

Who  built  the  first  brick  house  in  St.  Louis?  When,  in  the  decade  of 
1830-40,  brick  yards  were  doing  a  thriving  business  and  everybody  in  St.  Louis 
wanted  to  live  in  a  brick  house,  the  local  historians  started  a  controversy  about 
the  honor  of  building  the  first  structure  of  this  kind.  Tradition  had  it  that 
Pierre  Berthold,  Sr.,  coming  west  from  a  trip,  saw  a  bricklayer  in  Marietta,  Ohio, 
and  persuaded  him  to  come  to  St.  Louis.  This  first  bricklayer,  who  also  was  a 
brickmaker,  was  John  Lee.  He  turned  out  the  brick,  finding  St.  Louis  clay  ad- 
mirably adapted  for  the  purpose.  He  built  a  store  on  Main,  between  Chestnut 
and  Market  streets,  for  Berthold  and  Chouteau.  After  that  Mr.  Lee  had  more 
orders  for  brick  houses  than  he  could  fill.  He  did  well,  raised  a  large  family. 
Among  his  descendants  are  some  of  the  best  known  people  of  St.  Louis. 

Thomas  Fiveash  Riddick  was  president  of  the  short-lived  Bank  of  Mis 
souri  when  he  built  the  first  brick  house  on  south  Fourth  street.  Riddick 


BENT    HOMESTEAD 
On  the  river  front,  near  the  arsenal 


*"t~ 


COUNTRY  RESIDENCE  OF  PIERRE 
CHOUTEAU,  JR. 


TURNER   BUILDING 

First  skyscraper  in   St.  Loitis 


THE  ALEXANDER  McNAIR  HOUSE 
Property  of  the  first  Governor  of  Missouri 


THE  COUNTRY  RESIDENCE  OF 

CHARLES  GRATIOT 
Southwest  of  Forest  Park 


THE  GROWING  OF  ST.  LOUIS 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  543 

didn't  occupy  the  mansion  long,  Charles  Milliken  occupied  the  house,  which  was 
considered  one  of  the  finest  in  St.  Louis.  Judge  Luke  E.  Lawless  bought  it. 
Edward  Walsh  occupied  it.  But  the  chief  historic  interest  attaching  to  the 
Riddick  mansion  is  based  on  the  use  of  it  and  of  the  whole  square  from  Fourth 
to  Fifth,  from  Cerre  to  Poplar,  under  the  name  of  Vauxhall  Garden.  For  many 
years  that  was  the  popular  place  for  meetings  and  for  celebrations.  Vauxhall 
Garden  in  its  best  days  drew  the  best  people  of  St.  Louis.  Later  the  character 
of  the  resort  changed ;  the  attendance  was  not  select. 

The  builder  of  the  first  sky-scraper  in  St.  Louis  was  a  Virginian,  a  lawyer 
by  profession,  George  R.  Taylor.  He  was  a  native  of  Alexandria,  and  began 
practice  there.  In  1841  Mr.  Taylor  became  convinced  that  John  Adams  was 
mistaken  in  his  prophecy  that  Alexandria  would  become  one  of  the  greatest 
commercial  ports  of  the  world.  He  took  down  his  shingle  and  moved  to  St. 
Louis.  He  startled  this  community  by  building  a  six-story  structure.  Up 
to  that  time  St.  Louis  had  been  fairly  well  satisfied  with  two-story  business 
houses.  The  city  was  without  a  hotel  which  appealed  to  local  pride.  George 
R.  Taylor  conceived,  financed  and  completed  Barnum's  St.  Louis  hotel,  al- 
though two  years  was  required  for  the  construction,  and  the  cost  was  $200,000. 
After  the  fire  of  1849  came  the  building  of  the  Merchants  Exchange  on  Main 
street,  the  most  imposing  structure  of  its  time.  George  R.  Taylor  managed  that 
public  enterprise  so  skilfully  that  his  fellow  stockholders  presented  to  him  a 
$1,000  set  of  silver.  He  failed  in  one  of  his  public  spirited  movements,  for 
which  failure  every  generation  since  has  had  occasion  to  feel  regret.  As  a 
member  of  the  council,  Mr.  Taylor  tried,  after  the  fire,  and  before  rebuilding 
began,  to  have  the  city  purchase  the  strip  of  ground  between  Commercial  street 
and  the  levee  and  add  it  to  the  river  front  of  the  city.  He  did  succeed  in  getting 
Main  street  widened. 

The  Green  Mountain  state  contributed  to  St.  Louis  a  family  of  hotel  keepers, 
the  Barnums.  Theron  Barnum  was  the  nephew  of  the  man  who  made  Barnum's 
hotel  in  Baltimore  "the  best  hotel  in  the  United  States"  about  1825.  He  had 
some  experience  keeping  a  hotel  at  the  terminus  of  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Rail- 
road when  Ellicott's  Mills  was  the  transfer  point  between  the  railroad  and  the 
stages.  The  wife  of  Theron  Barnum  was  Mary  L.  Chadwick,  of  Connecticut. 
They  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1840  and  took  charge  of  the  hotel  on  Third  and 
Vine  streets  and  conducted  it  until  1852.  Out  of  Theron  Barnum's  popular  hotel 
keeping  came  the  movement  in  which  George  R.  Taylor  enlisted  the  help  of 
George  Collier,  Joshua  B.  Brant  and  J.  T.  Swearingen  to  build  Barnum's  hotel. 
Theron  Barnum  made  his  hotel  famous  for  a  ragout.  No  distinguished  visitor 
came  to  St.  Louis  without  hearing  of  the  highly  favored  stew,  the  recipe  for 
which  Barnum  guarded  jealously. 

Yeatman's  Row  was  one  of  the  early  introductions  of  Philadelphia  resi- 
dential architecture.  It  was  "elegant,"  according  to  the  account  of  a  news- 
paper in  1847.  The  row  was  299  feet  long,  extending  from  Eleventh  west  on 
Olive  street.  Mr.  Yeatman's  was  the  central  section.  Others  who  shared  in  the 
row  were  Messrs.  Franklin,  Mead,  Lucas,  Cook,  Garland,  Sellew,  Crinion  and 
Mayger. 


544  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

"Made  in  St.  Louis"  was  a  popular  sentimental  consideration.  When 
the  building  of  stores  on  "the  American  street,"  as  some  called  Fourth  street, 
began,  the  constructors  dwelt  with  pride  on  the  fact  that  they  were  utilizing  home 
material.  On  one  block  William  M.  McPherson  and  John  R.  Shepley  built 
business  houses  of  "Missouri  marble."  On  the  next  block  "Missouri  iron"  was 
made  conspicuous  by  the  architectural  plans. 

"The  Ten  Buildings"  occupied  the  east  side  of  Fourth  street  from  Lo- 
cust to  Vine.  This  was  a  uniform  block  divided  into  ten  parts.  The  three 
next  to  Locust  were  built  by  James  H.  Lucas,  the  next  three  by  Anne  Lucas 
Hunt,  the  next  two  by  William  M.  Morrison,  and  the  two  at  the  Vine  street 
end  by  the  estate  of  George  Collier.  The  row  was  four  stories  high,  with  what 
the  architect,  William  Rumboldt,  informed  that  generation  were  tympanums  at 
the  corners  and  in  the  center.  When  finished  "The  Ten  Buildings"  formed  the 
most  notable  triumph  of  business  architecture  in  St.  Louis.  The  row  was  con- 
sidered finer  than  any  single  business  structure  west  of  New  York  city. 

Diagonally  across  Fourth  street  from  the  Ten  Buildings,  filling  the  block 
on  the  west  side  from  St.  Charles  to  Washington  avenue,  was  erected  about  the 
same  time  in  the  fifties  "Verandah  Row."  It  received  the  name  from  the 
immense  verandah  above  the  second  story,  extending  to  the  curb  line. 

The  time  was  when  the  east  side  of  Fifth  street,  or  Broadway,  as  it  is  now, 
had  altogether  the  best  of  the  west  side  in  popularity.  That  was  when  Eugene 
Jaccard,  with  his  glittering  array  of  jewels  and  precious  metals  moved  into  a 
grand  new  building  on  the  corner  of  Olive  and  Fifth,  where  the  Commonwealth 
Trust  Company  now  is.  Jaccard  drew  the  trade  and  the  travel  to  the  east  side. 
Property  on  the  west  side  was  so  slow  that  the  Darby  building,  the  site  of  which 
is  the  sixteen-story  Third  National  Bank  building  of  today,  went  begging  a  long 
time  for  tenants. 

Probably  the  most  imposing  business  structure  in  St.  Louis  before  the  war 
was  a  great  iron  and  marble  building  on  Olive  street  between  Second  and  Third. 
It  was  planned  and  built  by  Socrates  Newman.  Born  in  St.  Louis,  Mr.  New- 
man, after  trying  politics  and  other  employment,  joined  George  C.  Graham  in 
an  iron  foundry.  The  concern  was  enterprising.  It  turned  out  the  first  large  water 
mains  laid  in  the  streets  of  St.  Louis.  Having  made  some  money,  Mr.  New- 
man took  a  trip  to  Europe.  Coming  home  with  new  ideas,  he  built  what  was 
a  wonderful  office  building  for  that  period.  The  structure  was  so  far  ahead  of 
the  city  that  the  builder  in  after  years  frequently  referred  to  it  as  "Newman's 
Folly." 

Chestnut  street,  between  Second  and  Main,  was  the  fashionable  residence 
section  in  1830.  Here  was  "Quality  Row."  In  one  of  the  two-story  brick 
houses  of  this  continuous  row  lived  Wilson  P.  Hunt,  the  postmaster.  The  post- 
office  was  in  a  small  wooden  building  at  Second  and  Chestnut  streets.  Other  oc- 
cupants of  the  brick  row  were  Henry  Von  Phul,  the  merchant;  Henry  L.  Cox, 
cashier  of  the  United  States  Bank;  J.  W.  Reel,  the  merchant,  and  Thornton 
Grimsley,  the  inventor  and  manufacturer  of  the  cavalry  saddles.  On  Vine  and 
Second  streets  was  located  one  of  the  institutions  of  the  city  at  that  time.  It 
was  known  as  the  "Arcade  Baths." 


BARNUM'S  HOTEL 
As  it  appeared  before  the  Civil  war 


THOMAS   WALSH 


DAVID    H.    EVANS 


RESIDENCE  OE  JOHN   P.  CABANNE 
Built  in   1819 


THE    CITY'S    EVOLUTION 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  545 

A  recollection  of  St.  Louis  as  he  knew  it  in  1830  was  left  by  W.  A.  Lynch. 
At  that  time  Mr.  Lynch  lived  on  Second  street  near  Walnut.  He  said : 

Immediately  opposite  my  residence  was  an  old  dilapidated  French  house,  at  one 
time  the  residence  of  Gov.  McNair  and  afterwards  used  as  a  courthouse.  The  Chou- 
teau  block  north  of  Walnut  street  wall  contained  the  old  family  mansion,  with  garden  and 
fruit  trees,  protected  on  the  south  and  west  sides  by  the  old  stone  wall.  The  church 
square  was  well  enclosed  with  an  old  picket  fence,  so  generally  used  by  the  early  settlers 
of  St.  Louis.  The  improvements  consisted  of  a  garden,  some  shrubbery,  and  flower  plants 
in  the  foreground,  a  one-story  stone  house  in  the  southwest  corner  and  the  priest's  house 
in  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  block,  occupied  as  a  residence  by  Bishop  Eosati.  The 
old  wooden  church  had  been  removed  and  a  large  brick  church  had  been  erected  on  the 
northeast  corner  of  the  grounds,  originally  designed  for  a  fine  church  but  it  was  never 
finished,  although  used  for  divine  services  until  the  completion  of  the  present  cathedral. 
The  graveyard  occupied  the  north  half  of  the  block  and  contained  many  graves  marked 
by  tombstones  and  crosses,  but  the  time  for  innovating  improvements  had  arrived  and 
during  the  winter  of  1830-31  the  whole  of  the  old  graveyard  was  dug  over  and  the  re- 
mains, with  the  exception  of  those  which  were  claimed  by  friends,  were  placed  in  a  pit  and 
now  lie  under  the  floor  of  the  present  cathedral.  The  others  were  interred  in  the  new 
cemetery  located  on  the  St.  Charles  road  near  the  intersection  of  Franklin  and  Jefferson 
avenues.  The  old  brick  church  was  rented  and  converted  into  a  warehouse;  a  livery 
etable  was  built  on  a  portion  of  the  ground  and  fire  originated  in  the  stable  in  the  spring 
of  1835,  destroying  the  stable  and  contents,  also  the  old  brick  church  with  its  contents. 

When  Dr.  Gabriel  Tutt  in  1835  moved  from  his  home  in  Virginia  he  brought 
with  him  his  negro  servants,  his  horses  and  his  wagons.  He  camped  for  some 
weeks  on  Charles  Cabanne's  farm,  now  one  of  the  best  residence  districts  of  St. 
Louis.  Mr.  Cabanne  tried  to  induce  Dr.  Tutt  to  buy  his  farm.  He  offered  the 
land  for  $20  an  acre.  Dr.  Tutt  declined.  He  thought  the  farming  land  in  Cooper 
county  was  better,  and  settled  near  Boonville.  The  sons  of  Dr.  Tutt,  Thomas 
E.  Tutt  and  Gardner  Dent  Tutt,  came  back  to  St.  Louis  a  generation  later  to 
become  prominent  in  the  commercial  and  financial  life  of  the  city. 

The  three  homes  which  Dwight  Durkee,  the  merchant  and  banker,  oc- 
cupied illustrated  the  rapid  trend  of  the  residence  section  westward  in  one  man's 
lifetime.  Mr.  Durkee  was  of  a  Genesee  county,  New  York,  family.  He  came 
to  St.  Louis  previous  to  1840.  His  first  home  was  in  a  choice  residence  neighbor- 
hood on  Collins  near  Main  street,  half  a  dozen  blocks  north  of  his  wholesale  dry 
goods  store  on  Main  and  Market  streets.  He  moved  to  Twelfth  street  and  later 
to  Twenty-eighth  street.  His  third  home  at  the  time  he  made  it  was  considered 
a  country  place.  But  he  lived  there  long  enough  to  see  it  the  center  of  the 
choicest  residence  section  and  then  to  become  unfashionable.  > 

In  the  public  buildings  of  St.  Louis  architecture  and  material  have  varied 
widely.  The  court  house,  which  was  begun  in  1839,  and  upon  which  $1,200,000 
was  expended,  was  planned  to  be  semi-classic  in  the  form  of  a  Greek  cross,  with 
a  dome  that  was  accepted  as  a  model  by  architectural  critics.  Maine  granite  was 
the  material  employed  in  the  Federal  building.  Cream  colored  Joliet  stone  was 
used  with  not  admirable  effect  for  the  Four  Courts,  a  building  which  in  some 
lines  suggested  the  Louvre  of  Paris,  with  mansard  wings  and  a  cupola.  The 
building  cost  three-quarters  of  a  million  of  dollars,  and  proved  to  be  as  shocking 
as  the  court  house  was  satisfactory  in  taste  and  utility.  The  city  hall  was 
classed  as  Victorian  Gothic  in  style,  built  of  stone  and  at  a  cost  of  $2,000,000. 
Built  in  the  form  of  quadrangles,  of  red  granite,  in  Tudor-Gothic  style,  the 

9- VOL.  II. 


546  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

buildings  of  Washington  University  have  been  pronounced  by  visitors  among 
the  most  pleasing  structures  of  St.  Louis. 

A  reservoir  on  top  of  one  of  the  mounds  was  the  beginning  of  water  works 
for  St.  Louis.  The  mound  selected  was  east  of  Broadway,  not  far  from  Ashley 
street.  It  was  adjoining  the  home  of  General  Ashley,  one  of  the  show  places 
of  St.  Louis  in  1830.  About  that  year  the  movement  for  water  works  obtained 
practical  form.  This  reservoir  held  230,000  gallons,  which,  according  to  con- 
temporaneous comment,  was  "amply  sufficient  for  the  wants  of  the  city  of 
that  period."  The  water  was  pumped  from  the  river  into  this  reservoir  a 
distance  of  about  four  blocks.  Before  1840  an  increase  in  the  capacity  of  the 
reservoir  was  necessary.  It  was  60,000  gallons.  The  city  had  grown  in  ten 
years  from  6,000  to  16,000. 

The  next  decade,  from  1840  to  1850,  sent  the  population  up  from  16,000 
well  toward  the  100,000  mark.  The  water  problem  became  serious.  As  a 
temporary  expedient,  wooden  walls  were  erected  to  increase  the  capacity  of 
the  mound  reservoir  to  400,000  gallons.  This  was  soon  inadequate  as  to 
capacity.  Moreover,  it  lacked  the  pressure  to  distribute  the  water  to  all  parts 
of  the  city.  A  mile  or  more  to  the  westward,  north  of  Cass  avenue,  about 
Twenty-second  street,  the  city  obtained  a  site  and  built  a  reservoir  with  walls 
of  masonry  to  hold  7,900,000  gallons.  Almost  before  that  was  finished  plans 
were  made  for  a  reservoir  to  contain  32,000,000  gallons.  The  engines  worked 
night  and  day  to  meet  the  demand.  In  1854  the  city  was  using  3,500,000  gallons 
a  day.  That  year  St.  Louis  had  forty  miles  of  water  pipe.  A  new  industry 
had  been  born.  Until  about  1847  water  pipe  was  brought  to  St.  Louis  from 
iron  works  up  the  Cumberland  or  the  Ohio  river.  John  Stacker  obtained  the 
first  contract  to  supply  the  city  with  water  pipe.  In  1846  or  1847  the  Garrisons 
proposed  to  manufacture  water  pipe  and  were  encouraged  by  an  order  from 
the  city.  That  was  six-inch  to  ten-inch  pipe.  In  1849  Palm  &  Robinson 
began  to  make  twenty-inch  pipe.  Two  years  later  Graham  &  Co.  became  water 
pipe  makers.  Peter  Brooks  was  highly  complimented  in  the  newspapers  when 
he  had  completed  his  addition  to  the  water  works  in  1843.  The  addition  was 
described  as  "one  hundred  feet  each  way  and  twelve  feet  deep."  It  was  con- 
structed of  planks  and  was  "caulked  and  pitched"  like  the  hull  of  a  steamboat. 

Mayor  Krum  proposed,  in  1848,  an  aggressive  policy  of  street  paving. 
He  urged  the  council  to  grade  and  macadamize  a  large  number  of  streets  in 
what  today  is  the  business  part  of  the  city.  Twenty-five  of  the  principal 
physicians  united  in  a  protest  against  macadam.  They  said: 

The  undersigned,  being  requested  to  express  their  opinion  as  to  the  effects  produced 
on  the  public  health  by  the  dust  which  arises  in  such  large  quantities  from  the  macadam- 
ized streets  in  St.  Louis  in  dry  weather  and  fills  the  atmosphere,  beg  leave  to  state, — 

First,  that  it  is  extremely  deleterious  to  the  eyes,  producing  inflammation  of  those 
organs. 

Second,  that  being  inhaled  into  the  air  passages,  it  produces  various  diseases  of  those 
parts,  such  as  chronic  laryngitis,  bronchitis,  consumption,  etc. 

Thirty  feet  for  streets  was  considered  ample  so  long  as  St.  Louis  was 
east  of  Fourth  street.  When  J.  B.  C.  Lucas  and  Auguste  Chouteau  laid  out 
their  additions  westward  from  Fourth  street  they  adopted  sixty  feet  as  the 
standard  for  the  east  and  west  streets.  The  supervising  architect  of  the 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  547 

Treasury,  Mr.  Mullett,  came  to  St.  Louis  to  see  the  site  of  the  postoffice.  He 
was  serious  when  he  saw  Olive  and  Locust,  Eighth  and  Ninth  streets.  He 
proposed  to  all  of  the  property  holders  opposite  the  site  to  draw  back  their 
building  lines  nine  feet,  the  government  to  do  the  same  with  its  building  lines. 
Mr.  Mullett's  suggestion  was  unanimously  rejected  with  scorn.  The  custom 
house  was  cut  down  so  that  its  walls  were  set  back  from  twenty  to  thirty  feet 
from  the  street  lines.  That  is  the  way  the  spacious  sidewalks  in  front  of  the 
postoffice  came  about. 

The  narrowness  of  the  streets  of  the  business  section  of  St.  Louis  did  not 
impress  itself  when  they  were  occupied  by  residences.  It  was  the  custom  upon 
most  of  these  streets,  especially  the  cross  streets,  to  set  back  the  residences 
behind  a  little  grass  plot.  Then  the  street  seemed  wide  enough. 

Early  in  the  decade  of  1850-1860  the  people  of  St.  Louis  awoke  to  the 
drain  upon  the  city  treasury  by  street  improvements.  The  municipality  was 
spending  $40,000  a  year  in  such  betterments.  To  stop  this  the  Legislature 
passed  an  act  providing  that  the  original  improvement  of  streets  must  be  at 
the  expense  of  the  property  through  which  they  are  made. 

North  St.  Louis  was  a  town  independent  of  St.  Louis  when  laid  out  in 
1816.  William  Christy,  William  Chambers  and  Thomas  Wright  were  the 
creators.  They  set  apart  a  market  place,  a  school  location  and  church  site. 
The  bounds  of  the  town  of  North  St.  Louis  were  the  river,  Twelfth,  Madison 
and  Montgomery  streets.  In  1841  North  St.  Louis  was  annexed. 

South  St.  Louis  was  something  more  definite  than  geographical.  The 
name  belonged  legally  and  officially  to  an  addition  of  the  city  dedicated  in  1836 
by  between  twenty  and  thirty  property  holders.  The  territory  included  was 
from  the  hospital  on  the  north  to  the  workhouse  on  the  south. 

Highland  was  a  village  adjacent  to  St.  Louis  in  1848.  The  founder  was 
John  R.  Shepley.  Highland  lay  between  what  are  now  Jefferson  and  Leffing- 
well  avenues,  Laclede  avenue  and  Eugenia  street.  Seven  years  after  it  was 
laid  out  Highland  was  absorbed  by  St.  Louis. 

Fairview  was  an  addition  to  the  city  in  1848.  It  was  in  the  southwestern 
suburbs  between  Rosati  and  Morton,  Sidney  and  Victor  streets. 

In  1849  Lowell  was  laid  out  as  a  suburb.  It  extended  from  Bellefontaine 
road  to  the  river  and  from  Grand  avenue  to  what  is  now  Adelaide  avenue. 
E.  C.  Hutchinson,  Josephine  Hall,  Edward  F.  Pittman,  Robert  Hall  and  William 
Garrett  were  among  the  founders.  Lowell  had  an  independent  existence  until 
1876,  when  it  became  a  part  of  St.  Louis. 

Evans  Place  was  an  addition  of  twelve  blocks  north  of  Page  and  between 
Prairie  and  Taylor  avenues.  The  Evans  family  with  Montgomery  Blair  dedi- 
cated the  ground. 

Fair  Mount  was  a  well  elevated  tract  of  twenty-five  blocks  in  the  north- 
western part  of  the  city.  It  was  brought  in  as  an  addition  in  1869.  The 
boundaries  were  King's  Highway,  Macklind  avenue,  Bischoff  and  Northrup 
avenues. 

Rock  Point  was  an  addition  to  the  city  by  Stephen  D.  Barlow  as  executor 
of  the  will  of  W.  C.  Carr.  It  was  dedicated  in  1853,  having  a  front  on  the 
river  between  Dorcas  and  Lynch  streets  and  extending  back  to  Carondelet 
avenue,  now  Broadway. 


548  ST.   LOUIS,   THE    FOURTH    CITY 

Rock  Springs  was  an  independent  village  in  the  western  suburbs  before 
the  war.  It  was  laid  out  by  John  B.  Sarpy  in  1852  and  brought  into  the  city 
in  1876. 

Rose  Hill  was  the  name  which  the  Gambles,  D.  C.  and  Hamilton,  gave 
to  an  addition  they  platted  to  the  northward  of  Cabanne.  The  nineteen  blocks 
included  were  between  Union  avenue  and  Hodiamont  and  lay  in  a  body  south 
of  Easton  avenue,  or  the  St.  Charles  Rock  road,  as  it  was  called  when  the 
addition  was  established  in  1871.  The  building  up  of  Rose  Hill,  making  it  one 
of  the  most  populous  sections  of  the  city,  has  been  a  feature  of  the  rapid 
extension  of  the  residence  movement  westward  since  the  World's  Fair. 

Henry  Clay  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1846  to  conduct  a  sale  of  real  estate. 
The  land  which  he  owned  was  known  as  "Clay's  old  orchard  tract."  It  was 
about  220  acres.  The  statesman  subdivided  it  into  tracts  of  from  five  to  forty 
acres  and  offered  it  for  sale.  He  appeared  at  the  court  house  door  on  the 
day  set  and  made  a  few  remarks  to  the  assembled  citizens  about  the  land.  He 
stated  that  he  wished  to  reserve  a  single  bid  for  himself.  Several  of  the 
choicest  pieces  were  offered  for  bids.  Mr.  Clay's  reserved  bid  was  announced 
to  be  $120  per  acre.  Nobody  was  willing  to  raise  that  bid.  Mr.  Clay  then 
offered  the  whole  tract  for  $100  an  acre.  He  was  quite  disappointed  at  the 
lack  of  activity  on  the  part  of  the  crowd.  Three  years  after  Mr.  Clay  endeavored 
to  sell  the  land  at  $100  an  acre,  a  considerable  portion  of  it  sold  at  an  average 
of  $250  per  acre  and  in  1853,  seven  years  after  Mr.  Clay's  visit,  sixty  acres  of 
this  land  sold  at  $450  an  acre.  In  1857,  another  piece  of  the  tract  sold  at  $1,050 
an  acre.  In  1859,  thirteen  years  after  Mr.  Clay's  offer  of  the  land,  some  of 
it  sold  at  $2,000  per  acre.  A  part  of  Mr.  Clay's  tract  is  embraced  in  Calvary 
cemetery. 

The  buying  and  selling  of  real  estate  became  a  distinctive  vocation  in 
St.  Louis  about  1848.  Previous  to  that  time  the  real  estate  agent,  save  in 
connection  with  other  business,  was  not  known.  Leffingwell  and  Elliott  opened 
a  real  estate  office.  Contrary  to  expectation,  they  continued  to  do  business. 
Hiram  W.  Leffingwell  was  of  Massachusetts  birth.  He  taught  school,  studied 
law,  surveyed  land  and  raised  wheat  before  he  came  to  St.  Louis  and  dealt  in 
real  estate.  Although  Mr.  Leffingwell  was  probably  the  pioneer  real  estate 
man  in  transactions  of  magnitude,  John  Byrne,  Jr.,  began  in  a  modest  way 
somewhat  earlier.  His  office  was  in  a  little  building  on  Chestnut  street  near 
Fourth.  It  was  established  in  1840.  Chestnut  street  has  always  been  Real 
Estate  Row.  In  nearly  seventy  years,  the  business  has  moved  due  westward 
along  that  street  and  over  "the  Hill"  only  a  few  blocks.  John  Byrne,  Jr.,  was 
a  New  York  city  boy.  He  came  to  St.  Louis  just  after  the  panic  of  1837  and 
tried  the  dry  goods  business  two  years.  Eugene  Kelley  kept  a  neighboring 
store  at  the  same  time,  but  went  back  to  New  York  and  founded  a  great  banking 
house. 

The  first  great  auction  sale  of  St.  Louis  realty  was  that  of  the  Stoddard 
addition.  It  realized  $701,676.  The  prices  for  these  Stoddard  addition  lots 
were  considered  quite  satisfactory.  Ground  at  Locust  and  Beaumont  brought 
fifteen  dollars  a  foot.  The  same  price  was  paid  for  the  corner  of  Franklin 
and  Ewing  avenues.  At  Washington  and  Garrison  avenues  the  successful  bid 
was  five  dollars  and  seventy- four  cents  a  front  foot.  At  Lucas  and  Ewing 


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V 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  549 

avenues  and  at  Lucas  and  Leffingwell  avenues  the  highest  bids  were  ten  dollars 
a  foot.  Within  eight  years,  in  1859,  tn^s  same  Stoddard  addition  property 
went  up  to  sixty  and  one  hundred  dollars  a  front  foot. 

When  Stoddard  addition  was  laid  out  Leffingwell  and  Elliott  had  a  sharp 
controversy  with  some  of  the  owners  of  the  land  embraced  in  the  large  sub- 
division. These  owners  wanted  the  maximum  of  front  feet  and  the  minimum 
of  depth.  They  stood  for  narrow  streets  and  shallow  lots.  The  real  estate 
men  insisted  on  plotting  for  a  large  city  with  wide  streets,  deep  lots  and  spacious 
alleys.  They  had  their  way  by  the  exercise  of  considerable  persuasion.  At 
that  time,  September  10,  1851,  Commodore  Perry's  victory  on  Lake  Erie  was 
observed  annually  in  St.  Louis.  One  year  a  reproduction  of  the  battle  was 
given  on  Chouteau's  pond.  The  real  estate  men  chose  the  anniversary  for  the 
beginning  of  the  three  days'  sale  of  auction  lots  in  Stoddard  addition. 

Richard  Smith  Elliott,  who  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1843,  described  St.  Louis 
as  it  was  in  that  year: 

We  spent  the  winter  of  1843-4  in  St.  Louis  and  took  boarding  first  in  the  then  out- 
skirts of  the  city,  in  the  brick  mansion  owned  by  Mrs.  John  Perry,  on  the  corner  of  Sixth 
and  Locust  streets.  Luther  M.  Kennett  was  building  the  first  marble  front  ever  in  St. 
Louis  on  the  next  lot  north,  but  folks  generally  thought  it  was  rather  far  away  from 
business,  then  mostly  transacted  on  the  Levee,  Main  and  Second  streets.  From  our  win- 
dows we  could  look  westward  to  a  clump  of  forest  trees  at  Eighteenth  and  St.  Charles 
streets  and  could  see  the  camp  of  some  Indians  on  a  friendly  visit  to  Colonel  Mitchell,  the 
superintendent.  Beyond  the  Indian  camp  were  farms.  I  had  very  little  to  do  and  often 
strolled  away  up  Sixth  and  Seventh  streets  where  but  few  houses  obstructed  the  view  and 
I  sometimes  went  even  as  far  as  Chouteau's  pond,  and  would  look  at  the  outside  of  the 
old  stone  mill,  in  which  ten  years  later  I  aided  to  start  the  first  stone  sawing  by  steam 
in  St.  Louis,  and  would  try  to  imagine  what  a  nice  cascade  the  water  trickling  over  the 
mill  dam  would  make  if  there  was  only  enough  of  it.  Mr.  Eenshaw's  lone  mansion  was 
at  the  corner  of  Ninth  and  Market,  but  there  was  little  if  any  city  growth  beyond.  On 
Morgan  street  and  Franklin  avenue,  I  was  told  that  I  could  get  lots  at  seven  or  eight 
dollars  a  foot.  I  did  not  think  it  worth  while  to  regret  that  I  had  no  money  to  buy  with. 

About  1850,  St.  Louis  real  estate  men  laid  out  what  was  designed  to  give 
this  city  the  finest  drive  in  the  world.  The  closely  built  residence  section  at 
that  time  extended  not  far  west  of  Seventh  street.  Leffingwell  and  Elliott  were 
civil  engineers.  They  took  the  ridge  which  is  now  traversed  by  Grand  avenue, 
laid  out  a  roadway  along  the  crest  from  Carondelet  to  the  river  above  Bremen, 
a  distance  of  between  twelve  and  fourteen  miles.  The  route  was  natural  for 
the  purpose  intended.  It  was  without  much  change  of  elevation.  Except  for 
the  descent  across  Chouteau's  pond,  the  proposed  roadway  occupied  high  and 
commanding  ground  almost  the  entire  route.  The  views  from  the  proposed 
roadway  were  very  fine,  both  eastward  and  westward.  The  real  estate  men 
went  before  the  county  court  and  asked  for  a  condemnation  of  this  roadway, 
which  they  called  Grand  avenue,  making  it  either  120  or  150  feet  wide.  The 
members  of  the  court  were  amazed.  At  that  time  the  regulation  width  of  a 
roadway  in  and  about  St.  Louis  was  forty  feet.  After  a  great  deal  of  arguing, 
the  engineers  and  real  estate  men  were  able  to  obtain  from  the  court  favorable 
action  on  eighty  feet.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the  Grand  avenue  of  today. 
If  Leffingwell  and  Elliott  and  their  associates  had  been  successful  they  would 
have  established  a  magnificent  boulevard  instead  of  the  avenue  only  fairly 
adequate  for  the  traffic  of  1909. 


550  ST.   LOUIS,   THE    FOURTH   CITY 

"It  will  be  the  greatest  street  in  America  some  day,"  Mr.  Leffingwell  used 
to  say  in  1850,  as  he  pointed  to  the  boulevard  120  feet  wide  laid  down  on  the 
map  which  hung  in  his  office.  Mr.  Lindell  was  one  of  the  real  estate  owners 
who  became  deeply  interested  in  the  proposed  boulevard.  He  laid  out  an 
addition  near  the  Fair  Grounds  to  conform  to  the  plan.  Thereupon  Mr.  Lef- 
fingwell named  the  boulevard  "Lindell  avenue."  But  when  the  county  court 
reduced  the  width  to  eighty  feet  the  name  was  changed  to  "Grand  avenue." 

The  Lindells  were  from  Maryland,  Worcester  county.  The  first  of  them 
received  a  grant  of  land  and  came  over  from  England  long  before  the  American 
Revolution.  His  son,  John,  became  famous  as  a  successful  farmer.  Peter 
Lindell,  a  grandson  of  the  founder  of  the  family  in  Maryland,  left  the  farm 
and  became  a  trader  on  the  Ohio  river.  Owning  his  own  boat  and  stocking  it 
with  goods,  he  made  stops  wherever  there  were  settlers.  In  exchange  for  his 
goods  he  took  furs,  pelts,  hemp  and  tobacco.  When  the  stock  of  goods  was 
exhausted,  and  the  boat  was  loaded  with  products,  Peter  Lindell  made  a  trip 
to  Pittsburg,  and  turned  over  his  cargo  for  more  goods  and  some  money.  In 
two  years  the  business  had  developed  so  well  that  Peter  sent  for  his  brother, 
John  Lindell,  and  later  another  brother,  Jesse  Lindell,  was  taken  into  the  trading 
syndicate.  The  Lindells  became  well  known  all  along  the  Ohio.  In  1811,  Peter 
Lindell  gave  up  the  floating  trade  and  established  himself  as  a  merchant  in 
St.  Louis,  opening  a  store  on  Main  street.  In  a  short  time  he  made  a  great 
impression  upon  the  community  of  1,500  people  by  building  three  brick  houses. 
As  he  made  money  from  his  store,  he  put  it  into  real  estate. 

Peter  Lindell  was  a  man  of  splendid  physique.  In  company  with  Mr. 
Collier  he  made  a  trip  to  the  eastern  cities.  The  two  St.  Louisans  stopped  for 
the  night  at  a  roadside  cabin  near  Shawneetown.  As  they  went  in  Mr.  Collier 
was  recognized  by  a  desperado  whom  he  had  offended  some  time  before.  The 
fellow  declared  his  intention  to  kill  Mr.  Collier  and  started  for  his  gun.  Mr. 
Lindell  interfered,  and  with  his  fists  administered  such  a  thrashing  that  there 
was  no  further  trouble. 

In  1826  Peter  Lindell  retired  from  mercantile  life  and  devoted  himself 
to  his  real  estate  business.  He  lived  many  years  a  retired  life,  one  of  the 
wealthiest  men  of  the  city,  but  known  personally  to  few  people.  When  his 
brothers  died  he  took  upon  himself  the  care  of  their  families.  In  times  of 
financial  stress  he  came  to  the  rescue  of  more  than  one  man  seriously  involved. 
But  his  good  acts  of  generosity  were  unostentatious.  By  the  justice  of  fate, 
long  after  his  death,  Peter  Lindell's  name  was  bestowed  upon  what  has  become 
one  of  the  grandest  city  thoroughfares  in  this  country. 

Leffingwell  labored  through  two  generations  to  make  Grand  avenue  a 
boulevard.  He  said  this  project  promised  one  superiority  over  every  similar 
thoroughfare  in  any  other  city.  About  1887  he  described  it  in  this  way: 

Following  the  boulevards  of  other  places  you  find  but  two  material  points  of  rest — 
the  city  at  the  point  of  departure,  and  at  the  far  other  end  the  public  park  as  the  point  of 
termination.  It  is  reserved  to  Grand  avenue  alone  to  boast  a  succession  of  no  fewer  than 
five  public  parks,  all  beautiful  and  some  of  them  the  finest  in  the  country;  of  a  bridge 
promising  a  magnificence  of  architecture  equal  to  its  gigantic  proportions;  of  a  botanical 
garden,  the  just  pride  of  the  entire  west — and  of  water  works  and  grounds  which  people 
travel  hundreds  of  miles  to  see.  That  such  a  multitude  of  parks  and  public  places  have 


THE   GROWING   OF   ST.    LOUIS  551 

fiinee  been  located  along  the  line  which  I  projected  in  the  pioneer  days  of  '46  is  a  strong 
indorsement  of  the  then  selection,  and,  I  may  add,  the  most  flattering  compliment  I  ever 
received  for  the  work. 

Soon  after  the  Grand  avenue  project  was  started,  about  1850,  Henry 
Shaw,  carrying  in  one  hand  a  bunch  of  roses,  entered  the  real  estate  office  of 
Leffingwell  and  Elliott  on  Chestnut  street.  A  decade  before  he  had  retired 
from  his  hardware  business  and  had  taken  up  his  residence  for  most  of  the 
year  on  a  farm  three  miles  southwest  of  the  city.  Pointing  with  his  cane  to  a 
map  of  St.  Louis  and  the  boulevard  which  Mr.  Leffingwell  was  proposing,  Mr. 
Shaw  remarked  in  the  most  casual  way  that  he  was  going  to  create  and  main- 
tain a  botanical  garden  free  for  visiting  citizens  and  strangers.  He  indicated 
the  present  location  of  the  garden  and  added  that  he  had  in  mind  to  lay  out 
and  present  a  park  extending  from  the  garden  to  the  boulevard.  That  was 
the  first  announcement  of  the  greatest  gift  of  its  kind  made  to  any  American 
city.  Over  half  a  century  elapsed.  The  park  of  300  acres,  with  its  wonderful 
forestry,  its  statues  in  bronze  of  Shakespeare  and  Humboldt,  its  miles  of  drives 
and  walks,  its  flower  beds,  reached  a  degree  of  landscape  development  and 
beauty  such  as  no  other  part  of  the  country  could  show.  The  botanical  garden, 
with  its  library  and  herbarium,  its  plant  houses,  became  known  the  world  over. 
When  the  Universal  Exposition  of  1904  was  held  the  daily  record  of  visitors 
to  the  garden,  kept  by  the  director,  Dr.  William  Trelease,  followed  exactly  the 
increase  and  decrease  of  World's  Fair  attendance.  There  was  the  evidence 
of  the  widespread  fame  which  "Shaw's  Garden"  had  attained. 

As  early  as  1816,  three  citizens,  William  Chambers,  William  Christy  and 
Thomas  Wright,  set  apart  thirteen  acres  on  the  river  front  to  become  a  park. 
They  did  not  convey  a  complete  title,  but  gave  the  land  to  the  city  in  trust  to 
be  maintained  as  a  park.  Under  trusteeship  this  land  was  to  "remain  a  com- 
mons forever."  It  was  expected  to  be  a  benefit  to  those  who  bought  lots  in 
the  addition  of  Chambers,  Christy  and  Wright.  The  city  made  some  park 
improvements,  but  tired  of  the  trusteeship.  Although  the  courts  sustained  the 
city's  control  as  against  the  heirs,  the  attempt  to  make  a  park  out  of  Exchange 
Square,  as  it  was  called,  was  abandoned. 

At  the  time  when  General  Ashley  bought  his  place  of  eight  acres  extending 
from  Biddle  to  Bates  street,  the  present  Broadway,  upon  which  he  fronted,  was 
called  Federal  avenue.  The  general  placed  in  the  front  yard  a  fine  fountain,  the 
first  seen  in  St.  Louis. 

Thornton  Grimsley  had  so  much  to  do  with  the  selection  of  Lafayette  Park, 
under  the  suggestion  of  Mayor  Darby,  that  the  place  for  some  years  went  by 
the  name  of  Grimsley's  Folly.  The  conservative  citizens  of  that  day  denounced 
Mayor  Darby  and  Alderman  Grimsley  because  the  park  was  so  large  and  so  far 
from  the  settled  part  of  the  city.  >j 

The  Fair  Grounds  tract  was  intended  for  a  park  over  fifty  years  ago.  At 
the  time  Henry  Shaw  was  laying  out  his  arboretum  on  the  south  side,  John 
O'Fallon  let  it  be  known  that  he  intended  to  donate  sixty  acres  for  a  park  in 
the  northern  suburbs.  This  was  the  older  portion  of  the  Fair  Grounds  lying 
west  of  Grand  avenue  and  north  of  Natural  Bridge  road.  Colonel  O'Fallon 
mentioned  his  purpose  in  1854.  But  before  the  gift  to  the  city  was  consum- 


552  ST.   LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

mated  the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  Association  was  organized.  The  tract 
was  deemed  especially  suitable  for  fair  grounds  and  was  transferred  to  the  or- 
ganization. 

A  park  proposition  which  in  1866  met  with  favor  and  to  which  the  city 
council  gave  some  consideration  embraced  twenty  acres  lying  along  Theresa 
avenue  and  extending  across  the  Mill  Creek  valley  from  Market  street  to  Chou- 
teau  avenue.  A  measure  to  buy  the  land  was  advocated,  but  it  failed.  The 
locality  was  a  popular  one  when  the  city's  growth  was  east  of  Beaumont  street. 
Overlooking  the  proposed  park  tract  was  a  suburban  resort  known  as  the 
Bellevue.  Theophile  Papin  told  in  1866  of  having  counted  nearly  twenty  springs 
feeding  the  Chouteau  mill  pond.  He  described  them  as  "fine,  abundant  wholesome 
fountains."  With  the  expansion  of  the  city  westward  and  the  draining  of  the 
pond  all  but  two  or  three  of  these  springs  dried  up  or  became  choked  so  that  they 
did  not  flow. 

In  1871  Senator  Henry  J.  Spaunhorst  filed  a  bill  before  the  Legislature  for 
the  establishment  of  a  park  which  was  to  extend  westward  from  King's  Highway, 
covering  much  of  the  territory  now  embraced  in  Forest  Park.  This  was  to  be 
named  St.  Louis  Park;  it  was  to  be  surrounded  by  avenues  150  feet  wide,  to 
be  named  respectively:  East,  West,  North  and  South  avenues. 

The  Forest  Park  movement  became  active  in  1869  under  the  inspiration  of 
H.  W.  Leffingwell,  "the  old  gray  eagle"  of  the  real  estate  fraternity.  A  bill 
passed  the  Legislature  in  1872.  Just  before  that  an  acre  and  a  quarter  at  the 
southeast  corner  of  Lindell  avenue  and  Kings  Highway  was  in  the  market  for 
$2,800.  No  buyer  would  have  it.  The  passage  of  the  park  act  started  one  of 
the  nearest  approaches  to  a  boom  in  the  history  of  the  real  estate  transactions 
of  St.  Louis.  Would-be  investors  came  from  New  York,  Chicago,  Cincinnati 
and  Indianapolis  to  get  in  on  the  ground  floor.  They  bargained  for  $1,800,000 
jvprth  of  St.  Louis  property  most  of  the  proposed  purchases  being  conditional 
on  the  park  bill  going  through.  Real  estate  men  were  confident  that  the  trans- 
actions would  reach  $10,000,000  to  $12,000,000  in  the  year.  A  court  decision 
adverse  to  the  park  act  paralyzed  the  real  estate  market.  Before  the  legal  snarl 
was  straightened,  the  panic  of  1873  came  on.  St.  Louis  at  length  obtained  the 
park,  but  the  real  estate  harvest  was^  spoiled  by  the  delay. 

In  the  1,326  acres  of  Forest  Park  were  twenty-nine  parcels.  They  ranged 
from  294  acres  down  to  lots.  Charles  P.  Chouteau  and  Julia  Marfitt  were  the 
owners  of  the  294  acres  tract.  Isabella  DeMun  owned  another  large  tract.  The 
appraisers  valued  the  entire  1,326  acres  at  $799,995.  The  appraisers  were  three 
real  estate  men,  perhaps  the  best  known  of  their  day  in  St.  Louis, — Theophile 
Papin,  John  G.  Priest  and  Charles  Green.  The  constitutionality  of  the  act  creat- 
ing the  park  was  tested  in  court.  In  the  supreme  court  the  act  was  sustained. 
Untrained  vision  sees  at  a  glance  Forest  Park  is  diversified.  The  variation  of 
altitudes  is  perhaps  greater  than  can  be  found  in  any  like  area  within  the  limits 
of  St.  Louis.  At  one  place  in  Forest  Park  the  surface  is  only  twenty-two  feet 
above  the  high  water  mark  of  1844.  This  is  in  the  valley  of  the  Des  Peres. 
Another  place  within  the  park  is  175  feet  above  that  high  water  mark.  To  put 
it  differently,  the  altitudes  of  Forest  Park  vary  over  150  feet. 


OLIVER    A.    HART 


THE  OLD  RUSSELL  FARM 
About  Ninth  street  and  Russell  avenue,  residence  of  Thomas  Allen 


MARCUS  A.  WOLFF 


M.    B.   O'REILLY 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  553 

A  preliminary  opening  of  Forest  Park  took  place  on  the  29th  of  June, 
1872.  Vehicles  carried  the  guests  of  the  commissioners  from  downtown  to  a 
place  under  the  trees  a  short  distance  from  Kings  Highway.  In  the  current 
account  of  the  celebration  it  was  said : 

"The  place  was  very  attractive;  the  trees  are  of  oak,  hickory,  ash,  walnut, 
elm,  sassafras  and  sycamore,  and  the  ground  is  rolling  and  smooth,  with  no 
underbrush,  while  the  golden  waters  of  the  Des  Peres  flow  near,  and  crystal 
springs  gush  boldly  from  the  rocks."  Speeches  were  made  by  Henry  T.  Blow, 
Carl  Schurz,  Frank  P.  Blair,  H.  C.  Brockmeyer,  H.  W.  Leffingwell,  Stilson 
Hutchins  and  Nat  C.  Claiborne.  Col.  Claiborne  gave  Capt.  Skinker,  of  Skinker 
road,  the  credit  for  the  final  selection  of  the  site  by  the  legislature  at  Jeffer- 
son City.  He  said : 

Captain  Skinker  and  Mr.  Forsyth  came  up  to  Jefferson  City.  Mr.  Gerhart  came  up 
with  a  project  for  the  northern  park.  Mr.  Skinker  seeing  the  park  was  likely  to  go  north, 
wrote  a  letter  to  Nicholas  M.  Bell,  giving  a  highly  poetic  description  of  his  location  and 
recommending  it  as  admirably  adapted  to  a  park.  That  letter  contained  more  poetry  than 
Byron,  Moore  and  Milton  ever  dreamed  of.  When  the  bill  for  the  park  came  up  Mr. 
Skinker  was  told  of  the  effect  produced  by  his  poetic  letter.  The  bill  passed. 

Kings  Highway  from  Forest  Park  northward  affords,  in  1911,  one  of  the 
best  illustrations  of  the  city's  Twentieth  Century  evolution.  From  the  group 
of  hotels  and  apartment  houses  at  the  park  entrance,  the  boulevard  passes 
several  of  the  "Places"  or  private  residence  parks  characteristic  of  St.  Louis. 
Westmoreland  and  Portland  Places  have  monumental  gateways  on  the  west 
side  of  Kings  Highway  and  are  half  a  mile  in  length  bordered  by  mansions. 
Maryland  Place  and  Hortense  Place  with  their  spacious  grounds,  are  on  the 
east.  A  couple  of  blocks  north  are  several  of  the  largest  St.  Louis  churches, 
each  distinctive  in  architecture.  The  First  Church  of  Christ  (Scientist)  is  of 
Renaissance  design,  set  off  with  admirable  landscape  treatment.  St.  John's 
Methodist  South  follows  a  Fifteenth  Century  style,  with  two  impressive  facades. 
Temple  Israel  is  a  Greek  temple  of  stone  with  columns  and  richly  carved  capitals. 
The  interior  is  of  Caen  stone.  The  Second  Baptist,  with  its  church  and  chapel, 
two  separate  buildings  and  with  the  lofty  campanile  215  feet  high  standing  be- 
tween them,  is  one  of  the  most  unique  of  St.  Louis  churches;  it  has  a  cloister 
in  front  and  a  closed  arcade  in  the  rear.  The  court  between  the  church  and 
chapel  and  between  the  arcade  and  cloister  contains  a  pool  and  sunken  garden. 
Tuscan  Temple,  an  imposing  Masonic  structure,  following  with  conscientious 
detail  the  Doric,  completes  this  remarkable  group  of  buildings. 

Union  avenue  from  Forest  Park  northward  has  become,  in  1911,  a  mile  of 
St.  Louis  culture.  The  object  lesson  begins  with  the  monumental  entrances  of 
Westmoreland  and  Portland  Places,  their  vistas  eastward  being  long  park  strips 
between  double  driveways  bordered  by  mansions.  Then  comes  the  most  recent 
development  in  St.  Louis  architecture, — towering  apartment  houses.  A  few 
steps  beyond  to  the  westward,  are  the  great  gateways  of  Kingsbury  Place  and 
Washington  Terrace,  while  eastward  the  Westminster  and  Washington  boule- 
vards seemingly  narrow  in  the  distance  to  lanes  between  the  overhanging  trees. 
A  block  farther  on  is  a  group  of  churches  of  widely  varied  architecture  and 
creeds, — Christian,  Unitarian  and  Congregational.  In  the  midst  of  the  group 
is  the  quaint  club  house  and  gallery  of  the  Artists'  Guild,  also  the  home  of  the 


554  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

Burns  Club  and  of  the  Franklin  Club.  The  Soldan  High  school  has  become 
famous  as  the  best  type  of  its  class  in  this  country.  Beside  the  Soldan,  also  front- 
ing a  full  block  on  Union,  is  the  William  Clark,  the  latest  type  of  the  grammar 
school  class.  The  Cabanne  Library  is  adjoining  and  opposite  is  St.  Philomena, 
the  academy  of  one  of  the  Catholic  sisterhoods.  Only  a  block  off  of  Union,  on 
the  west,  are  the  Smith  Academy  and  the  Manual  Training  School  of  Wash- 
ington University,  and  the  Visitation  Academy.  The  fine  residences  of  Winder- 
mere  and  Cabanne  Places  are  sandwiched  in  among  these  institutions.  More 
apartment  houses,  a  model  police  station  and  the  great  St.  Ann  Asylum  occupy 
the  remaining  two  or  three  blocks  of  this  notable  mile  of  New  St.  Louis. 

Possibly  one  reason  why  St.  Louis  made  slow  progress  with  park  projects 
in  the  early  days  was  the  good  fortune  enjoyed  in  respect  to  suburbs.  No  matter 
where  the  building  line  has  been  in  the  almost  century  and  a  half,  St.  Louis  has 
been  favored  with  beautiful  suburbs.  Flagg  described  what  he  found  here  in 
1836: 

The  extent  between  the  northern  suburbs  of  St.  Louis  and  its  southern  extremity 
along  the  river  curve  is  about  six  miles,  and  the  city  can  be  profitably  extended  about 
the  same  distance  into  the  interior.  The  prospect  in  this  direction  is  boundless  for  miles 
around,  till  the  tree  tops  blend  with  the  western  horizon.  The  face  of  the  country  is 
neither  uniform  nor  broken,  but  undulates  almost  imperceptibly  away,  clothed  in  a  dense 
forest  of  blackjack  oak,  interspersed  with  thickets  of  the  wild  plum,  the  crab  apple  and 
the  hazel.  Thirty  years  ago  this  broad  plain  was  a  treeless,  shrubless  waste,  without  a 
solitary  farmhouse  to  break  the  monotony.  But  the  annual  fires  were  stopped;  a  young 
forest  sprang  into  existence;  and  delightful  villas  and  country-seats  are  now  gleaming 
from  the  dark  foliage  in  all  directions.  To  some  of  them  are  attached  extensive  grounds 
adorned  with  groves,  orchards,  fishponds,  and  all  the  elegancies  of  opulence  and  culti- 
vated taste;  while  in  the  distance  are  beheld  the  glittering  spires  of  the  city  rising  above 
the  treetops.  At  one  of  these,  a  retired  beautiful  spot,  I  have  passed  many  a  pleasant  hour. 
The  sportsman  may  here  be  indulged  to  his  heart's  desire.  The  woods  abound  with  game 
of  every  species;  the  rabbit,  prairie  hen,  wild  turkey,  and  the  deer;  while  the  lakes  which 
flash  from  every  dell  and  dingle,  swarm  with  fish.  Most  of  these  sheets  of  water  are 
formed  by  immense  springs  issuing  from  sinkholes  and  are  supposed  to  owe  their  origin 
to  the  subsidence  of  the  bed  of  porous  limestone  upon  which  the  western  valley  is  based. 
Many  of  these  springs  intersect  the  region  with  rills  and  rivulets,  and  assist  in  forming 
a  beautiful  sheet  of  water  in  the  southern  suburbs  of  the  city.  A  dam  and  massive  mill 
of  stone  was  erected  here  by  one  of  the  founders  of  the  city;  it  is  yet  standing  surrounded 
by  aged  sycamores.  The  neighboring  region  is  abrupt  and  broken,  varied  by  a  delightful 
vicissitude  of  hill  and  vale.  The  borders  of  the  lake  are  fringed  with  groves,  while  the 
steep  bluffs,  which  rise  along  the  water  and  are  reflected  in  its  placid  bosom,  recall  the 
picture  of  Ben  Venue  and  Loch  Katrine.  This  beautiful  lake  and  its  vicinity  is  indeed 
unsurpassed  by  any  spot  in  the  suburbs  of  St.  Louis.  At  the  calm,  holy  hour  of  Sabbath 
sunset  its  quiet  borders  invite  to  meditation  and  retirement.  The  spot  should  be  conse- 
crated as  the  trysting  place  of  love  and  friendship.  Some  fine  structures  are  rising  upon 
the  margin  of  the  waters,  and  in  a  few  years  it  will  be  rivalled  in  beauty  by  no  other 
section  of  the  city. 

During  the  first  half  century  the  two  great  landmarks  of  the  city  were 
Chouteau's  Pond  and  the  Big  Mound.  They  disappeared  about  the  same  time. 
Newspapers  chronicled  "The  Last  of  Chouteau's  Pond"  in  1870.  The  pond  was 
really  a  lake,  covering  over  one  hundred  acres.  The  north  shore  was  very  irregu- 
lar, extending  from  Seventh  street  and  Clark  avenue  past  the  Collier  White  Lead 
factory.  Just  east  of  the  lead  factory  an  arm  reached  northward  to  Olive  street 


J.  G.  LINDELL 


PETER  LINDELL 


MANSION  OF  JAMES  H.  LUCAS 


THE   EAST    PIAZZA 

Popular  type  of  St.  Louis  residence 
of  1909 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  555 

between  Tenth  and  Eleventh  streets.  Beyond  the  lead  factory  was  a  penin- 
sular on  which  the  Four  Courts  stands.  This  high  ground  projected  into  the 
pond  directly  southward  and  was  occupied  by  the  old  Henry  Chouteau  mansion. 
The  peninsular  extended  southward  from  Clark  avenue  to  near  Poplar  street. 
Beyond  Twelfth  street  the  shore  line  of  the  pond  extended  northwest  and  west 
breaking  into  small  arms.  At  its  best  the  lake  afforded  a  boating  course  of  over 
one  mile.  The  southern  bank  of  the  pond  was  made  prominent  by  the  high 
ground  near  I4th  street.  About  Gratiot  and  Fourth  streets  the  banks  contracted 
in  the  early  period  and  formed  a  narrow,  rocky  gorge,  through  which  the  waters 
flowed  with  considerable  turbulence  to  the  river.  This  was  Mill  creek.  The 
rise  of  the  Little  river  which  fed  the  pond  was  at  Rock  Springs  on  the  Man- 
chester road,  four  miles  from  the  court  house.  As  late  as  1840  Chouteau's  Pond 
was  a  beautiful  sheet  of  water,  with  high,  grassy  banks  well  shaded  with  forest 
trees.  The  water  was  clear  and  full  of  fish.  On  the  bank  was  a  free  bath  house 
for  the  boys.  The  groves  around  the  grounds  were  favorite  picnic  resorts.  In 
1870  all  that  remained  of  the  pond,  long  before  partially  drained,  was  a  hole  of 
dirty,  stagnant  water,  diminishing  as  the  ashes  and  garbage  of  the  city  were 
dumped  on  its  edges. 

About  1872,  before  the  bridge  was  opened,  a  movement  to  widen  Third 
street  gained  headway.  From  Locust  street  south  to  Carondelet  avenue  the 
proposition  was  to  take  twenty-five  feet  from  the  west  side  of  Third.  With 
this  in  view,  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  was  set  back  from  the  building  line. 
Third  street  was  to  be  the  great  banking  and  brokerage  and  commercial  thor- 
oughfare, extending  from  the  bridge  entrance  to  Chouteau  avenue.  The 
financial  institutions  of  the  city  were  to  be  anchored  there  for  all  time.  The 
newspaper  offices  were  expected  to  remain  there.  Five  daily  papers  were 
located  in  as  many  blocks  on  Third  street  at  the  time  the  movement  was 
inaugurated.  The  custom  house  and  the  telegraph  offices  were  there.  Of  Third 
street  widened,  the  capitalists  of  the  city  entertained  great  expectations. 

When  a  community  reaches  the  metropolitan  stage  of  development  and 
dignity,  a  financial  artery  becomes  one  of  its  essential  and  vital  parts.  The 
stature  of  any  body  politic  may  lengthen.  The  muscles  may  bulge.  The  stride 
may  become  bolder.  The  artery  pulsates  fuller  and  stronger,  but  it  is  fixed 
in  its  place.  Threadneedle  street  is  where  and  what  it  was  in  the  London  of 
generations  ago.  New  York  has  never  had  but  one  Wall  street.  The  Bourse 
of  Paris  will  be  the  Bourse  of  Paris  fifty  years  hence.  Philadelphia  has  given 
Broad  street  a  distinctive  financial  character  which  will  continue.  Chicago's 
wealth  is  massed  on  LaSalle  street.  Boston  has  her  State  street. 

It  comes  about  that  within  a  short  radius,  perhaps  upon  a  few  blocks  of  a 
single  street,  the  financial  institutions  of  a  city  group  themselves.  Having 
settled  upon  the  locality  these  institutions  remain  through  the  years.  The 
business  district  expands.  The  residence  sections  in  their  successive  annexa- 
tions indulge  in  vagaries  and  surprises.  Manufacturing  suburbs  come  into 
being  and  thrive.  Skyscraping  office  buildings  do  not  huddle  together.  Their 
architectural  nature  is  to  scatter  within  certain  bounds.  The  wholesale  district 
is  a  law  unto  itself  and  no  man  can  predict  whither  it  goeth  twenty  years  hence. 
But  the  financial  aorta  endures;  it  is  a  fixture  in  the  community.  It  follows 


556  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

no  changing  fashion  or  fancy  of  location.  It  is  the  organ  of  the  municipal 
life  which  is  the  stayer. 

The  gravitation  of  banks,  trust  companies  and  stocks  and  bonds  houses 
to  Fourth  and  Fifth  streets  was  one  of  the  notable  tendencies  in  the  develop- 
ment of  St.  Louis.  It  was  quiet  and  slow  but  steady  and  telling.  A  street 
known  only  by  a  numeral  name  has  nothing  of  sentimental  attraction.  "Fourth 
street"  was  prosaic  and  non-suggestive.  Broadway  was  borrowed.  But  in 
some  mysterious  way  there  have  been  drawn  together  within  a  few  blocks  north 
and  south  of  Olive  street  great  banks  and  trust  corporations  and  many  stocks 
and  bonds  houses,  to  say  nothing  of  two  scores  of  individual  brokers. 

Thirty  years  ago  this  character  of  Fourth  street  and  Broadway  was  not 
foreshadowed  in  any  degree.  There  were  banks  on  Second  street  and  Third 
street.  Sixth  street  and  Washington  avenue  had  banks.  Fourth  street  was 
without  banks,  and  Broadway  had  only  one  or  two  financial  institutions.  Fourth 
street  about  1870  was  a  street  of  quick  financial  activities.  It  abounded  in 
institutions  which  received  deposits  not  subject  to  check  and  which  did  a  rapid 
business  in  discounts  commonly  called  "rake  offs."  A  certain  state  politician 
of  high  degree,  a  member  of  the  legislature,  had  occasion  to  tell  an  investigating 
committee  what  disposition  he  had  made  of  a  roll  of  currency  handed  to  him 
contemporaneously  with  some  important  legislation.  He  testified  that  he  put 
the  money  in  a  bank.  Pressed  for  particulars  the  statesman  finally  elaborated 
his  answer;  he  said  he  meant  "a  faro  bank." 

Lower  Fourth  street  was  the  street  of  gambling  houses.  Upper  Fourth 
street  was  the  retail  shopping  thoroughfare.  Broadway  was  beginning  to  be 
worthy  of  its  name.  The  complete  change  of  character  in  the  street  has  had 
its  evolution  within  twenty  years.  Today  the  financial  heart  of  the  city  centers 
on  Fourth  street  and  Broadway,  between  the  court  house  and  Washington 
avenue. 

As  a  political  subdivision  St.  Louis  occupies  a  unique  position  among 
American  cities.  Thirty-four  years  ago  the  city  and  county  of  St.  Louis  were 
permitted  by  the  state  to  separate.  The  city  assumed  all  debts  of  the  county 
and  was  relieved  of  all  county  government.  The  western  limits  of  the  city 
were  made  an  arbitrary  curved  line  with  a  general  north  and  south  direction. 
If  there  was  more  curvature  of  this  line  on  the  west  and  of  the  river  on  the 
east,  St.  Louis  would  be  egg  shaped.  The  river  bends  to  the  east  and  the 
boundary  line  curves  to  the  west,  but  river  and  line  meet  in  north  and  south 
points.  The  length  of  the  city  along  the  river  is  about  twenty  miles.  The 
greatest  width  is  about  six  miles  and  this  is  midway  between  the  north  and 
south  ends  or  points. 

Thirty-four  years  ago  the  limits  of  the  city  seemed  to  the  wise  men  of 
that  generation  to  be  ample.  If  those  separatists  looked  forward  in  imagina- 
tion to  a  city  greater  than  they  had  provided  for  they  did  not  allow  it  to  check 
their  plans.  Under  a  new  charter  St.  Louis  became  a  new  political  subdivision 
of  the  state.  The  county  of  St.  Louis  set  up  its  own  government  without  debt, 
establishing  its  county  seat  about  two  miles  west  of  the  new  limits  of  St.  Louis. 
A  period  of  thirty  years  has  brought  about  unforeseen  conditions.  In  1876 
Grand  avenue,  or  Thirty-sixth  street,  was  the  limit  of  the  residence  section  with 
many  square  miles  of  unimproved  ground  east  of  it.  West  of  Grand  avenue 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  557 

to  the  city  limits  stretched  farm  lands.  In  1911  St.  Louis  has  in  proportion  to 
the  whole  a  smaller  amount  of  unimproved  ground  within  the  present  city 
limits  than  it  had  east  of  Grand  avenue  when  the  separation  took  place. 

To  the  south,  to  the  southwest,  to  the  west  and  to  the  northwest  the  home 
building  has  passed  over  the  arbitrary  boundary  of  the  city.  Beyond  that 
boundary  have  come  into  existence  a  half  hundred  of  communities  which  are 
parts  of  the  city  of  St.  Louis  in  all  the  metropolitan  utilities,  but  not  politically. 
They  are  in  St.  Louis  county,  but  their  residents  do  business  in  and  belong  to 
the  great  city  of  St.  Louis. 

Through  Happy  Hollow  meandered  the  water  from  Chouteau's  pond  after 
it  had  gone  over  the  dam  or  the  wheel.  Happy  Hollow  was  a  tree-bordered 
ravine.  It  had  its  beginning  west  of  the  present  Broadway  and  south  of  Spruce. 
The  course  was  southwesterly  toward  the  river  about  the  foot  of  Chouteau 
avenue.  To  Happy  Hollow  the  colored  laundresses  carried  the  family  washing. 
Among  the  sycamores  they  stretched  the  lines.  In  the  early  morning  they 
scrubbed.  Toward  nightfall  they  carried  home  the  clothes,  clean  and  dry. 
Taking  the  children  with  them,  they  made  blue  Monday  an  outing.  Happy 
Hollow  lingered  a  pleasant  memory  in  local  history  after  it  ceased  to  be  the 
town  laundry. 

A  locality  which  retained  its  unofficial  designation  longer  than  most  of 
jthe  other  sections  was  Kerry  Patch.  It  was  a  strip  of  two  or  three  blocks  wide 
jand  extended  from  Biddle  to  Mullanphy  street,  along  Seventeenth.  Irish  immi- 
/grants  coming  in  great  numbers  about  1842  found  this  locality  unotcupied 
/  commons.  They  built  little  houses  without  much  regard  to  street  lines  and 
/  made  themselves  homes.  Kerry  is  a  part  of  Ireland  famed  for  beautiful  scenery. 
Ets  application  to  "the  Patch"  was  hardly  appropriate,  but  it  clung. 

Where  Twelfth  and  Pine  streets  intersect  ran  a  deep  gully.  Its  beginning 
was  about  the  present  site  of  the  Jefferson  hotel.  Curving  through  what  is 
now  City  Hall  square,  the  gully  was  a  landmark  of  such  proportions  that  the 
early  settlers  bestowed  a  name  upon  it.  They  called  the  gully  "La  Raceroe," 
because  of  its  course,  something  like  a  great  hook.  The  gully  carried  the  flood 
waters  of  a  considerable  section  into  Chouteau  pond. 

Between  Market  and  St.  Charles  streets,  from  Tenth  to  Twentieth  street, 
was  a  well  wooded  section.  It  was  called  "Lucas'  Grove." 

Duncan's  island,  which  came  into  existence  long  after  St.  Louis  was 
founded,  received  its  name  from  Bob  Duncan,  who  built  a  cabin  and  filed  a 
claim  on  it.  At  first  it  was  a  sand  bar  off  Market  street.  The  lower  end  grew 
until  it  was  above  the  water  level.  Bushes  appeared.  The  sand  became  soil 
which  encouraged  vegetable  growth.  David  Adams,  a  noted  hunter  on  the 
plains,  took  up  his  residence  on  the  island. 

Wilson  Primm  was  considered  the  best  authority  on  the  familiar  nomen- 
clature of  St.  Louis  and  its  suburbs.  Judge  Primm's  explanation  of  River 
Des  Peres  was  this: 

A  number  of  the  religious  order  of  Trappists  or  Monks  from  Canada  had  under  the 
authority  of  the  Bishop  at  Quebec,  Canada,  settled  at  Cahokia  in  what  is  now  known  as 
St.  Clair  county,  Illinois.  A  few  members  of  this  order  attracted  by  the  beauty  at  the 
mouth  of  this  stream,  commenced  the  formation  of  an  establishment  there;  but  through 
fear  of  Indian  depredation  or  fearful  of  sickness  they  abandoned  the  work  which  they 


558  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

had  begun.  Henceforth  the  stream  was  known  and  called  the  Des  Peres,  the  River  of  the 
Fathers. 

Bonhomme,  which  is  the  name  of  the  road  lying  along  the  ridge  of  Uni- 
versity City,  Clayton  and  beyond,  was  derived,  according  to  Judge  Primrn,  from 
the  nickname  of  Joseph  Herbert.  This  man  lived  in  what  is  part  of  St.  Louis 
county.  He  was  easy  going,  honest,  obliging  and  popular,  so  much  so  that  the 
French  settlers  bestowed  upon  him  the  name  of  "Bonhomme"  Herbert,  being 
descriptive  of  his  disposition.  From  the  location  of  Herbert's  place  the  Bon- 
homme road,  Bonhomme  township  and  Bonhomme  creek  received  their  names. 
Judge  Primm  thought  in  all  probability  the  naming  of  the  creek  came  first  and 
that  it  was  so  called  in  Herbert's  honor  La  Riviere  au  Bonhomme,  which  was 
anglicized  into  Bonhomme  creek. 

Creve  Coeur,  Judge  Primm  said,  means  a  weight  on  the  heart.  It  was 
named,  according  to  the  tradition  which  Judge  Primm  preserved,  by  reason 
of  an  expression  made  when  Alexis  and  his  wife  moved  out  to  the  borders  of 
the  lake.  Alexis  had  been  a  bellringer  at  the  Catholic  church  in  St.  Louis  in 
the  colonial  period.  He  took  his  wife  to  the  new  home  on  the  shore  of  the  lake. 
When  she  came  into  St.  Louis  after  a  year's  residence  in  the  wilds  to  visit  her 
relatives  they  asked  her  how  she  liked  her  home.  She  replied  in  French  that 
it  was  a  weight  on  her  heart.  She  meant  that  she  missed  the  ringing  of  the 
church  bells  and  felt  doleful  or  depressed  in  the  new  surroundings.  Some  color 
is  given  to  the  tradition  by  the  fact  that  Alexis  and  his  dissatisfied  wife  moved 
back  to  St.  Louis  and  Alexis  resumed  the  old  vocation  of  bellringer  of  the 
church  on  Walnut  street. 

Judge  Primm  held  to  the  theory  that  St.  Louis  obtained  the  name  of  Pain- 
court  from  an  old  parish  of  that  name  in  France.  He  said: 

In  early  days  this  town  was  called  "Paincourt,"  which  in  French  literally  means 
a  loaf  of  bread  that  is  short,  or  insufficient  in  length  or  of  insufficient  weight.  This  ap- 
pellation may  have  been  given  it  by  way  of  derision  on  account  of  the  nicknames  which 
the  St.  Louisans  gave  to  other  towns,  such  as  Misere  to  Ste.  Genevieve,  Viede  Poche  to  Ca- 
rondelet; but  in  reality  it  was  the  name  of  the  parish  in  which  the  post  of  St.  Louis  was 
situated,  as  shown  by  the  official  records  of  the  Spanish  government.  In  France  there  is 
still  a  parish  of  that  name. 

Judge  Primm  in  a  description  of  the  origin  of  the  nickname  applied  to 
Carondelet  vigorously  combatted  the  tradition  that  Viede  Poche  meant  empty 
pocket.  He  said  that  anyone  who  knew  Carondelet  under  the  Spanish  govern- 
ment, and  even  long  after  the  change  of  sovereignty,  understood  that  the 
residents  of  that  village  were  with  rare  exceptions  the  owners  of  land,  were 
industrious  and  well  to  do.  After  they  had  gathered  their  crops  they  hauled 
fire  wood  to  St.  Louis  and  sold  it  to  the  early  settlers.  In  the  opinion  of  Judge 
Primm  the  name  of  Viede  Poche  was  bestowed  on  Carondelet  because  the  inhab- 
itants of  that  village  were  better  sportsmen  than  the  people  of  St.  Louis.  On 
Sundays  the  St.  Louisans  were  in  the  habit  of  going  to  Carondelet  to  race  and 
play  cards  in  the  afternoon.  Either  the  Carondelet  men  had  faster  horses  or 
were  better  players,  for  the  St.  Louis  visitors,  Judge  Primm  said,  generally 
returned  home  with  emptied  pockets.  This  was  so  often  the  case  that  when  a 
St.  Louisan  was  invited  to  visit  Carondelet  on  Sunday  afternoons  he  would 
reply  in  French,  using  the  word  Viede  Poche  in  the  sense  to  make  his  answer: 
"Of  what  use?  It's  a  pocket  emptier." 


GEORGE    I.    BARNETT 


J.   E.    KAIME 


JOHN     BYRNE.    JR. 


HOME  OF  GILES  F.  FILLEY 
On  Lucas  place,  before  the  Civil  war 


THE   BRANT   RESIDENCE 

On  Chouteau  avenue.     Headquarters  in 
war  times,  now  a  factory 


THE   GROWING  OF   ST.   LOUIS  559 

Old  St.  Louis  is  seen  in  a  street  car  ride  to  Carondelet,  the  pioneer  settle- 
ment which  was  started  only  a  few  years  after  St.  Louis  and  which  maintained 
its  town  and  city  individuality  through  three  generations  before  it  yielded  to 
annexation.  Many  of  the  buildings  of  Carondelet  are  from  fifty  to  seventy- 
five  years  old. 

The  tradition  that  the  Indians  gave  the  name  of  Meramec  to  the  river 
because  it  abounded  in  catfish,  Judge  Primm  was  inclined  to  believe  on  the 
testimony  given  him  by  Captain  Samuel  Knight,  who  was  his  neighbor  and  a 
farmer  and  fisherman.  Captain  Knight  said  to  Judge  Primm  that  in  the  fall 
of  the  year  1820  while  he  was  out  deer  hunting  he  wandered  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Meramec  river.  The  water  was  so  clear  that  objects  at  or  near  the  bottom 
were  plainly  discernible.  There  he  saw  great  numbers  of  catfish,  so  many  that 
they  actually  dammed  the  river.  These  catfish,  Captain  Knight  said,  were  lying 
side  by  side  as  close  to  each  other  as  the  fingers  of  the  hand,  their  heads  in  a 
line,  occupying  the  entire  space  from  shore  to  shore;  they  were  motionless; 
they  made  no  attempt  to  seize  the  small  fish  which  swam  near  them.  Captain 
Knight  said  he  mentioned  this  astonishing  spectacle  to  Ben  Fine,  McGregor 
Fine  and  John  Home,  who  had  lived  for  years  near  the  mouth  of  the  Meramec, 
and  that  they  informed  him  they  had  seen  the  same  curious  spectacle  every 
fall  during  their  residence  there.  The  name  of  the  river  has  been  given  in 
various  forms  of  spelling  in  the  history  of  St.  Louis,  but  the  way  commonly 
used  is  Meramec.  Judge  Primm  said  that  this  way  was  slightly  inaccurate, 
that  the  proper  spelling  should  be  M-a-r-a-m-e-c,  which  was  the  form  used 
during  the  Spanish  regime. 


560  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 


THE    CHOUTEAU    HOUSE. 

Touch  not  a  stone!     An  early  pioneer 

Of  Christian  sway  founded  his  dwelling  here, 

Almost  alone. 

Touch  not  a  stone!     Let  the  Great  West  command 
A  hoary  relic  of  the  early  land; 

That  after  generations  may  not  say, 
"All  went  for  gold  in  our  forefathers'  day, 
And  of  our  infancy  we  nothing  own. ' ' 
Touch  not  a  stone! 

Touch  not  a  stone!     Let  the  old  pile  decay, 
A  relic  of  the  time  now  pass'd  away, 

Ye  heirs  who  own 

Lordly  endowment  of  the  ancient  hall, 
Till  the  last  rafter  crumbles  from  the  wall, 

And  each  old  tree  around  the  dwelling  rots, 
Yield  not  your  heritage  for  "building  lots." 
Hold  the  old  ruin  for  itself  alone; 
Touch  not  a  stone! 

Built  by  a  foremost  Western  pioneer, 
It  stood  upon  St.  Louis'  bluff  to  cheer 

New  settlers  on. 

Now  o'er  it  tow'r  majestic  spire  and  dome, 
And  lowly  seems  the  forest  trader 's  home ; 

All  out  of  fashion,  like  a  time-struck  man, 
Last  of  his  age,  his  kindred  and  his  clan, 
Lingering  still,  a  stranger  and  alone — 
Touch  not  a  stone! 

Spare  the  old  house!     The  ancient  mansion  spare, 
For  ages  still  to  front  the  market  square — 

That  may  be  shown, 

How  those  old  walls  of  good  St.  Louis  rock, 
In  native  strength,  shall  bear  against  the  shock 
Of  centuries!     There  shall  the  curious  see, 
When  like  a  fable  shall'  our  story  be, 
How  the  Star  City  of  the  West  has  grown! 
Touch  not  a  stone! 

— M.  G.  FIELD,  New  Orleans,  Picayune,  about  1835. 


CHAPTER  XXII. 
IN  THE  LIFE  OF  THE  NATION 

St.  Louis  and  the  American  Revolution — George  Eogers  Clark's  Tribute — Francis  Vigo's 
Part  in  the  Talcing  of  Vincennes — Patriotic  Father  Gibault — The  Republican  Spirit  of 
St.  Louis — Bishop  Robertson's  Historical  Researches — The  British  Attack  of  if 80 — The 
Haldimand- Sinclair  Correspondence — Pascal  Cerre's  Recollections — Revelations  from 
Canadian  Archives — Beausoleil's  Midwinter  Expedition  to  Michigan — Jefferson's  Secret 
Investigation  at  St.  Louis  Before  the  Cession — Lucas  Chosen  for  a  Delicate  Mission — 
Aaron  Burr 's  Advances  Repulsed  by  St.  Louisans — Deciding  Vote  in  Election  of  President 
Adams — To  the  Everglades — St.  Louis'  Help  for  William  Henry  Harrison — In  the  Mexican 
War — Wonderful  Deeds  of  the  Laclede  Rangers — Zachary  Taylor's  Newspaper  Nomina- 
tion— The  Dred  Scott  Case — St.  Louisans  in  the  Civil  War — An  Army  of  Home  Guards 
Besides  15,310  Volunteers  in  the  Feld — Price's  Vanguard  Within  Present  City  Limits — 
Careers  of  Lyon  and  Frost — A  Dream  of  Border  Neutrality — Camp  Jackson — f'The  Last 
Man  and  the  Last  Dollar ' '  for  the  Union — St.  Louis  Radicals  at  the  White  House — Recol- 
lections of  Enos  Clarke — The  Twentieth  Century  Club — Genesis  of  the  Liberal  Republican 
Movement — Grats  Brown's  Leadership — The  Mistake  of  1872. 

The  difference  between  St.  Louis  and  Chicago,  Cincinnati  and  New  Orleans,   Is  not  only, 
or  mainly,   that  of  larger  and  smaller,   but   that  of  origin,   of  history,   of   relative   constituent 
elements  in  the   sources  of  pride  and  in  the  social  and  other  problems   to   be   met. 
This  city  has  a  life,  a  history,   an  influence  upon   the  Mississippi  Valley  all   its  own. — Bishop 
C.  F.  Robertson. 

"Our  friends,  the  Spaniards  are  doing  everything  in  their  power  to  con- 
vince me  of  their  friendship,"  George  Rogers  Clark  wrote  from  St.  Louis  in 
July,  1778.  Here  the  Hannibal  of  the  west  found  money,  gunpowder  and 
clothing  secretly  stored  and  awaiting  delivery  to  help  the  American  cause.  The 
wonderful  exploits  of  George  Rogers  Clark  and  his  350  Virginians  and  Ken- 
tuckians  in  1778  and  1779  are  thrilling  chapters  of  American  histories.  Scarcely 
mentioned  in  these  histories  is  the  fact  that  before  he  started  on  his  campaign, 
Clark  sent  two  of  his  trusted  lieutenants  to  St.  Louis  to  sound  sentiment  toward 
the  American  colonies  and  to  determine  in  what  degree  the  leading  men  of  the 
community  could  be  depended  upon  for  cooperation.  After  he  received  the 
encouraging  reports  from  St.  Louis,  George  Rogers  Clark  started  down  the  Ohio 
to  make  his  bloodless  capture  of  the  British  post,  Kaskaskia,  July  4,  1778. 

Very  practical  was  the  sympathy  with  which  St.  Louisans  redeemed  the 
promises  they  had  given  to  George  Rogers  Clark's  advance  agents.  A  St.* 
Louisan,  Francis  Vigo,  made  the  trip  to  Vincennes  and  brought  back  to  Clark 
the  information  he  needed  to  make  the  expedition  against  that  British  post  suc- 
cessful. As  Vigo  was  leaving  Vincennes  to  return  the  British  stopped  him. 
He  asserted  his  right  as  a  resident  of  St.  Louis.  A  pledge  that  "on  his  way 
to  St.  Louis  he  would  do  no  act  hostile  to  British  interest"  was  required.  Vigo 
came  back  direct  to  St.  Louis.  He  had  barely  landed  when,  having  fulfilled  the 
pledge,  he  jumped  back  into  his  boat  and  went  as  fast  as  he  could  to  Kaskaskia 
with  the  news  that  the  French  were  waiting  to  welcome  the  Americans  and  that 
Vincennes  could  be  taken.  Clark  made  repeated  visits  to  St.  Louis  before  he 

561 
10-VOL.  II. 


562  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

started  in  February,  1779,  across  the  Illinois  prairies.  He  needed  money  and 
provisions.  St.  Louis  raised  nearly  $20,000  for  the  little  American  army.  Father 
Gibault,  the  priest  who  alternated  between  St.  Louis  and  Kaskaskia,  gave  his 
savings  of  years, — $1,000.  When  the  expedition,  with  recruits  from  St.  Louis 
and  Cahokia  and  Kaskaskia,  marched  away  to  the  eastward,  Father  Gibault  and 
his  Kaskaskia  parishoners  knelt  and  prayed  for  American  success  at  Vincennes. 
Fifteen  months  later  the  firing  line  of  American  independence  ran  along  the  stone, 
brush  and  log  ramparts  of  St.  Louis. 

The  St.  Louis  of  1764-1780  came  well  by  its  Americanism.  For  two  or 
three  generations,  the  governors-general  at  New  Orleans  had  been  writing  home 
to  the  French  government  about  the  growth  of  a  republican  spirit.  The  youth 
who  came  out  to  New  France  with  the  intention  of  bettering  their  material 
condition  brought  with  them  the  theories  and  the  arguments  that  were  spreading 
in  France.  Governors-general  complained  and  warned  that  the  tendencies  threat- 
ened to  make  trouble.  Laclede  came  from  the  Pyrennees  with  companions  at  a 
time  when  revolt  against  monarchy  was  in  many  minds.  As  he  grasped  the 
opportunity  to  found  his  settlement  he  drew  to  him  some  of  the  lower  Louisiana 
people  who  had  become  imbued  with  republican  ideas  but  more  of  Canadian  and 
Illinois  parentage,  to  whom  the  ties  with  the  mother  country  were  traditional 
rather  than  positively  loyal.  Had  numbers  made  the  revolution  of  Lafreniere 
at  New  Orleans  successful,  there  is  no  doubt  the  self-governing,  self-develop- 
ing community  of  St.  Louis  would  have  been  found  quickly  in  line  and  heartily 
in  spirit  with  the  new  nation.  St.  Louis  in  the  first  six  years  of  its  existence 
progressed  farther  than  any  other  community  of  the  continent  toward  what  were 
to  be  American  ideals. 

The  late  Bishop  C.  F.  Robertson,  of  the  diocese  of  Missouri,  became  deeply 
interested  in  what  St.  Louisans  did  to  aid  the  American  colonies  during  the 
Revolution.  He  was  especially  impressed  with  the  services  rendered  in  1778  by 
Francis  Vigo,  of  whom  he  wrote : 

There  had  been  resident  in  St.  Louis  for  several  years  Colonel  Francis  Vigo,  an 
Italian  by  birth,  but  one  who  had  been  in  the  Spanish  military  service.  He  had,  however, 
left  the  army  and  was  engaged  in  the  Indian  trade  on  the  Missouri  and  its  tributaries, 
much  respected  in  St.  Louis,  and  enjoying  the  confidence  of  the  governor  in  the  highest 
degree.  A  Spaniard  in  his  allegiance,  he  was  under  no  obligation  to  assist  us,  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  as  his  country  was  at  peace  with  Great  Britain,  any  breach  of  neutrality 
on  his  part  towards  that  country  would  subject  him  to  loss  and  vengeance.  But  in  spite 
of  all  this,  from  his  attachment  to  Eepublican  principles  and  sympathy  with  a  people 
struggling  for  their  rights,  Colonel  Vigo  overlooked  all  personal  consequences,  and  so 
soon  as  he  had  heard  of  Clark's  arrival  at  Kaskaskia,  he  left  St.  Louis,  crossed  the  line, 
went  down  there  and  tendered  his  means  and  influence,  both  of  which  were  gladly  accepted. 
Knowing  Colonel  Vigo's  influence  with  the  inhabitants  of  the  country,  and  desirous  of 
gaining  some  information  from  Vincennes,  from  which  he  had  not  heard  for  some  months, 
Colonel  Clark  proposed  to  Vigo  that  he  should  go  and  learn  the  actual  condition  of  things 
at  the  post.  Colonel  Vigo  immediately  started  with  but  one  servant,  but  on  approaching 
Vincennes  was  captured  by  a  party  of  Indians  and  brought  to  Governor  Hamilton,  who  was 
then  in  possession  of  the  place.  Being  a  Spaniard  and  non-combatant,  he  could  not  be  con- 
fined, but  was  only  compelled  to  report  himself  every  morning.  He  learned  the  condition 
of  the  garrison,  its  means  of  defense,  and  the  position  of  the  town. 

In  the  meantime,  Hamilton  was  embarrassed  by  the  detention  of  Vigo,  and  the  French 
inhabitants  threatened  to  stop  the  supplies  unless  he  was  released.  The  governor  consented, 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE    NATION  563 

on  condition  that  Vigo  should  sign  an  article  "not  to  do  any  act  during  the  war  injurious 
to  British  interests."  He  refused  to  sign  this,  and  the  pledge  was  modified,  "not  to  do 
anything  injurious  to  British  interests  on  his  way  to  St.  Louis. ' '  Colonel  Vigo  put  his 
name  to  this,  and  the  next  day  departed  down  the  Wabash  and  the  Ohio,  and  up  the  Mississippi, 
with  two  voyagers  accompanying  him.  He  faithfully  kept  the  very  letter  of  his  bond.  On 
his  way  to  St.  Louis  he  did  ' '  nothing  injurious  to  British  interests. ' '  But  he  had  no  sooner 
set  foot  on  shore,  and  changed  his  clothes,  than  in  the  same  pirogue  he  hastened  to  Kas- 
kaskia  and  gave  the  information  by  means  of  which  Clark  was  enabled  to  capture  Hamilton 
and  the  most  important  post  of  Vincennes. 

A  citizen  of  St.  Louis  had  thus  an  influential  part  in  bringing  to  success  a  result 
than  which  few  others  have  done  more  to  shape  all  the  fortunes  of  the  west. 

More  than  this,  when  Colonel  Clark  came  to  Kaskaskia,  it  was  with  great  difficulty 
that  the  French  inhabitants  could  be  persuaded  to  take  the  Continental  paper  which  alone 
Clark  and  his  soldiers  had  with  them  for  money.  Peltries  and  French  coins  were  the 
only  currency  used  by  the  simple  inhabitants.  It  was  not  until  Colonel  Vigo,  the  adopted 
citizen  of  St.  Louis,  went  there  and  gave  a  guarantee  on  his  property  for  the  redemption 
of  this  paper  that  Colonel  Clark  could,  with  difficulty,  induce  the  unsophisticated  French- 
men to  take  the  currency.  Even  then  twenty  dollars  of  this  Continental  currency  had  only 
the  purchasing  power  of  one  silver  dollar.  The  douleur,  as  they  called  the  dollar,  meant 
pain  and  grief  to  them. 

It  was  only  by  such  aid  that  Colonel  Clark  was  enabled  to  maintain  the  posts  which 
he  had  conquered  on  the  Wabash  and  the  Mississippi  until  the  close  of  the  war,  by  which 
he  saved  to  the  nation  the  vast  territory  lying  between  the  Ohio  and  the  Lakes. 

Colonel  Vigo,  at  the  close  of  the  war,  had  on  hand  more  than  twenty  thousand 
dollars  of  the  worthless  Continental  money  for  which  he  had  surrendered  his  property 
and  for  which,  to  the  end  of  his  life,  he  never  received  one  penny.  He  was  given  a  draft 
on  Virginia,  which  was  dishonored,  and  died  almost  a  pauper,  holding  the  same  dishonored 
draft  in  his  possession.  After  his  death  the  state  of  Virginia  acknowledged  the  justice 
of  the  claim,  and  furnished  evidence  to  prove  that  it  was  one  of  the  liabilities  assumed 
by  the  general  government  in  consideration  of  the  act  of  cession  of  the  land  to  it  by  the 
state. 

Mention  ought  also  to  be  made  of  Father  Gibault,  who  lived  at  Vincennes,  but  who 
had  the  curacy  at  Kaskaskia  and  who  was  there  when  Clark  took  possession  of  the  place. 
He  it  was  who  was  influential  in  procuring  the  release  of  Colonel  Vigo  from  his  detention 
at  Vineennes,  and  who  joined  with  him  in  contributing  from  his  cattle  and  his  tithes  for 
the  maintenance  of  the  American  troops,  without  which  aid  they  must  either  have  sur- 
rendered or  abandoned  their  enterprise.  Judge  Law  says,  that  next  to  Clark  and  Vigo  the 
United  States  are  more  indebted  to  Father  Gibault  for  the  accession  of  the  states  com- 
prised in  what  was  the  original  Northwestern  Territory  than  to  any  other  man. 

American  historians  have  given  little  or  no  international  significance  to 
the  British  attack  upon  St.  Louis.  When  they  refer  to  it,  they  call  it  an  attempted 
Indian  massacre.  This  is  readily  explained.  Record  evidence  regarding  the 
attack,  from  the  St.  Louis  side,  is  wanting.  Recently  more  has  been  learned. 
The  source  has  been  the  Canadian  archives.  It  abundantly  verifies  the  hitherto 
doubted  assertions  of  Reynolds  in  his  History  of  Illinois  that  the  expedition  was 
planned  and  conducted  by  the  British. 

The  commandant  at  St.  Louis  was  Don  Ferdinand  de  Leyba.  He  had 
been  in  office  less  than  two  years  when  the  attack  occurred.  He  refused  to 
believe  that  there  was  any  danger.  Only  a  few  days  before  he  sold  a  considerable 
portion  of  the  powder  on  hand.  When  the  alarm  was  given  Don  Ferdinand 
hid  in  the  government  house.  Such  orders  as  he  hastily  issued  were  confusing 
and  harmful  to  the  defenders.  The  Spanish  garrison,  under  Cartabona  remained 
in  the  fort.  When  the  fright  was  over  the  sturdy  French  settlers  called  Don 


564  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

Ferdinand  a  traitor.  It  is  more  probable  that  he  was  a  weakling.  On  the  26th 
of  May  the  British  and  their  Indian  allies  attacked.  On  the  27th  of  June  Gov- 
ernor Leyba  died.  He  was  buried  the  next  day  in  the  graveyard  on  Second 
and  Walnut  streets.  If  he  left  an  official  report  of  the  affair  of  the  26th  of  May, 
it  has  never  been  discovered.  By  word-of-mouth  the  St.  Louis  narrative  was 
handed  down.  This  included  the  rumor  without  details  that  Don  Ferdinand 
killed  himself.  The  French  settlers  had  won  a  great  victory,  one  of  far  reach- 
ing consequences.  They  did  not  know  it.  They  realized  that  they  had  saved 
their  homes  from  savages.  From  this  point  of  view  they  told  their  children 
the  story  of  "the  great  blow." 

In  local  annals  it  became  "L'anne  du  grande  coup."  More  than  a  century 
was  to  pass  before  "the  year  of  the  great  blow"  obtained  its  full  historical 
significance.  In  the  Carolinas  the  tide  had  turned  against  the  British.  In 
1778-9  George  Rogers  Clark  had  occupied  Kaskaskia  with  his  Virginians.  He 
had  made  friends  with  the  Spanish  officers  and  with  the  French  settlers  at  St. 
Louis.  Francis  Vigo,  a  Sardinian  by  birth,  had  brought  to  Clark  the  information 
that  Vincennes  might  be  taken  by  a  quick  march  across  the  prairies  of  Illinois. 
Vigo  with  Charles  Gratiot,  the  Swiss,  and  Gabriel  Cerre  had  backed  Clark 
with  money  and  credit.  Frenchmen  from  St.  Louis  and  Cahokia  had  enlisted 
for  the  expedition  with  the  handful  of  Virginians.  The  French  women  of  Ca- 
hokia had  made  the  flags  for  the  American  allies  to  carry.  Vincennes  had  fallen. 
Its  British  commander,  General  Hamilton,  "the  hair  buyer,"  they  called  him  be- 
cause he  paid  Indians  for  American  scalps,  had  been  sent  a  prisoner  to  Virginia. 
These  events  in  rapid  succession  preceded  the  attack  of  the  Indians  on  St.  Louis 
—"the  great  blow"— of  1780. 

This  attack  was  attributed  at  the  time  to  British  influence,  but  historians 
have  been  inclined  to  treat  the  affair  as  "a  raid  by  the  savages  inhabiting  the 
northern  lake  country  incited  by  guerillas,  probably  for  plunder."  Quite  recently, 
within  the  past  four  years,  copies  of  important  documents  from  the  Canadian 
archives,  coming  into  possession  of  the  Missouri  Historical  Society,  have  revealed 
the  facts  about  the  expedition  against  St.  Louis. 

Pencour  is  the  name  given  to  St.  Louis  in  all  of  these  documents.  Patt 
Sinclair,  as  he  signed  himself,  lieutenant-governor  of  Michilimackinac,  organized 
the  expedition.  He  reported  from  time  to  time  the  progress  and  results  to  the 
British  general,  Frederick  Haldimand,  in  command  at  Quebec.  From  these 
documents  it  is  made  apparent  that  the  movement  directed  by  Sinclair  was  to  be 
general  against  St.  Louis,  Kaskaskia,  and  other  Illinois  settlements.  The  re- 
covery of  Vincennes  was  even  contemplated.  Anticipating  the  easy  capture  of 
St.  Louis,  Sinclair  intended  the  column  sent  in  that  direction  to  proceed  down 
the  river  capturing  and  destroying  the  settlements  as  far  down  as  possible. 

How  much  Haldimand  and  Sinclair  had  staked  on  this  expedition  against 
St.  Louis  the  later  correspondence  between  them  showed.  On  the  Atlantic 
seaboard  the  British  for  a  year  and  more  had  carried  on  their  most  active  opera- 
tions against  the  southern  colonies.  They  held  Savannah  and  had  overrun  part 
of  Georgia.  Their  armies  were  in  the  Carolinas.  The  policy  was  to  move  north- 
ward from  Georgia,  making  use  of  the  slave  conditions  as  an  element  of  weak- 
ness to  the  American  patriots.  The  British  leaders  thought  in  this  way  to  sub- 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE    NATION  565 

due  colony  after  colony.  Their  plan  to  cut  the  colonial  military  strength  into 
parts  by  taking  possession  of  the  Hudson  and  a  line  of  communication  with 
Canada  had  failed  signally  after  the  defeat  at  Saratoga. 

With  the  British  navy  and  land  forces  concentrating  about  Savannah  and 
Georgia,  Haldimand  and  Sinclair  counted  upon  a  naval  demonstration  against 
the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi  and  New  Orleans,  at  the  same  time  that  their 
forces  of  Canadians  and  Indians  swept  southward  down  the  Mississippi  and 
the  Illinois  and  over  the  prairies  between  the  Mississippi  and  the  Wabash.  It 
was  a  campaign  well  thought  out.  It  enlisted  more  than  the  military  element. 
It  appealed  to  the  self-interest  of  the  Canadian  fur  traders.  The  savagery  and 
rapacity  of  the  Indians  were  inflamed. 

Had  the  plans  of  Haldimand  and  Sinclair  succeeded,  had  St.  Louis  fallen, 
had  the  naval  demonstration  by  the  British  fleet  been  made  against  New  Orleans, 
the  war  of  the  Revolution  would  have  left  the  west  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  the 
whole  Louisiana  Territory,  under  the  British  flag. 

But  even  while  Sinclair  was  informing  Haldimand  of  the  details  of  intended 
occupancy  of  St.  Louis  and  other  places  on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi, 
the  expedition  had  failed,  the  three  divisions  were  in  full  retreat.  In  the  cor- 
respondence Sinclair  refers  to  cypher  messages.  He  also  mentions,  significantly 
the  non-support  of  this  expedition  by  the  expected  movement  against  New  Or- 
leans. Treachery  among  his  own  forces  he  gives  as  the  cause  of  defeat. 

Of  the  proposed  "reduction  of  Pencour  by  surprise"  Sinclair  wrote  con- 
fidently to  Haldimand  in  February.  He  was  assembling  the  expedition.  The 
rendezvous  was  on  the  Upper  Mississippi,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Wisconsin.  Ca- 
noes and  corn  were  collected.  The  Minominies,  the  Puants,  the  Sacs  and  the 
Rhenards  were  assembled.  The  force  was  not  to  start  "until  I  send  instruction 
by  Sergeant  Phillips  of  the  Eighth  Regiment."  Sinclair  contemplated  not  only 
the  capture  of  St.  Louis.  He  expected  to  hold  it.  He  wrote : 

The  reduction  of  Pencour,  by  surprise,  from  the  easy  admission  of  Indians  at  that  place, 
and  by  assault  from  without,  having  for  its  defense  as  reported,  only  twenty  men  and  twenty 
brass  cannons,  will  be  less  difficult  than  holding  it  afterwards.  To  gain  both  these  ends,  the 
rich  fur  trade  of  the  Missouri  river,  the  injuries  done  to  the  traders  who  formerly  attempted 
to  partake  of  it,  and  the  large  property  they  may  expect  in  the  place  will  contribute.  The 
Scious  will  go  with  all  dispatch  as  low  down  as  the  Natches,  and  as  many  intermediate  attacks 
as  possible  shall  be  made. 

In  his  next  report,  Sinclair  told  General  Haldimand  that  the  expedition 
had  started  down  the  Mississippi.  In  that  body  were  750  men,  "including  traders, 
servants  and  Indians." 

Captain  Langdale  with  a  chosen  band  of  Indians  and  Canadians  will  join  a  party 
assembled  at  Chicago  to  make  his  attack  by  the  Illinois  river,  and  another  party  is  sent  to 
watch  the  plains  between  the  Wabash  and  the  Mississippi. 

I  am  now  in  treaty  with  the  Ottawas  about  furnishing  their  quota  to  cut  off  the  rebels 
at  Post  St.  Vincents  (Vincennes),  but  as  they  are  under  the  management  of  two  chiefs,  the 
one  a  drunkard  and  the  other  an  avaricious  trader,  I  meet  with  difficulties  in  bringing  it  about. 
Thirty  Saginah  warriors  are  here  in  readiness  to  join  them,  and  the  Island  band  can  furnish 
as  many  more. 

Sinclair's  announcement  of  the  preliminary  successes  of  his  campaign  re- 
veals how  St.  Louis  was  cooperating  with  the  American  rebels: 


566  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

During  the  time  necessary  for  assembling  the  Indians  at  La  Prairie  du  Chien,  detachments 
were  made  to  watch  the  river  to  intercept  craft  coming  up  with  provisions  and  to  seize  upon  the 
people  working  in  the  lead  mines.  Both  one  and  the  other  were  effected  without  any  acci- 
dent. Tnirty-six  Minominies  have  brought  to  this  post  a  large  armed  boat,  loaded  at  Pen- 
cour,  in  which  were  twelve  men  and  rebel  commissary.  From  the  mines  they  had  brought 
seventeen  Spanish  and  rebel  prisoners,  and  stopped  fifty  tons  of  lead  ore.  The  chiefs  Machi- 
quawish  and  Wabasha  have  kindled  this  spirit  in  the  western  Indians. 

In  a  postscript,  after  the  several  parties  were  well  on  the  way  to  St.  Louis 
and  the  Illinois  country,  Sinclair  unfolds  his  plans  for  permanent  possession: 

Phillips,  of  the  8th  Eegiment,  who  has  my  warrant  to  act  as  lieutenant  during  your  Ex- 
cellency's pleasure,  will  garrison  the  fort  at  the  entrance  of  the  Missouri.  Captain  Hesee 
will  remain  at  Pencour.  Wabasha  will  attack  Misere  (Ste.  Genevieve)  and  Kacasia  (Kas- 
kaskia) . 

All  the  traders  who  will  secure  the  posts  on  the  Spanish  side  of  the  Mississippi  during 
the  next  winter  have  my  promise  for  the  exclusive  trade  of  the  Missouri  during  that  time. 
The  two  lower  villages  are  to  be  laid  under  contributions  for  the  support  of  their  garri- 
sons, and  the  two  upper  villages  are  to  send  cattle  to  be  forwarded  to  this  place  to  feed  the 
Indians  on  their  return.  Orders  will  be  published  at  the  Illinois  for  no  person  to  go  there,  who 
looks  for  receiving  quarter — and  the  Indians  have  orders  to  give  none  to  any  without  a  British 
pass.  This  requires  every  attention  and  support,  being  of  utmost  consequence. 

Pascal  Cerre's  recollections  of  the  attack  represent  fairly  the  impressions 
the  St.  Louisans  received  at  the  time.  They  were  not  committed  to  paper  until 
1846.  And  then  through  the  interest  of  the  historian,  L.  C.  Draper.  They  show 
how  little  was  known  by  the  habitants  of  the  plans  leading  up  to  the  expedi- 
tion. Cerre  was  seven  years  old  at  the  time  of  which  he  speaks.  His  father 
was  Gabriel  Cerre,  a  merchant  of  St.  Louis,  who  had  moved  over  from  Kaskaskia 
in  1779.  The  elder  Cerre  was  one  of  the  little  group  of  St.  Louisans  who  had 
outfitted  George  Rogers  Clark  to  make  his  capture  of  Vincennes.  Pascal  Cerre 
told  Draper  that  St.  Louisans  thought  Jean  Marie  Ducharme  got  up  the  expedi- 
tion against  the  settlement.  The  motive  was  revenge.  Ducharme  was  a  Canadian, 
a  fur  trader.  In  1779  he  had  stolen  up  the  Missouri  river.  He  had  established 
himself  about  twenty  miles  above  Jefferson  City,  opposite  what  became  known 
as  Ducharme's  island.  There  the  Spanish  soldiers  found  him,  took  his  furs  and 
goods  away  from  him  and  sent  him  out  of  the  country.  Ducharme,  as  the 
Canadian  archives  show,  did  go  with  the  British  expedition  but  stands  accused 
by  Sinclair  of  "perfidy"  and  partial  responsibility  for  the  defeat.  This  is  Pascal 
Cerre's  account  of  the  approach  and  the  fighting : 

At  a  place  fourteen  miles  above  St.  Louis  they  left  their  canoes,  and  as  they  approached 
the  object  of  their  attack  Ducharme  divided  his  men  into  two  detachments,  one  of  which 
he  himself  headed  and  came  down  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  The  other  detachment  took 
down  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  and  posted  themselves  in  ambush  along  the  roads  leading 
from  St.  Louis  to  the  other  settlements. 

At  the  first  alarm,  just  about  midday,  and  many  of  the  people  at  their  dinners,  a  man  ran 
through  the  town  crying  ' '  To  arms !  To  arms ! ' '  The  people  jumped  from  their  tables 
greatly  alarmed.  The  alarm  gun  was  shot  from  the  tower  to  warn  the  people  who  were  at 
work  out  in  the  fields,  and  the  women  and  children  out  after  strawberries.  Many  of  these 
were  shot  by  the  Indians  secreted  in  the  bushes  by  the  roadside  as  they  were  fleeing  to  the 
town.  Some  of  the  Indians  were  quite  near  the  town  and  killed  one  man  between  the  big 
mound  and  the  town.  One  French  cart  filled  with  these  poor  people  put  on  the  whip  to  their 
horses;  seven  of  them  were  wounded  as  they  passed  the  ambushed  Indians,  but  they  all  got  in. 
The  attack  lasted  only  that  afternoon.  Cerre  doubts  if  as  many  as  sixty  or  seventy  of  the 
people  were  killed,  but  is  not  certain  about  it. 


Copyright,   1897,  by   Pierre   Chouteau 

FIRST  GOVERNMENT  HOUSE   AT  ST.  LOUIS 
With  flag  flying  from  the  staff  in   front  of  it 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE   NATION  567 

Ducharme  's  party,  with  some  of  'their  long  and  large  bored  muskets,  fired  over  the  river 
and  actually  made  some  of  their  balls  rattle  on  the  roofs  of  the  houses  of  St.  Louis,  but  the 
people  did  not  attempt  to  return  the  fire ;  they  had  to  watch  the  other  nearer  and  more  danger- 
ous foe. 

Louis,  a  negro,  who  afterwards  was  the  property  of  Gabriel  Cerre,  was  among  the  num- 
ber caught  out  of  St.  Louis.  He  was  chased  by  an  Indian  with  gun  and  tomahawk,  who 
rapidly  gained  on  the  negro.  He,  looking  over  his  head  and  seeing  the  Indian  very  close  to 
him,  with  tomahawk  raised,  concluded  there  was  but  one  chance  for  him,  and  that  was  to  fall 
prostrate  upon  the  ground.  He  threw  himself  flat,  and,  as  he  had  hoped,  the  Indian  unable  to 
suddenly  check  his  speed,  stumbled  over  him,  and  in  the  fall  dropped  his  gun;  this  Louis 
quickly  seized  and  before  the  Indian  could  recover  himself  Louis  shot  him  and  brought  in  the 
gun  as  a  trophy  of  victory. 

The  Canadian  archives  preserve  a  version  of  the  attack  on  St.  Louis  by  an 
eye  witness.  This  account  written  down  as  soon  as  the  defeated  expedition 
returned  to  Mackinaw  is  titled  "Information  of  a  William  Brown."  Although 
a  prisoner  of  the  British,  Brown  talked  willingly.  He  owned  up  to  having 
served  as  a  hunter  for  the  British  lieutenant-governor,  Hamilton,  before  Vin- 
cennes  was  taken  by  George  Rogers  Clark  in  1778.  Then  he  volunteered  with 
Clark  to  fight  the  Shawnees  but  deserted  and  went  to  Misere  (Ste.  Genevieve). 
In  March  preceding  the  attack,  Brown  reached  St.  Louis,  or  Pencour  as  his  state- 
ment to  Sinclair  has  it.  Brown  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  British  allies  about 
300  yards  from  the  hastily  constructed  defenses  of  St.  Louis.  This  is  what  he 
told  Sinclair: 

About  the  latter  end  of  March  John  Conn,  a  trader,  went  down  the  Mississippi  with  the 
report  of  an  attack  against  the  Illinois  by  that  route.  Upon  the  arrival  of  Conn,  the  Spaniards 
began  to  fortify  Pencour.  The  report  was  afterwards  confirmed  by  a  French  woman  who 
went  down  the  Mississippi.  The  woman  mentioned  was  the  wife  of  Monsignor  Honroe.  The 
post  at  the  entrance  of  the  Missouri  was  evacuated  and  the.  fort  blown  up,  all  the  outposts 
called  in,  and  the  videttes  of  their  cavalry  (for  all  are  mounted  except  the  garrison)  were 
placed  around  the  village  of  Pencour.  Platform  cannon  with  a  parapet  were  placed  over  a 
stone  house.  An  intrenchment  was  thrown  up  and  scouts  sent  out.  Two  days  before  the  British 
detachment  appeared  before  Pencour,  Colonel  Clark  (George  Eogers  Clark)  and  another  rebel 
colonel,  we  believe  named  Montgomery,  arrived  at  Pencour,  it  was  said,  with  a  design  to  con- 
cert an  attack  upon  Michilimackinac,  but  whether  with  that  design  or  to  repel  the  expected 
attack  by  the  Mississippi  it  was  agreed  that  one  hundred  from  the  west  side  and  two  hundred 
from  the  east  side  should  be  equipped  and  in  readiness  to  march  when  ordered.  We  believe 
Clark  and  Montgomery  to  have  been  in  the  village  of  Cahokia  when  the  Indians  were  beaten  off. 
Colonel  Montgomery,  or  some  rebel  officer,  was  killed  with  a  private  of  the  rebel  troops  who  wore 
a  bayonet  marked  42nd  Eegiment.  They  imagined  that  no  others  were  killed  at  the  Cahokias 
as  they  filed  off  early  to  a  rising  ground  lower  down  the  river  than  the  village,  where  all 
of  the  rebels  were  concealed  in  a  stone  house  and  could  not  be  drawn  out.  Indeed,  few  strata- 
gems were  used,  owing  to  Canadian  treachery. 

In  the  Spanish  intrenchment  numbers  were  killed,  as  the  Indians  occupied  a  ground 
which  commanded  the  greatest  part  of  it  and  made  several  feints  to  enter  it  in  order  to 
draw  the  Spanish  from  such  part  of  the  works  as  afforded  them  cover.  Thirty-three 
scalps  were  taken  on  the  west  side  and  about  twenty-four  prisoners,  blacks  and  white 
people.  Great  numbers  of  cattle  were  killed  on  both  sides  of  the  river.  The  inhabitants 
were  very  much  spared  by  all  of  the  Indians  excepting  the  Winipigoes  and  Scioux.  They 
only  scalped  five  or  six  who  were  not  armed  for  the  defense  of  the  lines. 

This  is  the  story  of  eye  witness  Brown,  as  taken  down  for  the  British 
official  records  of  the  expedition  against  St.  Louis. 


568  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

Acknowledging  Sinclair's  bad  news  and  accepting  his  version  of  the  un- 
successful "attacks  upon  Pencour  and  the  Cahokias"  General  Haldimand  wrote 
from  Quebec  the  loth  of  August,  1780: 

It  is  very  mortifying  that  the  protection  Monsieur  Calve  and  others  have  received 
should  meet  so  perfidious  and  so  ungrateful  return.  The  circumstances  of  his  and  Monsieur 
Ducharme's  conduct,  you  are  best  acquainted  with  and  to  you  I  leave  to  dispose  of  them 
as  they  deserve.  If  you  have  evident  proof  of  their  counteracting  or  retarding  the  opera- 
tions committed  to  their  direction,  or  in  which  they  were  to  assist,  I  would  have  them 
sent  prisoners  to  Montreal. 

"I  am  glad  to  find,"  continued  Haldimand,  "that  although  our  attempts 
proved  unsuccessful,  they  were  attended  by  no  inconsiderable  loss  to  the  enemy." 
The  congratulation  is  over  the  following  which  appears  in  Sinclair's  report: 

The  rebels  lost  an  officer  and  three  men  killed  at  the  Cahokias  and  five  prisoners. 
At  Pencour  sixty-eight  were  killed  and  eighteen  black  and  white  people  made  prisoners, 
among  them  several  good  artificers.  Many  hundreds  of  cattle  were  destroyed  and  forty- 
three  scalps  were  brought  in. 

Thus  St.  Louis  received  a  baptism  of  blood  in  the  war  for  American  inde- 
pendence. Intimations  that  this  British  movement  against  St.  Louis  and  the 
Mississippi  Valley  were  directed  from  London  appear  in  the  correspondence. 
Sinclair  speaks  of  "a  copy  of  My  Lord  George  Germain's  letter"  as  having 
relation  to  the  expedition.  He  says  "the  Winnipigoes  and  the  Scioux  would 
have  stormed  the  Spanish  line  at  St.  Louis  if  the  Sacks  and  the  Outgamies 
under  their  treacherous  leader,  Mons.  Calve,  had  not  fallen  back  so  early." 

Concluding  his  narrative  of  defeat,  Sinclair  adds:  "A  like  disaster  cannot 
happen  next  year,  and  I  can  venture  to  assure  your  excellency  that  one  thousand 
Sioux  without  any  admixture  from  neighboring  tribes  will  be  in  the  field  in 
April  under  Wabasha." 

St.  Louis  did  not  wait  for  Sinclair's  April  campaign.  On  the  second  day 
of  January,  1781,  Captain  Beausoliel,  with  sixty-five  St.  Louisans  and  the  same 
number  of  Indian  allies,  left  St.  Louis  to  strike  a  return  "coup."  Beausoliel 
was  not  the  captain's  real  name.  Eugene  Poure  he  had  been  christened.  But 
he  was  a  bold  man,  a  born  leader,  who  followed  the  dangerous  vocation  of 
operating  a  bateau  between  New  Orleans  and  St.  Louis.  A  man  who  amounted 
to  something  in  those  days,  who  was  admired  by  his  fellow  citizens,  was  likely 
to  be  known  by  a  nickname.  It  came  about  that  Eugene  Poure  as  a  tribute 
to  his  popularity  was  called  Captain  Beausoleil.  The  home  of  the  captain  was 
on  Market  street.  By  reason  of  his  qualities  of  leadership,  Poure  had  been 
made  commander  of  the  militia  company  organized  among  the  men  of  St. 
Louis. 

The  expedition  made  its  way  up  the  Illinois  valley,  encountering  severe 
winter  weather  and  suffering  hardships.  Some  distance  south  of  the  present 
Chicago,  Poure  led  his  command  to  the  eastward,  passed  around  the  head  of 
Lake  Michigan  and  reached  the  British  post  at  St.  Joseph.  The  attack  was  a 
surprise.  The  capture  was  complete.  The  St.  Louis  expedition  took  what  furs 
and  other  property  could  be  transported,  raised  the  Spanish  flag  and  marched 
back  to  St.  Louis,  delivering  the  British  flag  to  Governor  Cruzat.  The  expe- 
dition was  well  managed.  Leaving  St.  Louis,  Poure  carried  goods  with  which 
he  successfully  bought  his  way  through  the  Indian  tribes  encountered.  The 
route  took  the  expedition  near  the  present  city  of  Danville,  where  years  after- 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE    NATION  569 

wards  bullets  of  Spanish  manufacture  were  found  by  American  settlers.  Poure's 
force  turned  northward  near  South  Bend.  The  gifts  made  to  the  Indians  not 
only  secured  a  peaceful  journey,  but  insured  the  surprise  of  St.  Joseph,  which 
was  complete.  The  St.  Louisans  assaulted  the  fort  and  took  the  traders  and 
British  soldiers  prisoners.  They  found  a  considerable  stock  of  furs,  which 
they  divided  with  the  Indians.  The  return  was  made  to  St.  Louis  in  March. 
Sinclair  attempted  no  April  campaign.  The  honors  of  both  defense  in  1780 
and  offense  in  1781  were  with  the  St.  Louisans. 

"I  very  early  saw  that  Louisiana  was  indeed  a  speck  in  our  horizon  which 
was  to  burst  in  a  tornado,"  President  Jefferson  wrote  to  Dr.  Priestly  in  January, 
1804,  after  Lower  Louisiana  had  been  delivered  at  New  Orleans.  This  expres- 
sion is  from  a  letter  by  Mr.  Jefferson  in  the  state  papers  relating  to  the  purchase 
of  Louisiana  Territory  which  were  published  by  congress  in  connection  with 
the  World's  Fair  of  1904.  But  these  state  papers  do  not  make  public  all  that 
was  going  on  during  Mr.  Jefferson's  administration  with  reference  to  Louisiana 
Territory.  Four  years  before  Bonaparte  made  up  his  mind  to  cede,  Jefferson 
sent  a  secret  emissary  to  St.  Louis.  He  desired  to  know  the  political  sentiment 
of  the  people,  and  especially  the  feeling  toward  the  United  States.  The  presi- 
dent foresaw  trouble  if  a  foreign  flag  continued  to  float  much  longer  on  the 
west  bank  of  the  Mississippi.  The  secret  mission  to  St.  Louis  was  part  of  Mr. 
Jefferson's  plan  of  preparation  to  acquire  possession  by  force  if  necessary  when 
the  time  was  ripe.  The  person  selected  for  this  delicate  mission  was  John  Baptiste 
Charles  Lucas.  At  a  later  date  Lucas,  in  1805,  received  from  President  Jeffer- 
son, who  remembered  the  valuable  secret  service  rendered,  the  appointment  of 
commissioner  of  land  claims  and  judge  of  the  territorial  court.  He  came  to 
St.  Louis  in  September,  bringing  his  family  to  make  this  his  home.  But  about 
1801  Judge  Lucas  made  himself  known  to  St.  Louisans  and  to  the  Spanish 
officials  as  Pantreaux.  He  had  a  boat,  two  or  three  boatmen,  a  small  stock  of 
goods.  Ostensibly  he  was  a  trader  from  up  the  Ohio,  exchanging  what  he  had 
brought  from  Pittsburg  for  furs  at  St.  Louis.  In  reality  he  was  distributing 
American  ideas  along  the  Rue  Principale  of  St.  Louis. 

Perhaps  Mr.  Jefferson  could  not  have  found  a  better  man  to  study  the 
conditions  at  St.  Louis  and  other  French  settlements  on  the  Mississippi.  Lucas 
could  do  more  than  observe.  He  was  an  ardent  supporter  of  republican  prin- 
ciples. He  not  only  spoke  the  language  of  the  people  he  visited,  but  he  could 
talk  to  them  of  France.  In  Paris  young  Lucas,  the  law  student,  had  a  friend 
in  the  son  of  the  landlord  at  Passy  where  Benjamin  Franklin  and  Adams  lived 
at  the  time  of  the  American  Revolution.  He  listened  to  the  Americans  and 
he  became  an  American  at  heart.  Le  Roy  de  Chaumont  was  the  son  of  the 
Passy  landlord.  He  caught  the  American  fever  and  decided  to  come  to  the 
United  States,  buy  cattle  and  live  in  western  New  York.  John  B.  C.  Lucas, 
differing  in  political  sentiment  with  his  father,  the  king's  attorney,  of  an  old 
Normandy  family,  came  at  the  same  time.  That  was  in  1784.  Albert  Gallatin 
had  come  out  to  America  four  years  earlier,  just  after  graduating  from  the 
University  of  Geneva. 

Somewhere  the  young  Frenchman  and  the  young  Swiss  began  an  acquaint- 
ance which  developed  into  lifelong  friendship.  There  was  only  three  years 
difference  in  their  ages.  Gallatin  settled  near  Pittsburg.  Six  miles  out  of 


570  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

town  Lucas  bought  a  farm.  He  busied  himself  learning  the  language  of  the 
country.  Gallatin  went  to  the  Pennsylvania  legislature  and  Lucas  followed 
him  into  public  life.  In  1795  Gallatin  was  elected  to  Congress  and  the  same 
year  Lucas  went  to  the  legislature.  At  Washington  Gallatin  won  the  con- 
fidence of  Jefferson  and  became  closely  associated  with  him.  Gallatin  shared 
Jefferson's  interest  in  the  critical  situation  on  the  Mississippi.  Lucas  visited 
Washington  and  made  a  strong  impression  upon  Jefferson.  He  undertook  the 
confidential  journey  to  St.  Louis  and  went  from  here  to  other  places  on  the 
river,  going  as  far  south  as  New  Orleans.  He  made  his  confidential  reports 
to  Mr.  Jefferson.  The  president  developed  his  policy  toward  the  Mississippi 
problem,  utilizing  the  information  Lucas  supplied.  In  1803,  Lucas,  with  all 
of  the  support  the  administration  at  Washington  could  give  him  for  his  valuable 
services  at  St.  Louis  and  along  the  Mississippi,  was  elected  to  Congress  from 
Pennsylvania.  As  soon  as  the  acquisition  of  Louisiana  was  concluded,  Mr. 
Jefferson  selected  Lucas  as  the  representative  of  the  administration  at  St. 
Louis,  making  him  at  the  same  time  commissioner  and  territorial  judge. 

Judge  Lucas  was  not  a  large  man.  As  he  grew  in  years  his  hair  became 
snow  white;  the  fire  remained  in  the  jet  black  eyes.  Judge  Lucas  had  more 
than  the  courage  of  his  convictions.  He  asserted  his  opinions.  He  was  a 
very  positive  man.  He  never  forgave  Thomas  H.  Benton  for  the  death  of 
his  son,  Charles  Lucas.  Long  years  afterwards,  perhaps  a  score,  Judge  Lucas, 
his  daughter,  Mrs.  Anne  Lucas  Hunt,  and  James  H.  Lucas  were  guests  at  a 
Planters  House  ball.  The  judge  saw  Mr.  Benton  some  distance  down  the 
room.  An  effort  was  made  to  prevent  a  meeting.  Judge  Lucas,  with  flashing 
eyes,  made  his  way  through  the  throng  to  Mr.  Benton,  stopped  in  front  of 
him  and  looked  at  him.  Then  turning  to  James  H.  Lucas  he  said  with  delibera- 
tion and  in  tones  loud  enough  for  many  to  hear: 

"It  is  a  consolation,  my  son,  that  whoever  knows  Mister  Senator  Benton, 
knows  him  to  be  a  rascal." 

The  senator  did  not  reply.    A  few  minutes  later  he  left  the  ball  room. 

Aaron  Burr  found  no  encouragement  in  St.  Louis  for  his  southwestern 
empire.  He  came  here  in  September,  1805,  having  retired  a  few  months  before 
from  the  vice  presidency.  General  Wilkinson,  commander  of  the  United  States 
army,  was  acting  as  governor  of  Upper  Louisiana  with  his  residence  at  St. 
Louis.  He  received  Burr  as  his  guest.  To  meet  Burr  the  leading  citizens  of 
St.  Louis  were  invited  to  the  governor's  house.  Wilkinson  was  very  friendly 
at  that  time  with  Burr,  although  a  year  later  he  turned  against  him  and  reported 
to  the  administration  at  Washington  what  he  claimed  were  the  details  of  the 
conspiracy.  The  rebuff  to  Burr  at  St.  Louis  was  prompt  and  convincing.  The 
first  St.  Louisan  invited  to  confer  was  Rufus  Easton.  Burr  had  known  the 
young  Connecticut  lawyer  in  Washington.  He  had  interested  himself  personally 
to  have  Mr.  Easton  appointed  a  judge  of  the  new  territory  and  had  advised 
him  by  letter  to  form  the  acquaintance  of  General  Wilkinson,  when  he  reached 
St.  Louis.  That  was  in  March  of  1805.  Four  months  later,  coming  down  the 
Ohio  river  after  his  visit  to  Blennerhassett,  Burr  wrote  from  Fort  Massac  to 
Easton  of  his  coming.  At  the  conference  in  St.  Louis  he  revealed  enough  of 
the  plot  to  draw  from  Easton  an  emphatic  refusal  to  be  connected  with  it. 
Easton  broke  off  friendly  relations  with  Burr.  Within  a  few  days  after  the 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE    NATION  571 

conference  Easton  wrote  to  President  Jefferson  that  "General  Wilkinson  has 
put  himself  at  the  head  of  a  party  of  a  few  individuals  who  are  hostile  to  the 
best  interests  of  America."  This  was  in  October,  1805.  At  a  still  earlier 
date,  two  months  before  his  appointment  as  judge,  Easton  had  communicated 
to  another  Connecticut  man,  Gideon  Granger,  Jefferson's  postmaster  general, 
his  belief  in  the  existence  of  a  traitorous  project  to  divide  the  Union.  Easton 
had  spent  a  considerable  part  of  1804  at  Vincennes  and  at  St.  Louis.  At  both 
places  there  were  reports  current  of  the  proposed  movement  to  establish  a 
southwestern  empire  to  include  the  Louisiana  Territory  and  Mexico. 

Burr  did  not  remain  long  in  St.  Louis  after  Easton  took  such  a  positive 
stand  against  him.  He  did  not  find  any  encouragement.  Wilkinson,  who  thor- 
oughly enjoyed  ostentation,  had  an  official  barge,  luxuriously  equipped  for 
those  days,  with  twelve  rowers  in  uniform.  Burr  took  the  barge  and  went 
down  the  river  to  Ste.  Genevieve.  Wilkinson  began  to  show  strong  dislike  for 
Easton.  He  circulated  charges  of  official  misconduct.  Easton  went  to  Wash- 
ington  and  had  a  personal  interview  with  Mr.  Jefferson.  Subsequently  he  made 
an  official  report  of  all  he  had  learned  about  Burr's  plot. 

Burr  came  to  St.  Louis  under  the  impression  that  he  would  find  the  French 
habitants  ready  to  throw  off  United  States  authority.  He  met  with  no  en- 
couragement of  that  impression.  On  the  contrary  he  quickly  discovered  that 
both  the  French  residents  and  the  American  new  comers  were  loyal  to  the 
United  States  government.  Burr  went  away  from  St.  Louis  to  spread  his 
plans  and  to  seek  supporters  along  the  Ohio  and  the  lower  Mississippi.  From 
St.  Louis,  the  authorities  at  Washington  received  from  time  to  time  the  warning 
of  Burr's  movements.  From  St.  Louis  was  sent  the  letter  giving  the  informa- 
tion that  Burr  expected  to  have  Ohio,  Indiana,  Kentucky,  Tennessee  and  Or- 
leans Territory  declare  themselves  on  the  I5th  of  November,  1806,  independent 
of  the  United  States.  St.  Louis  and  Louisiana  territory,  of  which  it  was  the 
capital,  had  rejected  Burr's  overtures  and  were  not  in  the  combination.  On 
this  letter  from  St.  Louis,  United  States  officials  at  New  Orleans  proceeded 
to  take  care  of  Burr.  They  arrested  his  agents.  Burr  was  summoned  before 
a  grand  jury.  The  President  issued  a  proclamation.  The  boats  on  the  Ohio 
which  had  been  prepared  for  the  expedition  were  seized.  The  movement 
collapsed. 

Missouri  in  1824 — and  that  meant  St.  Louis  in  those  days — made  an 
astonishing  record.  The  single  member  of  the  House  of  Representatives  from 
the  state  was  John  Scott.  He  had  been  delegate  from  the  Missouri  Territory. 
He  had  been  elected  and  reelected  to  Congress.  In  the  presidential  campaign 
of  that  year  the  candidates  were  Andrew  Jackson,  John  Quincy  Adams,  Henry 
Clay  and  Crawford.  Sentiment  in  Missouri  was  divided  between  Clay  and 
Jackson.  Clay  carried  the  state.  Clay  electors  were  chosen.  But  when  the 
electoral  college  votes  were  cast,  the  result  was  Jackson  87 ;  Adams  83 ;  Clay  41  ; 
Crawford  39.  No  one  having  received  a  majority  the  election  of  President 
was  thrown  into  the  House  of  Representatives.  There  the  voting  was  by  states. 
The  ballot,  if  the  states  voted  as  the  majorities  or  pluralities  of  the  popular 
election  had  been,  would  have  given  Adams  12;  Jackson  7;  Crawford  4;  and 
Clay  i.  The  single  representative  from  Missouri  cast  the  vote  of  that  state 
for  Adams,  electing  him  President  on  the  first  ballot.  Scott  had  been  elected 


572  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

not  by  a  majority,  but  by  a  plurality.  That  John  Scott  cast  the  vote  of  Missouri 
for  Adams  was  the  more  remarkable  in  view  of  his  place  of  nativity.  He  was 
a  Virginian  by  birth.  Shortly  after  graduating  from  Princeton  he  came  west 
in  1804.  His  success  in  politics  had  been  notable.  Beginning  as  a  delegate 
from  the  territory,  he  was  the  sole  representative  of  Missouri  in  the  popular 
branch  of  Congress  up  to  1826.  The  vote  for  Adams  concluded  Scott's  political 
career.  He  lived  to  be  eighty  years  old,  in  1861,  but  he  never  held  office  again. 

A  few  days  before  Martin  Van  Buren  was  inaugurated  in  1837,  he  talked 
to  Senator  Benton  about  the  trouble  the  Seminoles  were  giving  in  Florida. 
Missouri's  Indian  problems  had  been  settled  so  successfully  and  so  easily  that 
public  men  at  Washington  had  often  marveled.  The  President-elect  sought 
an  opinion  from  the  senator  as  to  what  should  be  done  with  the  Florida  situa- 
tion which  was  grave. 

"If  the  Seminoles  had  Missourians  to  deal  with  their  stay  would  be  short 
in  Florida,"  the  senator  said. 

Mr.  Van  Buren  asked  Mr.  Benton  if  he  thought  Missourians  could  do  better 
in  Florida  than  the  regular  army  had  done. 

The  senator  said  he  certainly  did  think  so,  and  told  why.  There  the  con- 
versation ended.  After  the  inauguration  bustle  had  passed  by  President  Van 
Buren  one  day  asked  Senator  Benton  if  it  was  practicable  to  get  Missourians 
to  go  to  Florida  and  make  a  campaign  against  the  Seminoles. 

"The  Missourians  will  go  wherever  their  services  are  needed,"  was  Senator 
Benton's  reply. 

Thereupon  the  United  States  Government  did  the  extraordinary  thing  of 
calling  upon  the  governor  of  Missouri  for  two  regiments  of  mounted  men  to 
go  to  Florida  and  fight  the  Seminoles.  The  governor  issued  the  call,  and  the 
rough  riders  and  scouts  of  the  Missouri  valley  headed  by  General  Richard 
Gentry,  Colonel  John  W.  Price  and  Major  William  H.  Hughes,  twelve  or  four- 
teen hundred  strong,  came  marching  into  St.  Louis.  They  camped  at  Jefferson 
Barracks.  Benton  made  a  speech.  Men  and  horses  required  several  steamboats 
for  transportation.  They  were  taken  to  New  Orleans,  and  thence  to  Tampa 
Bay.  On  the  gulf  a  storm  drove  some  of  the  vessels  aground.  Many  of  the 
horses  were  lost.  The  Missourians  got  ashore,  and  under  the  direction  of 
General  Zachary  Taylor  marched  into  the  Everglades.  At  Okee-cho-bee  lake 
they  found  the  whole  body  of  Seminoles  under  Sam  Jones,  Tiger  Tail,  Alli- 
gator and  Mycanopee.  The  Missourians  fought  on  foot.  They  depended  upon 
the  tactics  and  knowledge  of  Indian  character  which  had  never  failed  them. 
Gentry,  shot  through  the  body,  and  fatally  wounded,  kept  his  feet  for  an  hour 
directing  the  movements  of  his  men.  The  victory  over  the  Seminoles  was 
complete,  but  the  ranks  of  the  Missourians  were  decimated.  Early  in  the 
following  year,  the  object  of  the  campaign  having  been  accomplished,  the  Mis- 
sourians returned  to  St.  Louis. 

St.  Louis  had  the  distinction  of  taking  the  lead  in  the  movement  to  nomi- 
nate William  Henry  Harrison.  Long  before  the  nominating  convention  was 
held,  the  St.  Louis  Bulletin  came  out  for  Harrison.  It  was  the  only  metro- 
politan paper  in  the  country  taking  this  position.  Nearly  all  of  the  Whig  party 
papers  favored  Henry  Clay.  What  made  the  Bulletin  more  conspicuous  in 
the  pre-convention  campaign  was  the  fact  that  the  writer  of  the  vigorous  edi- 


GABRIEL  CERRE 


CHARLES   GRATIOT 


THOMAS  H.  BENTOX  FRANCIS    P.    BLAIR 

ST.  LOUISANS  IN  THE  LIFE  OF  THE  NATION 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE   NATION  573 

torials,  which  attracted  attention  the  country  over,  was  a  Kentuckian — Samuel 
Bullitt  Churchill,  born  and  brought  up  near  Louisville.  Churchill  was  a  young 
man  who  had  come  to  St.  Louis  to  practice  law  and  had  taken  up  journalism. 
He  was  a  personal  friend  and  admirer  of  Henry  Clay  but  declared  for  Harri- 
son as  the  man  who  could  win  in  1840.  Churchill  was  appointed  postmaster 
in  St.  Louis  and  went  to  the  legislature.  He  was  a  conspicuous  figure  in  the 
politics  of  St.  Louis  for  twenty  years.  In  1861  he  opposed  secession  but  held 
to  the  belief  of  Frost  and  others  that  the  border  states  should  preserve 
neutrality  between  the  north  and  south  and  try  to  avert  war.  When  the  war 
came  Churchill  returned  to  Kentucky  to  live. 

What  was  known  as  "the  Whig  vigilance  committee"  had  much  to  do  with 
the  bringing  about  of  the  nomination  of  William  Henry  Harrison  for  President. 
The  St.  Louis  member  of  that  committee  was  John  Baptiste  Sarpy.  His  home, 
occupying  a  quarter  of  the  block  at  Sixth  and  Olive  streets,  was  the  gathering 
place  when  Whig  leaders  came  to  St.  Louis. 

Richard  Smith  Elliott,  of  St.  Louis,  while  the  editor  of  a  Harrisburg 
paper,  gave  the  log  cabin  and  hard  cider  campaign  of  the  Whigs  its  winning 
start  in  1840.  A  Van  Buren  paper  in  Baltimore  printed  this  about  William 
Henry  Harrison: 

Give  him  a  barrel  of  hard  cider  and  a  pension  of  $2,000  a  year,  and,  our  word  for  it, 
he  will  sit  the  remainder  of  his  days  in  a  log  cabin  by  the  side  of  a  ''sea  coal"  fire  and 
study  moral  philosophy. 

Elliott  made  a  sketch  of  a  log  cabin  with  a  coonskin  tacked  on  the  side, 
a  woodpile  with  the  ax  stuck  in  a  log  and  the  usual  familiar  accessories.  He 
employed  a  painter  to  transfer  secretly  the  sketch  to  a  transparency.  On  the 
2Oth  of  January  the  Whigs  ratified  the  nomination  of  Harrison  which  had  been 
made  in  the  preceding  month.  The  transparency  was  carried  into  the  mass 
meeting.  It  was  received  with  unbounded  enthusiasm.  Harrison's  log  cabin 
became  the  emblem  of  the  campaign.  The  homely  idea  swept  across  the 
country.  In  St.  Louis  the  Whigs  built  a  log  cabin  for  Harrison  headquarters 
and  maintained  it  to  election  day.  Log  cabins  on  wheels  were  hauled  in  the 
processions.  It  was  a  singing  campaign.  St.  Louis  Whigs  roared  to  the  tune 
of  Highland  Laddie: 

Oh  where,  tell  me  where,  was  your  Buckeye  cabin  made? 
Oh  where,  tell   me   where,  was  your   Buckeye   cabin  made? 
'Twas  built  among  the  merry  boys  who  wield  the  plow  and  spade, 
Where  the  log  cabins  stand  in  the  bonnie  Buckeye  shade. 

A  St.  Louisan  was  a  composer  of  Harrison  campaign  songs.  He  was 
Alexis  Mudd,  member  of  one  of  the  best  known  families  of  the  city.  Mr. 
Mudd  was  a  merchant  at  the  time  he  wrote  campaign  songs.  His  best  effort 
was  the  "Log  Cabin  Raising,"  which  was  immensely  popular.  At  the  out- 
break of  the  war,  Alexis  Mudd  became  major  of  "the  Lyon  regiment,"  as  the 
Nineteenth  Missouri  was  called. 

A  favorite  song  in  St.  Louis  during  the  Harrison  campaign  was  "Old 
Tippecanoe,"  which  was  sung  to  the  tune  of  "Rosin  the  Bow,"  a  rollicking  air 
of  the  frontier: 


574  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

They  called  us  rag  barons  and  dandies, 
And  only  a  ruffled  shirt  crew; 
But  they  see  now  the  bone  and  the  sinew, 
All   go   for   Old    Tippecanoe. 

CHORUS. 

All  go   for   Old   Tippecanoe! 

All  go   for   Old   Tippecanoe! 

But  they  see  now  the  bone  and  the  sinew. 

All   go   for    Old   Tippecanoe. 

The  enthusiasm  with  which  St.  Louisans  went  into  the  Mexican  war  was 
irresistible.  It  ignored  army  orders.  After  the  crack  Legion  had  marched 
down  Olive  street  to  take  the  big  steamer  Convoy  for  New  Orleans,  Lucas 
Market  place  became  the  scene  of  more  recruiting  and  mobilizing.  Benton 
wrote  from  Washington  that  the  "Army  of  the  West"  was  to  be  organized 
to  march  overland  to  New  Mexico.  Then  came  the  order  to  Stephan  Watts 
Kearny  to  get  together  at  Leavenworth  three  hundred  United  States  dragoons 
and  one  thousand  mounted  volunteers,  the  rough  riders  of  1846.  St.  Louis  was 
not  asked  to  furnish  any  part  of  the  Army  of  the  West.  Thomas  B.  Hudson 
and  Richard  S.  Elliott,  two  young  lawyers,  began  to  organize  a  company  of 
one  hundred  mounted  men.  They  called  them  the  Laclede  Rangers.  As  soon 
as  the  ranks  were  full  the  Rangers  were  sworn  in  as  a  state  organization, 
uniformed  and  mounted.  Samuel  Treat,  Charles  Keemle,  Joseph  M.  Field 
and  Peter  W.  Johnson  took  the  officers  down  to  "the  Empire,"  on  Third  and 
Pine  streets  and  presented  to  them  swords.  No  commissions  had  come,  but 
the  Laclede  Rangers  marched  on  board  the  Pride  of  the  West  and  started  up 
the  Missouri  to  join  Kearny.  As  the  boat  passed  Jefferson  City,  the  state 
commissions  for  the  officers  were  sent  on  board.  When  the  St.  Louisans 
reached  Leavenworth,  there  was  no  provision  for  their  reception.  General 
Kearny  ordered  that  quarters  be  provided  and  that  the  command  be  sworn 
in  at  daylight.  But  no  rations  were  issued.  There  was  grumbling  until  Captain 
Hudson  made  a  speech.  He  talked  of  the  patriotism  which  had  prompted  the 
recruiting,  of  the  rapid  organization,  of  the  trip  up  the  river,  of  the  acceptance 
of  the  company  by  General  Kearny  as  a  part  of  the  "Army  of  the  West"  and 
he  concluded: 

Yes,  we  shall  knock  at  the  gates  of  Santa  Fe,  as  Ethan  Allen  knocked  at  the  gates 
of  Ticonderoga,  and  to  the  question  "Who  is  there?"  we  shall  reply,  "Open  these  gates  in 
the  name  of  the  great  Jehovah  and  the  Laclede  Bangers !  ' '  But  suppose  the  fellows  inside 
should  call  out,  ' '  Are  you  the  same  Laclede  Bangers  who  went  whining  around  Fort 
Leavenworth  in  search  of  a  supper  ? ' ' 

The  Rangers  gave  the  captain  a  mighty  shout,  rolled  in  their  blankets  and 
went  to  sleep  supperless. 

The  Rangers  from  St.  Louis  made  such  an  impression  on  General  Kearny 
that  he  made  them  a  part  of  the  regiment  of  dragoons.  They  were  turned 
over  to  a  young  lieutenant  to  be  drilled  and  made  fit  for  regular  troopers, 
graduates  of  the  "school  of  the  soldier."  This  lieutenant  was  Andrew  Jackson 
Smith,  who  became  a  major  general  in  the  Civil  war, — "Old  A.  J." — settled 
in  St.  Louis  and  held  office  in  the  city  government  for  some  years. 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE   NATION  575 

Colonel  Robert  Campbell's  activities  did  not  stop  with  the  shipping  of  the 
Laclede  Rangers  to  Kearny.  The  recruiting  and  the  drilling  on  the  open 
country  around  Lucas  Market,  as  Twelfth  street  was  to  be  known  for  half  a 
century,  went  on.  There  was  no  market.  Mr.  Lucas  had  built  the  long  narrow 
brick  structure  down  the  center  of  the  wide  space,  but  the  city's  growth  had 
not  reached  Twelfth  street.  The  country  was  open  all  around  the  market  house, 
except  for  a  row  of  dwellings  in  course  of  construction  on  Olive  street. 
St.  Louis  had  sent  her  old  and  well  drilled  militia,  the  Legion  and  her  Laclede 
Rangers.  The  city  now  offered  artillery.  Two  companies,  each  one  hundred 
strong,  the  first  captained  by  Richard  H.  Weightman,  and  the  second  by  Wal- 
demar  Fischer,  were  accepted,  with  Meriwether  Lewis  Clarke  as  major.  The 
artillerymen  were  made  ready  by  the  tireless  Robert  Campbell  and  sent  up  to 
join  Kearny.  Thus  it  came  about  that  the  city  was  represented  by  three 
hundred  patriots  in  the  famous  marching  and  fighting  of  the  Army  of  the 
West. 

From  Leavenworth  the  Laclede  Rangers  and  St.  Louis  artillerymen  marched 
to  Sante  Fe,  thence  to  El  Paso,  to  Chihuahua,  to  Saltillo  and  to  Matamoras. 
They  went  by  river  from  St.  Louis  to  Leavenworth.  They  returned  from 
Matamoras  to  St.  Louis  by  the  gulf  and  the  Mississippi.  Let  the  map  be  viewed 
and  the  march  of  that  little  army  be  traced!  Succeeding  generations  may  well 
be  proud  of  the  prowess  of  the  St.  Louisans  who  followed  Mitchell  and  Clarke 
and  Hudson  in  1846  and  1847. 

St.  Louisans  were  conspicuous  individually  as  well  as  for  numbers  in  the 
"Army  of  the  West."  Henry  S.  Turner  utilized  his  early  army  experience  in 
the  capacity  of  adjutant  to  the  commander,  Kearny.  Francis  P.  Blair,  then 
a  young  lawyer,  sent  west  by  his  doctor  for  the  benefit  of  the  mountain  air, 
was  a  scout,  prowling  miles  in  advance  of  the  column  to  report  signs  of  Mexi- 
cans or  Indians.  William  Bent  shared  in  this  most  dangerous  duty.  As  the 
army  reached  the  Raton  mountains,  Captain  Waldemar  Fischer,  the  St.  Louis 
artilleryman,  climbed  the  peak,  to  which  the  government  gave  his  name. 
Fischer's  peak,  it  is  on  the  maps. 

The  march  across  the  plains  to  Sante  Fe  was  only  the  beginning  of  the 
wonderful  deeds  of  the  St.  Louisans  and  their  fellow  Missourians.    The  Army 
of  the  West  proceeded  to  occupy  a  domain  that  is  now  two  states  and  two 
territories.     Kearny,  with  a  small  force,  went  on  to  make  sure  of  California. 
Colonel  D.  D.  Mitchell,  the  former  fur  trader  and  Indian  agent  of  St.  Louis, 
was  ordered  to  take  a  picked  force  of  one  hundred  men  and  "open  communica- 
tion with  Chihuahua,  hundreds  of  miles  to  the  southward  in  the  enemy's  coun- 
try across  the  Rio  Grande."     Did  he  hesitate?     Not  an  hour.     With  Mitchell 
went  Captain  Hudson,  Lieutenant  LeBeaume  and  most  of  the  Laclede  Rangers. 
Major  Meriwether  Lewis  Clarke,  Captain  Richard  H.  Weightman,  Clay  Taylor 
and  one  company  of  the  St.  Louis  Artillery  had  gone  with  Doniphan  to  the 
Navajo  country.     Mitchell  and  Doniphan  joined   forces  just  above  El   Paso. 
They  had  an  army  of  900  men,  St.  Louis  contributing  about  one-third  of  the 
force.     They  fought  the  battle  of  Brazito,  captured  a  cannon  and  marched  on. 
At  Sacramento,  just  above  Chihuahua,  an  army  of  Mexicans  got  in  the  way, 
occupying  a  strong  position,   outnumbering  the   invaders   five   to   one.     What 


ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

•^  i 

did  those  St.  Louis  .artillerymen  do  but,  ignoring  all  of  the  rules  and  science 
of  warfare,  run  their  howitzers  up  within  less  than  200  feet  of  the  Mexican 
earthworks  and  fire  away  at  pistol  shot  range!  Mitchell  and  Hudson  charged 
at  the  head  of  the  Laclede  Rangers.  The  enemy  fled,  leaving  seventeen  cannons, 
some  of  which  were  brought  to  St.  Louis.  The  invaders  entered  Chihuahua 
to  discover  that  General  Wool,  whom  they  had  expected  to  find  there,  was 
700  or  800  miles  away.  Headed  by  Mitchell  with  his  100  picked  St.  Louisans; 
the  army  of  less  than  900  marched  over  the  tableland  of  Mexico  toward  Saltillo, 
found  General  Taylor  and  asked  for  more  fighting. 

In  the  conquered  province  of  New  Mexico  civil  government  was  organized. 
Charles  Bent,  of  the  St.  Louis  family  which  lived  on  a  river  front  country  estate 
just  above  the  arsenal,  was  governor.  Stephan  Lee,  of  St.  Louis,  the  brother 
of  General  Elliott  Lee,  was  made  sheriff;  James  White  Leal,  of  St.  Louis,  a 
Laclede  Ranger,  was  made  prosecuting  attorney.  The  Pueblo  Indians  at  Taos 
rose  in  revolt  and  killed  these  three  officials.  Retribution  was  swift. 

In  a  fight  with  the  Indians,  John  Eldridge  and  Martin  Wash  of  the  Laclede 
Rangers  were  compelled  to  use  one  horse.  A  shot  struck  Eldridge  in  the  corner 
of  the  eye,  went  into  Wash's  cheek  and  came  out  of  his  neck.  When  their 
commanding  officer  came  up  these  St.  Louis  boys  were  still  fighting.  Wash, 
who  was  spitting  blood  said: 

''Lieutenant,  I  be  hanged  if  I  don't  think  I'm  shot  somehow." 

That  was  the  kind  of  nerve  the  Laclede  Rangers  carried  with  them. 

When  time  dragged  for  the  garrison  in  the  ancient  city,  the  detachment  of 
the  Laclede  Rangers  obtained  the  use  of  a  hall  and  gave  theatrical  entertain- 
ments. Bernard  McSorley,  who  came  back  to  St.  Louis  to  become  a  builder 
of  sewers  and  a  power  in  local  politics,  was  the  manager  and  the  star.  When 
the  St.  Louisans  put  on  Pizarro  in  Peru,  McSorley  was  Pizarro.  Edward  W. 
Shands  played  Elvira.  Another  Ranger,  William  Jamieson,  was  Cora.  James 
White  Leal  of  the  Rangers  was  the  leader  of  the  minstrel  part  of  the  perform- 
ance which  followed  the  tragedy. 

Kearny's  proclamation  annexing  New  Mexico  to  the  United  States  reached 
St.  Louis  on  the  28th  of  September,  1846.  It  declared  "the  intention  to  hold 
this  department  (New  Mexico),  with  its  original  boundaries  on  both  sides  of 
the  Del  Norte  as  a  part  of  the  United  States  and  under  the  name  of  the  Terri- 
tory of  New  Mexico. 

There  was  considerable  excitement  in  St.  Louis  over  this  wholesale  acquisi- 
tion of  territory.  The  Missouri  Republican  said: 

For  a  strict  constructionist  of  the  constitution,  the  President  seems  to  us  a  gentle- 
man of  about  as  easy  manners  as  any  official  we  have  ever  met  with,  even  in  these  days  of 
a  "progressive  locofocoism! " 

The  Rangers  and  other  St.  Louisans  who  had  been  left  to  hold  New 
Mexico  while  the  other  bodies  pushed  west  to  California  and  south  to  the 
heart  of  Mexico  marched  back  across  the  plains  when  the  war  was  over.  They 
sang: 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE    NATION  577 

SOLO. 

Listen  to  me!      Listen  to  me! 
What  do  you  want  to  see,  to  seel 

CHOEUS. 

A  woman  under  a  bonnet, 

A  woman  under  a  bonnet, 

That's  what  we  want  to  see,  to  see! 

That's  what  we  want  to  see! 

One  St.  Louisan  in  the  Army  of  the  West  was  destined  to  be  a  conspicuous 
figure  in  the  country  traversed.  William  Gilpin,  Pennsylvanian  by  birth,  Quaker 
by  inherited  creed,  was  a  major.  He  saw  the  plains  and  the  mountains  with 
the  eyes  of  a  prophet.  He  told  his  comrades  in  arms  they  were  passing  through 
"a  great  grazing  region;"  that  it  would  become  "the  land  of  beef  and  wool." 
He  pointed  to  the  Rockies,  called  them  "the  domes  of  the  continent"  and  pre- 
dicted discoveries  of  precious  metals  in  them.  There  was  loud  amusement 
over  the  major's  predictions.  But  the  territory  of  Colorado  was  created,  be- 
coming in  1876  the  Centennial  state.  Gilpin  was  the  first  governor  of  Colorado. 

On  the  i8th  of  May,  1847,  tne  St.  Louis  Daily  New  Era  put  up  the  name 
of  Zachary  Taylor  for  President  "subject  to  the  decision  of  the  people  in 
1848."  In  1848  St.  Louis  inaugurated  an  active  campaign  which  led  to  the 
election  of  Zachary  Taylor.  Before  the  rest  of  the  country  had  awakened  fairly 
to  the  suggestion,  almost  before  General  Taylor  thought  of  himself  as  a  can- 
didate, St.  Louis  was  holding  mass  meetings  and  declaring  for  old  "Rough  and 
Ready." 

Dred  Scott  and  his  family  were  emancipated  in  St.  Louis  but  not  until 
the  law  of  the  land  had  been  exhausted  for  them.  St.  Louis  lawyers  par- 
ticipated without  compensation  in  the  proceedings.  The  decision  of  the  United 
States  supreme  court  gave  great  impetus  to  the  anti-slavery  movement.  Sur- 
geon Emerson  of  the  United  States  army,  stationed  at  St.  Louis,  owned  Dred 
Scott  and  took  him  with  him  when  he  was  transferred  first  to  Rock  Island 
and  later  to  Fort  Snelling.  Children  were  born.  When  Emerson  came  back 
to  St.  Louis,  Dred  Scott  sued  for  freedom  of  his  family  on  the  ground  that 
they  had  been  living  in  a  part  of  the  United  States  where  slavery  was  pro- 
hibited. The  St.  Louis  circuit  court  sustained  this  view  but  the  state  supreme 
court  reversed  it.  Then  Dred  Scott's  family  was  sold  to  John  F.  A.  Sanford, 
whose  residence  at  the  time  was  in  New  York.  This  gave  the  opportunity  to 
try  the  case  in  the  United  States  courts.  The  United  States  circuit  court  at 
St.  Louis  decided  against  Dred  Scott.  The  case  went  to  the  United  States 
supreme  court  and  Chief  Justice  Roger  B.  Taney  rendered  the  opinion  that 
slavery  was  not  prohibited  north  of  latitude  36  degrees  and  30  minutes,  as 
Congress  had  declared,  because  the  act  was  in  violation  of  the  constitution. 
Chief  Justice  Taney  defined  slavery  as  the  law,  made  so  by  the  constitution 
at  the  time  of  its  adoption.  Only  a  constitutional  amendment  could  abolish 
slavery. 

No  other  community,  north  or  south,  approached  St.  Louis  in  the  propor- 
tion of  citizenship  under  arms  for  the  Civil  war.  When  President  Lincoln,  on 
the  1 5th  of  April,  issued  his  first  call  for  75,000  men,  St.  Louis  had  organized 
H-VOL.  n. 


578  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

ready  to  be  mustered  in  five  regiments  of  5,500  men  under  Colonels  Blair, 
Boernstein,  Sigel,  Schuttner  and  Salomon.  Five  more  regiments  were  organ- 
ized and  armed  so  that  the  morning  report  of  June  I  showed  10,730  St.  Louisans 
under  arms  for  the  Union.  The  most  of  these  troops  were  sworn  in  for  three 
months  and  then  enlisted  for  three  years  or  the  war.  The  truth  was  that 
the  Union  men  of  St.  Louis  began  organizing  into  companies  early  in  January. 
Rifles  and  muskets  were  bought  with  money  subscribed  by  citizens.  A  regi- 
ment was  armed  secretly  and  was  drilling  on  sawdust  covered  floors.  The 
sum  of  $20,000  was  raised  privately  toward  equipping  the  first  four  regiments. 
Contributions  came  from  New  York,  Boston,  Hartford,  Providence  and  other 
eastern  cities.  A  Union  army  was  ready  in  St.  Louis  weeks  before  the  firing 
on  Sumter. 

The  intensity  of  Union  sentiment  was  shown  in  the  action  of  a  great 
mass  meeting  which  John  Peckham  called  to  order  at  the  court  house  on  the 
25th  of  July,  1862.  The  crowd  filled  the  rotunda,  and  the  galleries  and  over- 
flowed into  Fourth  street.  The  resolutions  declared  "that  the  preservation  of 
the  Union  is  to  St.  Louis  an  interest  greater  than  all  other  interests,  and  that  we 
will,  regardless  of  all  other  interests,  contribute  in  men  and  means  the  last 
man  and  the  last  dollar  of  which  our  city  is  possessed,  if  necessary,  to  reinforce 
our  armies." 

Up  to  December  31,  1863,  the  St.  Louis  volunteers  who  entered  the  service 
for  three  years  or  the  war  numbered  15,310.  Those  who  came  from  outside 
of  St.  Louis  county  and  enlisted  here  are  not  included.  St.  Louisans  who 
enlisted  in  organizations  elsewhere  are  not  included.  The  15,310  St.  Louisaris 
enlisted  in  forty-three  Missouri  regiments  which  were  organized  in  St.  Louis, 
in  1861,  1862  and  1863.  They  were  United  States  volunteers.  In  addition 
were  the  state  militia  organizations  raised  in  St.  Louis.  A  full  regiment  of 
these  St.  Louis  Militia  men  under  Colonel  John  B.  Gray  guarded  the  military 
prisons,  protected  bridges  and  performed  other  duties  in  and  about  St.  Louis. 
The  Sappers  and  Miners  Home  Guards  of  St.  Louis,  of  which  J.  D.  Voerster 
was  the  commander,  built  fortifications.  Captain  Henry  Nagel  raised  and 
commanded  the  Carondelet  Home  Guards.  Another  military  organization  of 
St.  Louis  was  the  First  Regiment  of  Enrolled  Missouri  Militia,  with  William 
P.  Fenn  as  colonel.  There  was  also  the  St.  Louis  County  Battalion  of  enrolled 
militia,  in  which  the  Henleys,  the  Aubuchons,  the  Castellos  and  representatives 
of  scores  of  the  pioneer  families  were  enlisted.  The  St.  Louis  police  were  organ- 
ized in  military  form  and  armed  with  guns,  with  J.  E.  D.  Couzins  as  major 
There  were  the  Old  Guard,  of  which  N*  H.  Clark  was  captain;  James  Richard- 
son and  A.  G.  Edwards,  lieutenants ;  the  Independent  Cavalry  Company,  with 
Frederick  Walters  as  captain;  the  Corps  of  Detectives,  with  George  J.  Deagle. 
the  theatrical  man,  as  captain.  A  full  regiment  was  recruited  under  the  patron- 
age of  the  Merchants  Exchange  and  was  called  the  "Merchants'  Regiment." 
Clinton  B.  Fisk,  secretary  of  the  exchange,  was  the  first  colonel.  This  was 
the  first  regiment  mustered  into  service  under  the  President's  call  of  1862, 
It  was  recruited  by  the  business  men  of  St.  Louis  in  a  whirlwind  of  patriotic 
enthusiasm.  When  Colonel  Fisk  was  made  a  brigadier,  William  A.  Pile  became 
the  colonel. 


Copyright,    1897,   by   Pierre   Chouteau 


TOWN  HOUSE  OF  CHARLES  GRATIOT 

It  was  at  the  corner  of  Main  and  Chestnut  streets 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF   THE    NATION  579 

In  1864  St.  Louis  went  on  raising  more  regiments  as  if  the  army  sent  into 
the  field  was  not  the  city's  full  quota.  The  Fortieth  Infantry,  Missouri  Volun- 
teers, was  made  up  of  St.  Louisans.  Two  companies  were  recruited  largely 
from  printers  and  newspaper  employes.  George  W.  Gilson  was  captain  of  one 
of  them.  Philip  F.  Coghlan  was  lieutenant  of  the  other.  Samuel  A.  Holmes 
was  colonel.  Truman  A.  Post,  son  of  Rev.  Dr.  Post  was  the  regimental  ad- 
jutant. A  second  regiment,  the  Forty-first,  was  recruited  at  the  same  time, 
with  Joseph  Weidemeyer  as  colonel.  Henry  J.  Bischoff  was  one  of  the  captains. 

While  many  thousands  of  St.  Louisans  went  out  as  United  States  volun- 
teers, other  thousands  organized,  drilled  and  were  armed  as  Enrolled  Missouri 
Militia  for  defense  of  the  city  and  for  emergency  duty.  There  was  a  period 
in  1864  when  all  St.  Louis  business  houses  closed  at  3  p.  m.  for  the  daily  militia 
drills.  The  test  of  this  thorough  organization  came  in  September  of  that  year. 
Price  invaded  Missouri  and  marched  toward  St.  Louis.  The  militia  mobilized 
in  three  brigades  and  went  into  camp  at  Carondelet,  and  at  the  head  of  Olive 
street.  A  small  detachment  of  Confederate  cavalry  captured  the  postoffice. 
at  Cheltenham,  now  a  part  of  St.  Louis,  but  then  a  suburb  four  miles  out. 
The  main  army  changed  its  course  and  moved  northwestward  to  Jefferson 
City.  The  eight  St.  Louis  regiments  of  enrolled  militia  which  turned  out  for 
this  expected  coming  of  Price's  army  numbered  about  6,000  men.  There  were 
under  arms  in  St.  Louis  15,000  men.  These  militia  regiments  were  officered 
by  the  most  prominent  citizens.  Colonel  John  Knapp  commanded  the  Eighth 
Regiment,  but  when  the  three  brigades  were  called  into  service  he  became  chief 
of  staff  to  General  Pike,  commanding  the  division  of  enrolled  militia.  Ex- 
Mayor  John  M.  Krum  was  colonel  of  the  Ninth;  George  E.  Leighton,  of  the 
Seventh;  Tony  Niederweisser,  of  the  Sixth;  C.  D.  Wolff,  of  the  Fourth;  M.  W. 
Warne,  of  the  Sixteenth ;  Charles  L.  Tucker,  of  the  Seventeenth.  Among  the 
regimental  officers  were  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  Grif.  Prather,  Surgeon  Leopold 
Meyer,  Lieutenant-Colonel  A.  D.  Sloan,  Major  Henry  Senter,  Adjutant  Eben 
Richards,  Jr.,  Major  William  L.  Catherwood,  Quartermaster  Charles  C. 
Whittlesey,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Oscar  F.  Lowe,  Major  O.  B.  Filley,  Adjutant 
William  C.  Wilson,  Quartermasters  George  P.  Plant  and  Chester  H.  Krum. 
Some  of  the  captains  in  this  St.  Louis  army  of  defense  of  the  city  were  George 
H.  Morgan,  William  B.  Pratt,  E.  P.  Rice,  George  Knapp,  Daniel  G.  Taylor, 
Henry  Cleveland,  Edward  Morrison,  Daniel  M.  Grissom,  William  McKee, 
Hugh  McDermott,  William  H.  Crawford,  William  H.  Stone,  Gerard  B.  Allen, 
Louis  Espenschied.  Among  the  lieutenants  were  William  A.  Northrop,  Rich- 
ard D.  Compton,  J.  C.  Dubuque,  James  Smith,  James  V.  Fisher,  B.  D.  Killian, 
Edward  Byrne. 

The  enrolled  militia  of  St.  Louis  were  in  the  field  several  weeks  until 
all  apprehension  of  attack  by  the  Confederates  passed  away.  The  Second  and 
Third  brigades  broke  camp  at  the  head  of  Olive  street  and  marched  out  as 
far  as  Laclede  station  on  the  Pacific  railroad  on  the  ist  of  October.  That  was 
two  days  after  the  Confederate  raid  on  Cheltenham. 

St.  Louisans  participated  in  still  another  form  of  military  organization. 
Besides  the  eight  or  ten  regiments  of  enrolled  militia  there  were  the  "exempts 
from  the  military  service  capable  of  defending  their  homes."  As  the  Con- 
federates approached  the  city  the  "exempts"  were  called  upon  to  organize  under 


580  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

the  direction  of  the  mayor  and  they  did  so.  While  the  enrolled  militia  went 
to  camp  the  exempts  bore  arms  and  performed  duty  in  the  city.  They  were 
commanded  by  Colonel  B.  Gratz  Brown. 

The  number  of  St.  Louisans  who  bore  arms  for  the  Union  is  a  matter 
of  official  record.  How  many  St.  Louisans  made  their  way  south  and  enlisted 
in  the  Confederate  service  can  be  estimated  only.  Enough  joined  Bowen  at 
Memphis  in  the  early  summer  of  1861  to  form  a  regiment.  Several  Confederate 
organizations  were  composed  largely  of  St.  Louisans,  among  them  Guibor's, 
Wade's  and  Barrett's  batteries.  Captain  Joseph  Boyce  and  other  well  informed 
Confederate  veterans  estimated  the  number  of  St.  Louisans  who  went  south 
and  entered  the  army  at  5,000.  Of  this  number  not  more  than  1,000  returned. 
In  Captain  Boyce's  company,  of  Bowen's  First  Missouri  Regiment,  organized 
at  Memphis,  were  114  St.  Louisans,  many  of  whom  had  served  in  the  crack 
St.  Louis  Grays.  Of  the  114,  just  ten  came  back  to  their  homes.  In  character 
rather  than  in  number  the  St.  Louisans  who  joined  the  Confederate  army  were 
notable.  They  were  young  men  in  the  professions  or  in  business — lawyers, 
doctors,  bank  officers,  bookkeepers  in  some  of  the  principal  business  houses, 
steamboat  clerks.  Many  of  them  were  descendants  of  pioneer  families  of  St. 
Louis.  In  a  club  of  twenty-six  young  professional  men  all  but  four  went 
south. 

Joseph  Scott  Fullerton  was  one  of  the  young  St.  Louis  Democrats  who 
sided  with  the  Union.  He  came  of  the  old  Fullerton  family  of  Pennsylvania, 
large  landholders  near  Lancaster  and  Revolutionary  patriots.  The  Fullertons 
were  giants.  The  great  grandfather  of  the  young  St.  Louisan  was  six  feet, 
two,  and  weighed  430  pounds.  Joseph  Scott  Fullerton,  of  Ohio  birth  and 
education,  came  to  St  Louis  fresh  from  the  Cincinnati  Law  school  in  1858. 
A  commission  was  appointed  from  Washington  to  investigate  claims  of  St. 
Louis  business  men  against  the  government  incurred  in  the  confusion  of  army 
organization  under  Fremont.  Fullerton  was  made  secretary  of  it.  He  became 
impatient  to  get  into  the  fighting  and  tried  to  resign.  Joseph  Holt,  afterward 
attorney  general,  was  a  member  of  the  commission.  "Young  man,"  he  said, 
"you  will  have  opportunity  enough.  Be  patient  until  this  important  task  is 
through.  Even  the  shell  of  this  rebellion  is  not  cracked  yet."  Fullerton  went 
in  a  lieutenant,  fought  on  twenty  battlefields,  came  out  a  general  and  in  1867 
was  made  postmaster  of  St.  Louis.  Years  afterwards  he  acquired  suburban 
real  estate  and  laid  out  Westminster  Place. 

One  of  the  captains  in  Bowen's  regiment  at  Camp  Jackson  was  Given 
Campbell,  a  young  lawyer,  bred  in  Kentucky  and  educated  in  the  University 
of  Virginia.  Mr.  Campbell  had  begun  to  practice  in  St.  Louis.  He  had  a 
desk  in  the  office  of  Charles  D.  Drake,  When  Mr.  Campbell  came  back  to 
St.  Louis  in  1865,  after  four  years'  service  in  the  Confederacy,  he  discovered 
that  Judge  Drake  had  formulated  a  "test  oath"  which  barred  him  from  the 
practice  of  law.  Mr.  Campbell  married  a  northern  wife,  the  daughter  of  Robert 
K.  Woods,  a  descendant  of  the  historic  Berry  family  of  Massachusetts ;  he  spent 
several  years  in  the  South,  coming  back  to  St.  Louis  after  the  "Drake  constitu- 
tion" had  become  only  a  memory. 

To  leave  St.  Louis  by  train  or  boat  or  by  other  vehicle  or  afoot,  during  the 
continuance  of  martial  law,  a  passport  was  necessary.  Between  August  14 


581 

and  November  20,  1861,  there  were  issued  85,000  of  these  passes.  On  the 
back  of  the  first  issues,  was:  "It  is  understood  that  the  within  named  subscriber 
accepts  this  pass  on  his  word  of  honor  that  he  is  and  will  ever  be  loyal  to  the 
United  States;  and  if  hereafter  found  in  arms  against  the  Union,  or  in  any 
way  aiding  the  enemy,  the  penalty  will  be  death." 

When  Captain  George  E.  Leighton,  succeeded  General  Justus  McKinstry 
as  provost  marshal,  he  changed  this  form  to  a  pledge  and  omitted  the  death 
penalty. 

In  April,  1862,  Lieutenant-Colonel  F.  A.  Dick,  provost  marshal,  sent  a 
peremptory  order  to  Edward  Wyman,  principal  of  the  City  University,  to  hoist 
"the  United  States  flag  over  his  school  building  and  keep  the  same  floating  daily 
in  a  conspicuous  position."  The  very  next  day  another  order  was  issued  saying 
the  loyalty  of  Mr.  Wyman  and  his  assistants  was  "fully  conceded"  by  General 
Curtis. 

This  generation  may  marvel  that  the  opposing  principals  in  the  Camp  Jack- 
son affair  were  Northern  men.  Daniel  M.  Frost,  who  commanded  the  St. 
Louis  militia  in  Camp  Jackson,  was  of  New  York  birth,  while  Nathaniel  Lyon, 
who  is  to  be  credited  with  the  responsibility  of  the  capture,  was  Connecticut 
born.  Both  of  these  men  were  of  West  Point  education.  Both  had  seen 
service  in  the  United  States  army.  Frost's  grandfather  was  a  Revolutionary 
patriot  and  his  father  was  in  the  War  of  1812.  Members  of  the  Lyon  family 
were  in  the  American  Revolution.  Both  Lyon  and  Frost  served  in  the  war 
with  Mexico,  earning  commendation  for  their  personal  gallantry.  Lyon  and 
Frost  were  together  at  West  Point  one  year,  Lyon  graduating  three  years  before 
Frost.  Frost  had  been  out  of  the  army  eight  years.  He  had  married  Miss 
Graham,  the  granddaughter  of  John  Mullanphy  and  the  daughter  of  Major 
Graham,  a  regular  army  officer  and  an  aide  of  General  William  Henry  Harrison 
in  the  War  of  1812. 

Lyon  continued  in  the  army.  He  was  at  Jefferson  Barracks  after  the- 
Mexican  war.  He  was  in  Kansas  before  the  Civil  war.  In  the  summer  of 
1860  he  wrote  articles  to  the  Manhattan,  Kansas,  Express  favoring  the  election 
of  Lincoln.  The  parallel  between  Frost  and  Lyon  is  not  quite  ended.  Both 
believed  that  war  between  the  sections  was  threatening.  At  that  point  they 
parted  company.  Lyon  believed  in  an  aggressive  policy  by  the  north ;  he  was 
for  striking  quick  and  hard.  Frost  was  as  deeply  interested  in  the  politics  of 
the  day  as  was  Lyon,  but  his  view  was  different.  He  thought  that  while  war 
was  threatened,  it  might  be  averted.  For  years  he  cherished  the  belief  that 
the  border  states  might  hold  such  a  balance  of  power  by  observing  neutrality 
as  to  minimize  if  not  prevent  the  conflict.  Evidence  to  show  that  Frost  was 
at  heart  a  secessionist  is  wanting.  Frost  advocated  the  organization  of  a  strong 
militia  force.  With  B.  Gratz  Brown,  in  1858,  he  drew  the  measure  which  was 
the  basis  for  the  assembling  of  the  state  militia  at  Camp  Jackson  three  years 
later.  He  was  brigadier  general  of  the  militia  at  St.  Louis,  not  for  the  purpose 
or  with  any  idea  of  taking  Missouri  out  of  the  Union,  but  in  the  hope  that 
he  might  personally  contribute  to  preservation  of  peace  between  the  north  and 
the  south.  Frost's  planning  for  border  neutrality  failed  utterly.  Missouri 
adopted  his  plan  of  organization  but  cut  out  the  money  provision  necessary 
to  make  it  effective.  Secessionists  made  the  border  neutrality  policy  a  cloak 


582  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

under  which  to  forward  their  own  designs.  Aggressive  northerners  of  the 
Lyon  type  would  have  none  of  it.  And  so  the  capture  of  Camp  Jackson  came 
about,  a  firebrand  to  St.  Louis  such  as  the  firing  on  Sumter  was  to  the  north. 

Three  months  to  the  day  after  the  Camp  Jackson  affair,  Lyon  fought  a 
battle  for  which  he  was  not  prepared  and  threw  his  life  away.  Just  before 
he  marched  his  St.  Louis  army  out  of  Springfield  to  Wilson's  Creek,  he  spoke 
hopelessly:  "Through  the  refusal  of  the  government  to  properly  reinforce  me 
I  am  compelled  to  abandon  the  country.  If  I  leave  it  without  engaging  the 
enemy  the  public  will  call  me  a  coward.  If  I  engage  him  I  may  be  defeated, 
and  my  command  cut  to  pieces.  I  am  too  weak  to  hold  Springfield  and  yet 
the  people  will  demand  that  I  bring  about  a  battle  with  the  very  enemy  I  cannot 
keep  a  town  against.  How  can  this  result  otherwise  than  against  us."  Twice 
wounded,  Lyon  headed  a  charge  and  was  shot  from  his  horse.  By  will  he  left 
$30,000,  nearly  his  whole  estate,  for  the  preservation  of  the  Union.  He  was 
the  incarnation  of  courage.  The  temperament  which  prompted  the  capture  of 
Camp  Jackson  led  to  the  fatal  charge  at  Wilson's  Creek.  Lyon  was  buried 
with  honor  in  his  native  state,  but  the  great  events  of  his  life  belong  to  the 
history  of  St.  Louis.  Here  the  monument  to  his  memory  was  erected  on  a 
part  of  the  Arsenal  grounds  made  into  a  park  and  named  in  his  honor.  By 
private  subscriptions  and  by  public  appropriation  the  money  was  raised.  The 
sculptor  chosen  to  execute  the  medallion,  Wilson  McDonald,  was  a  brother  of 
one  of  the  Camp  Jackson  prisoners,  Emmett  McDonald. 

General  Frost  went  south  and  entered  the  Confederate  service.  He  re- 
signed later  in  1863  and  went  to  Canada,  where  his  family,  banished  from  St. 
Louis,  joined  him.  After  the  war  he  came  back  to  St.  Louis  to  live.  During 
the  railroad  riots  in  1877  he  rendered  conspicuous  service  in  the  organization 
of  the  citizen  soldiery.  A  son  of  General  Frost,  R.  Graham  Frost,  who  was  a 
small  boy  at  the  time  of  the  Civil  war,  was  elected  to  Congress  from  one  of  the 
St.  Louis  districts. 

Governor  Jackson  was  plotting  the  secession  of  Missouri.  Some  of  the 
officers  in  Camp  Jackson  were  hoping  to  bring  about  an  attack  on  the  Arsenal. 
No  one  who  conversed  with  General  Frost  long  after  the  war  feeling  had 
passed  could  form  the  impression  that  in  his  mind  the  assemblage  of  state, 
troops  in  Camp  Jackson  meant  either  secession  or  an  attack  on  the  Arsenal. 
General  Frost  was  always  positive  in  his  denials  that  there  was  to  his  knowl- 
edge a  Confederate  flag  in  the  camp;  that  the  troops  were  enrolled  with  the 
understanding  they  were  to  go  into  Confederate  service;  that  the  camp  was 
formed  for  an  attack  on  the  Arsenal. 

The  oath  which  all  of  the  militia  in  Camp  Jackson  took  was  this : 

You,  each  and  every  one  of  you,  do  solemnly  swear  that  you  will  honestly  and  faith- 
fully serve  the  State  of  Missouri  against  all  her  enemies;  that  you  will  do  your  utmost 
to  sustain  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the  United  States,  and  of  this  State,  against  all 
riolenee  of  whatsoever  kind  or  description.  And  you  do  further  swear  that  you  will  well 
and  truly  obey  the  legal  orders  of  all  officers  properly  placed  over  you  when  on  duty. 

A  statement  of  his  course  previous  to  Camp  Jackson  and  of  his  connec- 
tion with  that  assemblage  of  the  militia  was  authorized  by  General  Frost  late 
in  life.  It  was  this: 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE    NATION  583 

He  was  not  then,  nor  did  he  ever  become,  a  secessionist  in  principle  and  he  maintains 
that  the  sole  object  of  the  military  bill  which  he,  in  co-operation  with  B.  Gratz  Brown 
and  others,  framed  and  pressed  to  a  passage  in  the  Missouri  legislature  was  for  the  pur- 
pose of  providing  in  Missouri  and  other  border  states  a  military  organization  which  should 
be  constituted  to  keep  the  peace  within  the  states  which,  in  case  of  civil  war,  were  sure 
to  bear  the  brunt  and  suffer  the  spoliation  of  the  sectional  conflict  impending.  General 
Frost  now  states  that  in  pursuance  of  this  object,  not  only  was  the  law  passed  in  the 
Missouri  legislature,  but  correspondence  was  held  with  General  Buckner,  in  command  of 
the  militia  in  Kentucky,  who  caused  a  like  measure  for  that  state  to  be  passed  and  also 
with  authorities  in  other  border  states. 

General  Frost's  view  of  the  whole  matter  at  this  advanced  stage  of  his  life  only 
enables  him  to  reaffirm  that  up  to  the  time  of  his  exchange  as  a  prisoner  of  war  and  his 
formal  acceptance  of  a  commission  in  the  Confederate  army  he  did  not  in  any  instance, 
by  word  or  deed,  betray  his  allegiance  to  the  laws  of  the  State  of  Missouri  or  to  the  laws 
of  the  United  States. 

John  Knapp  was  second  in  command  at  Camp  Jackson.  The  First  Regi- 
ment was  composed  of  the  regular  militia — companies  of  long  standing.  The 
Second  Regiment  was  composed  of  one  regular  militia  company  and  several 
companies  of  Minute  men,  organized  during  the  winter  of  1860-61  and  com- 
posed of  young  men  who  sympathized  with  the  south.  To  some  extent  these 
companies  of  Minute  men  had  been  recruited  from  the  Democratic  marching 
clubs  of  the  campaign  of  1860.  There  was  no  question  as  to  the  Unionism  of 
many,  probably  most,  of  the  members  of  the  First  Regiment.  Colonel  John 
Knapp  had  been  long  prominent  in  military  affairs  of  St.  Louis  and  Missouri. 
Two  days  before  the  capture  of  Camp  Jackson,  Colonel  Knapp,  meeting  some 
of  the  regular  army  officers  at  the  Barracks,  had  told  them  that  on  Saturday 
he  would  break  camp  with  the  First  Regiment,  march  to  the  armories  and 
dismiss  the  companies.  This  would  have  ended  Camp  Jackson. 

Both  Colonel  George  Knapp  and  Colonel  John  Knapp  came  well  by  their 
military  titles.  They  were  for  the  supremacy  of  this  government,  not  only  in 
theory  but  in  practice ;  not  only  in  peace  but  in  war.  The  year  before  he  became 
part  proprietor  of  the  Republican,  when  he  was  twenty-one  years  of  age, 
George  Knapp  entered  the  St.  Louis  Grays.  He  was  one  of  the  first  St.  Louis 
officers  who  volunteered  for  service  in  the  Mexican  war.  He  went  out  as  a 
lieutenant  in  the  St.  Louis  Legion  and  rose  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant  colonel 
after  the  return  of  the  legion  to  St.  Louis.  The  legion  was  equipped  largely 
from  funds  raised  by  voluntary  contributions  of  St.  Louis  citizens  and  went 
to  the  front  very  early  in  the  war.  Soon  after  the  beginning  of  the  Civil  war 
George  Knapp  recruited  a  military  force  in  his  newspaper  office,  called  the 
Missouri  Republican  Guard.  This  force  he  drilled  and  commanded,  holding 
it  in  readiness  for  service  if  an  attack  was  made  on  St.  Louis,  as  was  repeatedly 
threatened. 

John  Knapp  was  in  the  military  service  of  the  state  more  than  twenty- 
five  years.  He  went  to  the  Mexican  war  as  a  captain  in  the  First  Regiment 
of  Missouri  Volunteers.  The  militia  company  of  which  he  was  one  of  the 
lieutenants  had  voted  not  to  volunteer  for  service  in  the  Mexican  war.  There- 
upon Lieutenant  Knapp  organized  a  new  company,  the  Boone  Infantry.  He 
was  elected  captain,  and  immediately  tendered  this  company  for  service  in  the 
war. 


584  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

He  commanded  the  First  Regiment  of  Missouri  Militia  in  the  Southwest 
expedition  to  the  Kansas  border  in  the  winter  of  1861.  He  was  in  command 
of  this  regiment  when  Camp  Jackson  was  taken  by  General  Lyon  on  the  loth 
of  May,  1861.  Afterwards  he  was  appointed  colonel  of  the  Eighth  Regiment 
of  the  Enrolled  Missouri  Militia,  and  later  colonel  of  the  Thirteenth  Provisional 
Regiment,  and  still  later  was  an  aid  of  Governor  Hall  and  went  with  the  brigade 
of  Missouri  troops  in  pursuit  of  General  Sterling  Price  when  the  Confederates 
made  the  raid  in  1864.  He  continued  in  the  service  until  after  the  Civil  war. 
He  was  the  best  tactician  in  the  volunteer  service  of  his  day.  From  the  militia 
companies  composing  the  First  Militia  Regiment,  of  which  John  Knapp  was 
the  commanding  officer  when  hostilities  began,  the  Union  army  received  many 
officers.  For  Governor  Gamble,  who  succeeded  Claib  Jackson  when  the  latter 
left  Jefferson  City  to  join  the  Confederacy,  Colonel  John  Knapp  worked  out 
the  plan  of  militia  enrollment  which  protected  Missouri  and  which  created  a 
force  to  deal  with  guerrillas. 

At  9  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  last  day  of  September,  1863,  President 
Lincoln,  accompanied  by  one  of  his  secretaries,  came  into  the  great  east  room 
of  the  White  House  and  sat  down. 

"He  bore  the  appearance  of  being  much  depressed,  as  if  the  whole  matter 
at  issue  in  the  conference  which  was  impending  was  of  great  anxiety  and 
trouble  to  him,"  says  one  of  the  St.  Louisans  who  sat  awaiting  the  President's 
coming. 

These  were  seventy  "Radical  Union  men  of  Missouri ;"  they  had  accepted 
that  designation.  They  had  been  chosen  at  mass  convention — "the  largest  mass 
convention  ever  held  in  the  state,"  their  credentials  said.  That  convention  had 
unqualifiedly  indorsed  the  emancipation  proclamation  and  the  employment  of 
negro  troops.  It  had  declared  its  loyalty  to  the  general  government.  It  had 
appointed  these  seventy  Missourians  to  proceed  to  Washington  and  "to  procure 
a  change  in  the  governmental  policy  in  reference  to  Missouri."  The  movement 
had  originated  in  St.  Louis,  and  St.  Louisans  were  at  the  head  of  it. 

This  action  meant  more  than  a  city  or  a  state  movement.  It  was  the 
precipitation  of  a  crisis  at  Washington.  It  was  the  voice  of  the  radical  anti- 
slavery  element  of  the  whole  country  speaking  through  Missouri,  demanding 
that  the  government  commit  itself  to  the  policy  of  the  abolition  of  slavery  and 
to  the  policy  of  the  use  of  negro  troops  against  the  Confederate  armies.  It  was 
the  uprising  of  the  element  which  thought  the  administration  at  Washington 
had  been  too  mild.  President  Lincoln  understood  that  the  coming  of  the 
Missourians  meant  more  than  their  local  appeal.  The  Missourians  understood, 
too,  the  importance  of  their  mission.  On  the  way  to  Washington  the  seventy 
had  stopped  in  city  after  city,  had  been  given  enthusiastic  reception  by  anti- 
slavery  leaders;  they  had  been  encouraged  to  make  their  appeal  for  a  new 
policy  in  Missouri  insistent  and  to  stand  on  the  platform  that  the  border  States 
must  now  wipe  out  slavery  of  loyal  owners.  Hence  it  was  that  immediately 
upon  their  arrival  in  Washington  the  seventy  Missourians  coming  from  a  slave 
state  put  into  their  address  to  the  President  such  an  avowal  as  this : 

We  rejoice  that  in  your  proclamation  of  January  1,  1863,  you  laid  the  mighty  hand 
of  the  nation  upon  that  gigantic  enemy  of  American  liberty,  and  we  and  our  constituents 


GEN.  ALTON  R.  EASTON 


GEN.  W.  S.  HARNEY 


CAPT.   THEODORE   HUNT 


GEN.   DANIEL   BISSELL 


GEN.  NATHANIEL  LYON 


THE   MILITARY   LIFE 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF   THE   NATION  585 

honor  you  for  that  wise  and  noble  act.  We  and  they  hold  that  that  proclamation  did,  in 
law,  by  its  own  force,  liberate  every  slave  in  the  region  it  covered;  that  it  is  irrevocable, 
and  that  from  the  moment  of  its  issue  the  American  people  stood  in  an  impregnable  posi- 
tion before  the  world  and  the  rebellion  received  its  death  blow.  If  you,  Mr.  President, 
felt  that  duty  to  your  country  demanded  that  you  should  unshackle  the  slaves  of  the  rebel 
states  in  an  hour,  we  see  no  earthly  reason  why  the  people  of  Missouri  should  not,  from 
the  same  sense  of  duty,  strike  down  with  equal  suddenness  the  traitorous  and  parricidal 
institution  in  their  midst. 

Here  was  the  essence  of  the  Missouri  movement  which  gave  it  national 
interest,  which  prompted  the  grand  chorus  of  approval,  which  led  to  the  series 
of  indorsing  ovations  concluding  with  the  mighty  demonstration  over  the  seventy 
Radical  Union  men  in  Cooper  Institute,  New  York  City,  with  William  Cullen 
Bryant  presiding.  President  Lincoln,  pursuing  the  course  which  seemed  to 
him  necessary  to  keep  the  united  north  with  him,  felt  fully  the  critical  char- 
acter of  the  issue  which  the  Missourians  were  raising. 

Conditions  and  events  wholly  apart  from  what  was  going  on  in  their  state 
added  to  the  significance  and  importance  of  this  conference  between  President 
Lincoln  and  the  radical  Union  men  of  Missouri.  The  week  before  the  seventy 
started  from  St.  Louis  for  Washington  that  bloodiest  battle  of  the  war,  Chicka- 
mauga,  had  been  fought,  and  the  whole  north  was  depressed  by  the  narrow 
escape  of  Rosecrans'  army.  When  the  Missourians  arrived  in  Washington 
Hooker's  army  was  marching  all  night  long  over  the  Long  Bridge  out  of  Vir- 
ginia and  into  Washington  to  take  trains  for  the  roundabout  journey  to  Chat- 
tanooga to  re-enforce  the  penned-up  troops,  that  they  might  not  be  forced 
north  of  the  Tennessee  by  Bragg.  Meade's  failure  to  follow  up  the  success 
at  Gettysburg  in  July  previous  had  given  great  dissatisfaction.  In  the  cabinet 
there  was  division  over  administration  policies.  The  presidential  campaign  was 
coming  on  in  a  few  months.  Perhaps  at  no  other  time  since  the  beginning  of 
the  war  had  President  Lincoln  faced  more  discouraging  criticism  and  more 
hostile  opinion  in  the  North. 

The  address  reviewed  the  origin  and  the  development  of  antagonism  be- 
tween the  Gamble  administration  and  the  radical  Union  men.  It  charged 
Gamble  with  the  intention  to  preserve  slavery  in  Missouri  and  asserted  "the 
radicals  of  Missouri  desired  and  demanded  the  election  of  a  new  convention 
for  the  purpose  of  ridding  the  state  of  slavery  immediately."  It  dwelt  at 
length  upon  the  "proslavery  character"  of  Governor  Gamble's  policy  and  acts. 

"From  the  antagonisms  of  the  radicals  to  such  a  policy,"  the  address 
proceeded,  "have  arisen  the  conflicts  which  you,  Mr.  President,  have  been 
pleased  heretofore  to  term  a  'factional  quarrel.'  With  all  respect  we  deny  that 
the  radicals  of  Missouri  have  been  or  are,  in  any  sense,  a  party  to  any  such 
quarrel.  We  are  no  factionists;  but  men  earnestly  intent  upon  doing  our  part 
toward  rescuing  this  great  nation  from  the  assaults  which  slavery  is  aiming  at 
its  life." 

With  the  Missourians  affirming  such  a  position,  it  is  not  difficult  to  under- 
stand the  wavet  of  sympathy  from  the  anti-slavery  element  which  spread  over 
the  country,  taking  the  form  of  indorsements  by  newspaper,  speeches  by  leaders 
of  the  anti-slavery  people  and  enthusiastic  public  attentions  to  the  delegation. 


586  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

The  climax  of  the  address  of  the  seventy  radical  Union  men  was  the 
prayer  that  Ben  Butler  be  sent  to  succeed  Schofield  at  St.  Louis  to  restore  peace 
and  order  in  Missouri. 

We  ask,  further,  Mr.  President,  that  in  the  place  of  General  Schofield  a  department 
commander  be  assigned  to  the  Department  of  Missouri  whose  sympathies  will  be  with 
Missouri's  loyal  and  suffering  people,  and  not  with  slavery  and  proslavery  men.  General 
Schofield  has  disappointed  our  just  expectations  by  identifying  himself  with  our  state 
administration,  and  his  policy  as  department  commander  has  been,  as  we  believe,  shaped 
to  conform  to  Governor  Gamble's  proslavery  and  conservative  views.  He  has  subordinated 
federal  authority  in  Missouri  to  state  rule.  He  has  become  a  party  to  the  enforcement 
of  conscription  into  the  state  service.  He  has  countenanced,  if  not  sustained,  the  orders 
issued  from  the  state  headquarters,  prohibiting  enlistments  from  the  enrolled  militia  into 
the  volunteer  service  of  the  United  States.  Officers  acting  under  him  have  arbitrarily 
arrested  and  imprisoned  loyal  citizens,  without  assigned  cause,  or  for  daring  to  censure 
Governor  Gamble's  policy  and  acts.  Other  such  officers  have  ordered  loyal  men  to  be 
disarmed,  and  in  some  instances  the  order  has  been  executed,  while,  under  the  pretense 
of  preventing  an  invasion  of  Missouri  from  Kansas,  notorious  and  avowed  disloyalists 
have  been  armed.  He  has  issued  a  military  order  prohibiting  the  liberty  of  speech  and 
of  the  press.  An  officer  in  charge  of  negro  recruits  that  had  been  enlisted  under  lawful 
authority,  as  we  are  informed  and  believe,  was  on  the  20th  inst.  arrested  in  Missouri  by 
Brigadier  General  Guitar,  acting  under  General  Schofield 's  orders,  his  commission,  side- 
arms  and  recruits  taken  from  him,  and  he  imprisoned  and  sent  out  of  the  state.  And, 
finally,  we  declare  to  you,  Mr.  President,  that  from  the  day  of  General  Schofield 's  accession 
to  the  command  of  that  department,  matters  have  grown  worse  and  worse  in  Missouri, 
till  now  they  are  in  a  more  terrible  condition  than  they  have  been  at  any  time  since  the 
outbreak  of  the  rebellion.  This  could  not  be  if  General  Schofield  had  administered  the 
affairs  of  that  department  with  proper  vigor  and  with  a  resolute  purpose  to  sustain  loyalty 
and  suppress  disloyalty.  We,  therefore,  respectfully  pray  you  to  send  another  general  to 
command  that  department;  and,  if  we  do  not  overstep  the  bounds  of  propriety,  we  ask  that 
the  commander  sent  there  be  Major  General  Benjamin  F.  Butler.  We  believe  that  his  pres- 
ence there  would  restore  order  and  peace  to  Missouri  in  less  than  sixty  days. 

The  closing  paragraph  of  the  address  was  well  calculated  to  impress  Mr. 
Lincoln  with  the  intensity  of  feeling  inspiring  the  delegation.  Perhaps  in  the 
history  of  White  House  conferences  such  strong  language  was  never  before 
used  by  a  delegation  in  declaring  the  personal  responsibility  of  the  chief  execu- 
tive. TKe  conclusion  was  in  these  words: 

Whether  the  loyal  hearts  of  Missouri  shall  be  crushed  is  for  you  to  say.  If  you 
refuse  our  requests,  we  return  to  our  homes  only  to  witness,  in  consequence  of  that  refusal, 
a  more  active  and  relentless  persecution  of  Union  men,  and  to  feel  that  while  Maryland 
can  rejoice  in  the  protection  of  the  government  of  the  Union,  Missouri  is  still  to  be  a 
victim  of  proslavery  conservatism,  which  blasts  wherever  it  reigns.  Does  Missouri  deserve 
such  a  fate?  What  border  slave  state  confronted  the  rebellion  in  its  first  spring  as  she  didf 
Remember,  we  pray  you,  who  it  was  that  in  May,  1861,  captured  Camp  Jackson  and  saved 
the  arsenal  at  St.  Louis  from  the  hands  of  traitors,  and  the  Union  cause  in  the  Valley  of 
the  Mississippi  from  incalculable  disaster.  Eemember  the  home  guards,  who  sprung  to  arms 
in  Missouri  when  the  government  was  without  troops  or  means  to  defend  itself  there. 
Remember  the  more  than  50,000  volunteers  that  Missouri  has  sent  forth  to  battle  for  the 
Union.  Remember  that,  although  always  a  slave  state,  her  unconditional  loyalty  to  the 
Union  shines  lustrously  before  the  whole  nation.  Recall  to  memory  these  things,  Mr. 
President,  and  let  them  exert  their  just  influence  upon  your  mind.  We  ask  only  justice 
and  protection  to  our  suffering  people.  If  they  are  to  suffer  hereafter,  as  now,  and  in 
time  past,  the  world  will  remember  that  they  are  not  responsible  for  the  gloomy  page  in 
Missouri's  history,  which  may  have  to  record  the  independent  efforts  of  her  harassed  but 
etill  loyal  men  to  defend  themselves,  their  families  and  their  homes  against  their  disloyal 
and  murderous  assailants. 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF    THE    NATION  587 

The  names  of  the  seventy  radical  Union  men  of  Missouri  were  signed  to 
this  remarkable  document.  The  signature  of  Charles  D.  Drake  of  St.  Louis, 
afterwards  senator  from  Missouri,  and  still  later  chief  justice  of  the  Court 
of  Claims  at  Washington,  came  first  as  chairman.  Two  Missouri  congressmen, 
Ben  Loan  and  J.  W.  McClurg,  the  latter  afterwards  governor,  signed  as  vice 
chairmen  of  the  delegation.  One  of  the  secretaries  was  the  late  Emil  Pree- 
torius  of  the  St.  Louis  Westliche  Post.  Three  of  the  seventy  signers  are  living 
in  1911  and  are  well  known  in  St.  Louis — Enos  Clarke,  Charles  P.  Johnson 
and  David  Murphy.  They  were  among  the  youngest  members  of  the  delegation. 
One  of  them,  Charles  P.  Johnson,  was  chosen  to  speak  at  the  Cooper  Institute 
demonstration  given  to  indorse  this  Missouri  movement  for  universal  emancipa- 
tion, and  was  introduced  to  the  great  audience  by  the  poet  and  editor,  William 
Cullen  Bryant.  The  forty-eight  years  gone  by  have  not  dimmed  the  recollection 
of  that  journey  to  Washington  and  of  the  scene  in  the  east  room  of  the  White 
House  by  these  three  St.  Louis  participants,  although  time  long  ago  tempered 
the  sentiment  and  dissipated  the  bitterness.  With  some  reluctance  Enos  Clarke 
spoke  of  this  historic  occasion,  explaining  that  it  is  difficult  for  those  who  did 
not  live  through  those  trying  times  in  St.  Louis,  or  Missouri,  to  comprehend 
the  conditions  which  prevailed: 

"The  feeling  over  our  grievances  had  become  intense.  We  represented  the  extreme 
anti-slavery  sentiment.  We  were  the  Eepublicans  who  had  been  in  accord  with  Fremont's 
position.  Both  sides  to  the  controversy  in  Missouri  had  repeatedly  presented  their  views 
to  President  Lincoln,  but  this  delegation  of  seventy  was  the  most  imposing  and  most  formal 
protest  which  had  been  made  to  the  Gamble  state  administration  and  the  national  admin- 
istration's policy  in  Missouri.  The  attention  of  the  whole  country,  it  seemed,  had  been 
drawn  to  Missouri.  Our  delegation  met  with  a  series  of  ovations.  When  we  reached  Wash- 
ington we  were  informed  that  Secretary  Chase  proposed  to  tender  us  a  reception.  We  were 
entertained  by  him  the  evening  of  the  day  we  were  received  at  the  White  House. ' ' 

"Who  was  the  author  of  the  address,  Mr.  Clarke?" 

' '  The  address  was  the  result  of  several  meetings  we  held  after  we  reached  Washington. 
We  were  there  nearly  a  week.  Arriving  on  Saturday,  we  did  not  have  our  conference  at 
the  White  House  until  Wednesday.  Every  day  we  met  in  Willard's  Hall,  on  F  street,  and 
considered  the  address.  Mr.  Drake  would  read  over  a  few  paragraphs,  and  we  would  dis- 
cuss them.  At  the  close  of  the  meeting  Mr.  Drake  would  say,  'I  will  call  you  together  to- 
morrow to  further  consider  this  matter.'  In  that  way  the  address  progressed  to  the 
finish." 

"How  did  the  President  receive  you!" 

"There  was  no  special  greeting.  We  went  to  the  White  House  a  few  minutes  before 
nine,  in  accordance  with  the  appointment  which  had  been  made,  and  took  seats  in  the  east 
room.  Promptly  at  nine  the  president  came  in,  unattended  save  by  one  of  his  secretaries. 
He  did  not  shake  hands,  but  sat  down  in  such  a  position  that  he  faced  us.  He  seemed  a 
great  ungainly,  almost  uncouth  man.  He  walked  with  a  kind  of  ambling  gait.  His  face 
bore  the  look  of  depression,  of  deep  anxiety.  Mr.  Drake  stepped  forward  as  soon  as  the 
President  had  taken  his  seat  and  began  to  read  the  address.  He  had  a  deep,  sonorous  voice 
and  he  read  slowly  and  in  a  most  impressive  manner.  The  reading  occupied  half  an  hour. 
At  the  conclusion  Mr.  Drake  said  this  statement  of  our  grievances  had  been  prepared  and 
signed  by  all  of  those  present." 

"Did  the  President  seem  to  be  much  affected  by  the  reading?" 

"No.  And  at  the  conclusion  he  began  to  discuss  the  address  in  a  manner  that  was 
very  disappointing  to  us.  He  took  up  one  phrase  after  another  and  talked  about  them 
without  showing  much  interest.  In  fact,  he  seemed  inclined  to  treat  many  of  the  matters 
contained  in  the  paper  as  of  little  importance.  The  things  which  we  had  felt  to  be  so  serious 


588  ST.    LOUIS,   THE    FOURTH    CITY 

Mr.  Lincoln  treated  as  really  unworthy  of  much  consideration.  That  was  the  tone  in  which 
he  talked  at  first.  He  minimized  what  seemed  to  us  most  important." 

' '  Did  he  indulge  in  any  story  telling  or  humorous  comment  ? ' ' 

"No.  There  was  nothing  that  seemed  like  levity  at  that  stage  of  the  conference.  On 
the  contrary,  the  President  was  almost  impatient,  as  if  he  wished  to  get  through  with 
something  disagreeable.  When  he  had  expressed  the  opinion  that  things  were  not  so 
serious  as  we  thought  he  began  to  ask  questions,  many  of  them.  He  elicited  answers 
from  different  members  of  the  delegation.  He  started  argument,  parrying  some  of  the 
opinions  expressed  by  us  and  advancing  opinions  contrary  to  the  conclusions  of  our  Com- 
mittee of  Seventy.  This  treatment  of  our  grievances  was  carried  so  far  that  most  of  ui 
felt  a  sense  of  deep  chagrin.  But  after  continuing  in  this  line  for  some  time  the  Presi- 
dent's whole  manner  underwent  change.  It  seemed  as  if  he  had  been  intent  upon  drawing 
us  out.  When  satisfied  that  he  fully  understood  us  and  had  measured  the  strength  of  our 
purpose,  the  depth  of  our  feeling,  he  took  up  the  address  as  if  new.  He  handled  the 
various  grievances  in  a  most  serious  manner  He  gave  us  the  impression  that  he  was  dis- 
posed to  regard  them  with  as  much  concern  as  we  did.  After  a  while  the  conversation  be- 
came colloquial  between  the  President  and  the  members  of  the  delegation — more  informal 
and  more  sympathetic.  The  change  of  tone  made  us  feel  that  we  were  going  to  get  considera- 
tion. ' ' 

"What  inspired  that  assertion  in  the  address  that  the  President  had  spoken  of  the 
trouble  in  Missouri  as  a  'factional  quarrel?'  " 

"It  was  based  on  a  letter  President  Lincoln  had  written  to  General  Schofield  some 
time  previously.  A  copy  of  that  letter  was  before  us  when  we  drew  up  the  address.  Ap- 
parently, for  the  purpose  of  informing  General  Schofield  of  his  view  of  affairs  in  Missouri, 
Mr.  Lincoln  had  written  to  him  in  this  way:  'I  did  not  relieve  General  Curtis  because 
of  my  full  conviction  that  he  had  done  wrong  by  commission  or  omission.  I  did  it  because 
of  a  conviction  in  my  mind  that  the  Union  men  of  Missouri,  constituting,  when  united,  a 
vast  majority  of  the  whole  people,  have  entered  into  a  pestilent  factional  quarrel  among 
themselves.  General  Curtis,  perhaps  not  of  choice,  being  the  head  of  one  faction  and  Gov- 
ernor Gamble  that  of  the  other.  After  months  of  labor  to  reconcile  the  difficulty,  it  seemed 
to  grow  worse  and  worse  until  I  felt  it  my  duty  to  break  it  up  somehow,  and,  as  I  could 
not  remove  Governor  Gamble,  I  had  to  remove  General  Curtis.'  This  letter  had  found 
its  way  to  the  public  and  was  made  the  basis  of  what  our  address  said  by  way  of  vindicatioi 
of  the  Radical  Union  men." 

"Did  the  President  make  any  reference  to  that  part  of  the  address  about  the  'fac- 
tional quarrel?'  " 

"Yes,  he  did.  And  it  was  about  the  only  thing  he  said  that  had  a  touch  of  humor  in 
that  long  conversation.  In  the  course  of  his  reply  to  us  he  took  up  that  grievance.  'Why,' 
he  said,  'you  are  a  long  way  behind  the  times  in  complaining  of  what  I  said  upon  that  point. 
Governor  Gamble  was  ahead  of  you.  There  came  to  me  some  time  ago  a  letter  complaining 
because  I  had  said  that  he  was  a  party  to  a  factional  quarrel,  and  I  answered  that  letter 
without  reading  it.'  The  features  of  the  president  took  on  a  whimsical  look  as  he  con- 
tinued: 'Maybe  you  would  like  to  know  how  I  could  answer  it  without  reading  it.  Well, 
I'll  tell  you.  My  private  secretary  told  me  such  a  letter  had  been  received  and  I  sat  down 
and  wrote  to  Governor  Gamble  in  about  these  words:  I  understand  that  a  letter  has  been 
received  from  you  complaining  that  I  said  you  were  a  party  to  a  factional  quarrel  in  Mis- 
souri. I  have  not  read  that  letter,  and,  what  is  more,  I  never  will.'  With  that  Mr. 
Lincoln  dismissed  our  grievance  about  having  been  called  parties  to  a  factional  quarrel. 
He  left  us  to  draw  our  own  inference  from  what  he  said,  as  he  had  left  Governor  Gamble 
to  construe  the  letter  without  help." 

' '  Did  the  conference  progress  to  satisfactory  conclusions  after  the  President 's  manner 
changed!" 

"We  did  not  receive  specific  promises,  but  I  think  we  felt  much  better  toward  the 
close  than  we  had  felt  in  the  first  hour.  The  President  spoke  generally  of  his  purposes 
rather  than  with  reference  to  conditions  in  Missouri.  Toward  the  close  of  the  conference 
he  went  on  to  speak  of  his  great  office,  of  its  burdens,  of  its  responsibilities  and  duties. 


GEN.   FREDERICK  DENT   GRANT 

In  front  of  log  house  where  he  lived  in 
early  childhood 


THE  LOG  HOUSE  THAT  GRANT  BUILT 


IN   THE    LIFE   OF    THE    NATION  589 

Among  other  things  he  said  that  in  the  administration  of  the  government  he  wanted  to 
be  the  President  of  the  whole  people  and  no  section.  He  thought  we,  possibly,  failed  to 
comprehend  the  enormous  stress  that  rested  upon  him.  '  It  is  my  ambition  and  desire, ' 
he  said  with  considerable  feeling,  'to  so  administer  the  affairs  of  the  government  while  I 
remain  President  that  if  at  the  end  I  shall  have  lost  every  other  friend  on  earth  I  shall 
at  least  have  one  friend  remaining  and  that  one  shall  be  down  inside  of  me.'  ' 

"How  long  did  the  conference  continue?" 

' '  Three  hours.  It  was  nearing  noon  when  the  President  said  what  I  have  just  quoted. 
That  seemed  to  be  the  signal  to  end  the  conference.  Mr.  Drake  stepped  forward  and  ad- 
dressing the  President,  who  was  standing,  said,  with  deliberation  and  emphasis:  'The 
hour  has  come  when  we  can  no  longer  trespass  upon  your  attention.  Having  submitted  to 
you  in  a  formal  way  a  statement  of  our  grievances,  we  will  take  leave  of  you,  asking  the 
privilege  that  each  member  of  the  delegation  may  take  you  by  the  hand.  But,  in  taking 
leave  of  you,  Mr.  President,  let  me  say  to  you  many  of  these  gentlemen  return  to  a  border 
state  filled  with  disloyal  sentiment.  If  upon  their  return  there  the  military  policies  of  your 
administration  shall  subject  them  to  risk  of  life  in  the  defense  of  the  government  and  their 
blood  shall  be  shed — let  me  tell  you,  Mr.  President,  that  their  blood  shall  be  upon  your  gar- 
ments and  not  upon  ours. '  ' 

"How  did  the  President  receive  that?" 

"With  great  emotion.     Tears  trickled  down  his  face,  as  we  filed  by  shaking  his  hand." 

"The  Twentieth  Century  Club"  was  a  St.  Louis  organization  of  more  than 
local  influence  soon  after  the  war.  The  idea  was  adapted  from  the  "Bird  Club" 
of  Boston.  Enos  Clarke,  then  a  young  lawyer  of  Ohio  nativity  who  had  come 
to  St.  Louis  from  New  York  early  in  the  Civil  war,  was  one  of  the  founders  of 
the  club.  Carl  Schurz  was  one  of  the  leading  spirits.  The  members  numbered 
less  than  a  score.  They  met  once  a  week  at  the  Planters'  House  and  dined 
together.  Very  few  guests  were  entertained.  When  a  non-member  looked 
around  the  table,  he  quickly  discovered  that  he  was  in  the  presence  of  the  men 
who  shaped  Republican  action  in  Missouri.  When  the  Republican  party  divided 
in  1870,  the  Twentieth  Century  members  were  aligned  with  the  Liberal  Repub- 
lican movement.  They  put  forward  B.  Gratz  Brown.  They  went  to  the  Liberal 
Republican  convention  and  controlled  it  for  Brown.  Two  years  later  this  organ- 
ization was  potent  in  the  movement  to  make  the  Liberal  Republican  policy  national 
and  to  oppose  Grant.  Members  of  the  Twentieth  Century  Club  participated  in 
the  convention  at  Cincinnati  which  nominated  Greeley  and  Brown. 

Among  the  members  of  the  Twentieth  Century  club  were  Carl  Schurz, 
Henry  T.  Blow,  Enos  Clarke,  Emil  Preetorius,  B.  Gratz  Brown,  William  M. 
Grosvenor,  William  Taussig,  James  Taussig,  Charles  P.  Johnson,  John  McNeil, 
G.  A.  Finkelnburg  and  Felix  Coste. 

The  meetings  were  held  Saturday  afternoons,  continuing  into  the  evenings. 
Carl  Schurz,  as  a  rule,  presided.  Perhaps  no  other  coterie  in  the  history  of  this 
city  exercised  for  a  like  period  such  influence  upon  political  affairs.  Grosvenor 
was  editor  of  the  Missouri  Democrat,  now  the  Globe-Democrat.  He  afterwards 
became  an  editorial  writer  on  the  New  York  Tribune.  Preetorius  controlled 
the  Westliche  Post,  then  the  most  powerful  German  Republican  paper  in  the 
country.  This  insured  newspaper  support  of  policies  to  which  the  club  com- 
mitted itself.  Blow  had  been  in  Congress  and  was  soon  to  be  minister  to  Brazil. 
The  Twentieth  Century  Club  inaugurated  the  movement  which  made  Schurz 
United  States  senator.  The  Liberal  Republican  movement  not  only  elected  one 
of  the  members,  B.  Gratz  Brown,  governor  of  Missouri,  and  made  him  the  vice- 


590  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

presidential  nominee  at  Cincinnati  in  1872,  but  it  sent  Mr.  Finkelnburg  to  Con- 
gress and  made  Charles  P.  Johnson  become  lieutenant-governor. 

In  a  newspaper  office  was  conceived  the  other  end  of  the  political  move- 
ment in  which  St.  Louis  had  far  reaching  influence.  Democratic  co-operation 
was  essential  to  the  success  of  the  Liberal  Republican  plan.  The  office  was  the 
Missouri  Republican.  The  time  was  1870.  William  Hyde  and  William  H. 
Swift,  with  the  advice  of  that  astute  politician,  Henry  C.  Brockmeyer,  and  with 
the  approval  of  George  and  John  Knapp,  committed  the  Democratic  organization 
to  the  passive  policy.  Conflict  of  political  opinion  in  Missouri  was  over  the  test 
oath  and  the  disfranchisement  of  the  Confederates.  Republicans  were  divided. 
From  the  Republican  office  was  exercised  the  influence  which  prompted  Aylett 
H.  Buckner,  chairman  of  the  Democratic  state  central  committee,  to  call  a  meet- 
ing in  St.  Louis.  Swift  was  the  secretary  of  the  committee.  Resolutions  binding 
the  committee  not  to  call  a  state  convention  that  year,  1870,  were  carefully  drawn 
and  kept  secret  until  the  meeting  was  held.  There  were  members  who  opposed 
the  proposition  and  who  favored  the  making  of  a  straight  fight.  Before  the 
opposition  could  organize,  General  James  Shields  moved  the  adoption  of  the 
resolutions  and  the  Democratic  party  of  Missouri  was  bound  to  make  no  nomi- 
nations that  year.  There  was  no  little  protest  but  the  compact  with  the  Liberal 
Republicans  was  carried  out. 

Newspaper  enterprise  had  something  to  do  with  the  success  of  the  plan.  It 
was  essential  that  the  Republican  convention,  which  was  to  divide,  should  be 
handled  with  care.  William  H.  Swift  was  sent  to  Jefferson  City  for  the  Missouri 
Republican.  His  instructions  were  to  spare  no  expense.  It  was  of  the  greatest 
importance  that  the  Liberal  Republican  movement  and  the  passive  policy  should 
be  given  a  good  send  off  for  the  effect  upon  public  sentiment  in  the  state.  "Hold- 
ing the  wire"  was  a  newspaper  feat  made  possible  in  those  days  by  a  rule  of  the 
telegraph  companies.  In  the  time  of  few  wires  and  few  operators,  the  news- 
paper which  filed  matter  first  had  exclusive  use  of  the  facilities  for  transmission 
until  all  of  its  matter  had  been  sent.  Telegraph  officials  exercised  no  discretion 
as  to  character  of  copy.  They  broke  in  on  press  copy  only  to  send  commercial 
messages.  Swift  found  two  wires  working  from  Jefferson  City  to  St.  Louis.  He 
pre-empted  them.  On  the  hook  over  one  instrument  he  hung  the  United  States 
statutes  and  on  the  hook  over  the  other  table  he  hung  the  statutes  of  Missouri. 
Then  he  went  about  the  collection  and  preparation  of  news  of  the  convention. 
When  the  operators  were  ready  for  press  they  started  on  the  statutes.  When 
Mr.  Swift  came  in  with  copy  he  slipped  the  sheets  into  the  statutes  so  that  they 
would  go  next.  When  other  correspondents  attempted  to  send,  they  discovered 
that  they  were  barred  so  long  as  the  Missouri  Republican  was  willing  to  pay  tolls 
on  the  statutes.  Thus  the  anxious  St.  Louis  public,  during  the  hours  while  the 
split  between  the  Republican  factions  at  Jefferson  City  was  widening,  received 
information  through  a  channel  which  gave  the  passive  policy  the  best  of  it.  In 
his  extremity,  Emil  Preetorius  appealed  to  George  Knapp  to  let  a  dispatch  go 
through  to  the  Westliche  Post.  And  the  colonel,  chivalric  as  he  was,  issued  the 
order  to  Mr.  Swift  to  oblige  Mr.  Preetorius.  Swift  refused.  Colonel  George 
threatened  discharge.  Swift  was  firm.  Holding  the  wire  meant  a  bill  of  $1,500 
to  the  Republican.  When  the  correspondent  got  back  to  St.  Louis  and  went  down 


IN   THE   LIFE   OF   THE   NATION  591 

to  the  office  to  turn  in  his  expense  account  and  to  receive  his  discharge,  George 
Knapp  handed  him  an  honorarium  of  $500  and  told  him  to  take  a  vacation  for 
two  weeks.  "Pay  no  attention  to  what  I  said  to  you  at  Jefferson  City,"  Colonel 
Knapp  said  with  a  ghost  of  a  smile. 

Following  the  convention  at  Jefferson  City,  the  following  messages  were 

exchanged : 

St.  Louis,  Sept.  2,  1870. 
B.  Gratz  Brown, 

Jefferson  City. 

The  negroes  of  this  state  are  free.  White  men  only  are  now  enslaved.  The  people 
look  to  you  and  your  friends  to  deliver  them  from  this  great  wrong.  Shall  they  look 
in  vain?  J.  B.  Henderson. 

Jefferson  City,  Sept.  2,  1870. 
Hon.  John  B.  Henderson, 

St.   Louis. 

The  confidence  of  the  people  of  this  state  shall  not  be  disappointed.  I  will  carry  out 
this  canvass  to  its  ultimate  consequence  so  that  no  freeman  not  convicted  of  crime  shall 
henceforth  be  deprived  of  an  equal  voice  in  our  government.  B.  Gratz  Brown. 

B.  Gratz  Brown  was  born  in  Kentucky,  educated  at  Yale  and  became  a 
resident  of  Missouri  in  1850.  Rather  curiously  he  was  very  early  identified  with 
the  German  immigration  as  a  champion  of  that  element  in  the  population  of  St. 
Louis.  His  early  free  soil  sympathies  probably  had  much  to  do  with  this  leader- 
ship of  the  freedom  loving  Germans.  He  had  the  distinction  of  making  the  first 
speech  in  behalf  of  emancipation  as  a  member  of  a  southern  legislature.  It  was 
thought  at  the  time  that  he  delivered  the  speech  at  the  peril  of  his  life  in  Jefferson 
City,  and  that  he  sacrificed  all  hope  of  a  political  future.  He  was  denounced 
and  proscribed  but  the  Germans  rallied  solidly  to  his  support  and  sent  him  back 
to  the  legislature  before  the  war.  Opposition  and  proscription  only  spurred 
B.  Gratz  Brown  to  greater  efforts  along  the  lines  of  his  convictions.  With  Fred 
Muench  and  Emil  Preetorius,  Brown  was  very  active  in  getting  up  the  call  for 
the  first  Republican  convention  in  a  slave  state.  He  became  a  United  States 
senator  after  serving  in  the  army,  largely  through  the  sturdy  support  of  the 
Germans  of  St.  Louis. 

Encouraged  by  their  complete  success  in  Missouri,  the  Liberal  Republicans 
and  the  Democrats  under  inspiration  from  the  St.  Louis  leaders  attempted  in 
1872  the  same  policy  on  a  national  scale.  The  Liberal  Republicans,  with  the 
Twentieth  Century  coterie  and  the  Westliche  Post  following,  started  the  move- 
ment. The  Missouri  Republican  advocated  a  passive  policy  by  the  national  Demo- 
cratic organization.  Opposition  to  Grant  and  to  reconstruction  measures  fur- 
nished the  platform.  For  months  St.  Louis  was  the  center  of  political  interest 
to  the  whole  country. 

The  movement  gained  great  headway  among  Liberal  Republicans,  and  espe- 
cially among  the  Germans  throughout  the  country.  A  national  convention  was 
called  to  meet  in  Cincinnati.  The  state  convention  at  Jefferson  City,  which 
elected  delegates  to  this  Liberal  Republican  convention  at  Cincinnati,  was  con- 
ducted practically  by  representatives  of  the  Westliche  Post.  Joseph  B.  McCul- 
lagh  reported  the  convention  for  the  Missouri  Democrat.  He  called  it  the  "Bill 
and  Joe  Convention."  "Bill  and  Joe"  were  William  M.  Grosvenor  and  Joseph 


592  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

Pulitzer.  The  movement  resulted  in  the  Cincinnati  convention  and  the  nomina- 
tions of  Greeley  and  Brown.  A  fatal  mistake  was  made  by  the  Democratic 
National  Convention  in  failing  to  carry  out  the  policy.  The  Baltimore  Conven- 
tion of  the  Democratic  party  in  1872  took  positive  action  on  the  ticket,  instead  of 
adopting  the  passive  course,  which  had  been  pursued  by  the  Democratic  party 
of  Missouri  so  successfully  two  years  before.  The  result  of  the  action  at  Balti- 
more was  to  antagonize  the  Liberal  Republicans  and  many  of  the  German  voters. 
The  Greeley  and  Brown  ticket  failed  of  the  support  expected  for  it  from  elements 
in  the  Republican  party  opposed  to  Grant  and  the  reconstruction  measures  in 
the  south. 


CHAPTER  XXIII. 
ST.  LOUISANS  IN  THE  PUBLIC  EYE 

Laclede's  Settlement  as  Pitman  Saw  it  About  1766 — Exploited  by  Charles  Gratiot — The  First 
St.  Louis  Millionaire — John  Mullanphy,  Shrewd,  Eccentric  and  Philanthropic — Battle  of 
New  Orleans  and  a  Cotton  Corner — A  Political  Center  in  1820 — John  Shackford's  River 
Improvement  Plan — Characteristics  and  Sayings  of  Benton — A  Tribute  to  Edward  Hemp- 
stead — How  Death  Came  to  the  Old  Roman — Bacon,  the  Financial  Leader  in  1854 — Gen- 
eral E.  D.  Baker's  Humble  Boyhood — Benton's  Dying  Protest  Against  Anti-Slavery 
Agitation — Lincoln's  St.  Louis  Newspaper  Alliance — Edward  Bates  in  National  Politics — 
Grant,  Sherman,  Schofield  and  Sigel — Captain  Grant's  Application  to  be  County  Engineer 
— Francis  P.  Blair,  Jr. — The  Famous  Broadhead  Letter — Blair  to  Frost  on  Camp  Jackson 
— St.  Louisans  in  the  Cabinets  of  Harrison,  Cleveland,  McKinley,  Roosevelt  and  Taft — 
Career  of  Ethan  Allen  Hitchcock — Growth  of  Richard  Bartholdt  to  International  Stature — • 
The  National  Prosperity  Association  of  1908 — Benjamin  F.  Yoakum's  Timely  Suggestion 
— E.  C.  Simmons'  Call  Upon  President  Roosevelt — A  Movement  Which  Swept  the  Country — 
St.  Louis  "the  Nerve  Center  of  the  United  States." 

Woe  to  the  people  that  lets  its  historic  memories  die;  recreant  to  honor,  gratitude,  ye4 
to  its  own  life,  it  perishes  with  them. — Rev.  Dr.  T.  M.  Post,  Dedication,  Blair  Monument. 

St.  Louis  came  quickly  within  the  world's  vision.  The  third  year  after 
Laclede  marked  the  first  tree  to  guide  Auguste  Chouteau,  a  British  officer  vis- 
ited the  settlement.  Captain  Philip  Pitman  was  of  the  engineer  corps.  He  was 
sent  west  by  General  Gage  in  1766.  The  year  previously,  Sterling  and  his  High- 
landers had  arrived  at  Fort  Chartres.  The  British  government  wished  an  expert 
report  on  the  territory  east  of  the  Mississippi  acquired  from  France.  Pitman 
was  selected  by  Gage  to  make  it.  Gage  was  in  command  of  the  military  forces 
of  Great  Britain  in  America, — the  same  Gage  who  in  the  middle  of  the  next 
decade  precipitated  the  American  Revolution  by  sending  redcoats  out  of  Boston 
to  seize  munitions  at  Concord,  bringing  on  the  battle  of  Lexington. 

Pitman  came  to  the  Mississippi  Valley, — "the  country  of  the  Illinois"  it 
had  been  called.  He  devoted  several  months  to  his  investigations.  His  journey- 
ing was  not  limited  to  British  territory.  St.  Louis  was  visited,  then  not  quite 
three  years  old.  Pitman  made  his  report  to  Gage  in  1767.  Three  years  later, 
in  1770,  the  observations  and  impressions  in  narrative  form,  were  given  to  the 
world  through  a  book  published  in  London.  Pitman  mentioned  St.  Louis  by 
that  title  but  once.  That  was  when  he  wrote  of  "the  village  of  St.  Louis"  being 
"supplied  with  flour  and  provisions"  from  Ste.  Genevieve.  Elsewhere  in  record- 
ing his  view  of  the  settlement  Pitman  designated  St.  Louis  as  "Paincourt." 

Pitman  described  St.  Louis  as  he  found  it  in  the  early  months  of  1767  in 
these  words — the  first  mention  of  St.  Louis  in  print: 

This  village  is  one  league  and  a  half  above  Kaoquias,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, being  the  present  headquarters  of  the  French  in  these  parts.  It  was  first  established 
in  the  year  1764  by  a  company  of  merchants,  to  whom  Monsieur  D'Abbadie  had  given  an 
exclusive  grant  for  the  commerce  with  the  Indian  nations  on  the  Eiver  Missoury;  and  for 
the  security  and  encouragement  of  this  settlement  the  staff  of  French  officers  and  the  com- 

593 
12- VOL.  II. 


594  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

inissary  were  ordered  to  remove  here,  upon  the  rendering  Fort  Chartres  to  the  English;  and 
great  encouragement  was  given  to  the  inhabitants  to  remove  with  them,  most  of  whom  did. 
The  company  has  built  a  large  house  and  stores  here,  and  there  are  about  forty-five  houses 
and  as  many  families.  No  fort  or  barracks  are  yet  built.  The  French  garrison  consists 
of  a  captain-commandant,  two  lieutenants,  a  fort  major,  one  sergeant,  one  corporal  and 
twenty  men. 

Charles  Gratiot  traveled  widely.  Wherever  he  went  he  sounded  the  praises 
of  St.  Louis.  In  1804  he  was  in  Frankfort.  John  Mullanphy  was  keeping  the 
principal  store.  He  had  come  from  Ireland  twelve  years  before  with  a  young 
wife.  He  tried  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore,  doing  very  well  in  business  but  the 
speculative  spirit  was  strong  in  him  and  he  had  moved  to  Kentucky.  Mul- 
lanphy listened  to  Gratiot's  vivid  description  of  the  opportunities  the  new 
American  town  offered.  The  two  men  talked  French.  Mullanphy,  in  his  young 
manhood,  had  crossed  to  France  and  had  served  some  years  in  the  Irish  brigade 
of  that  country.  The  persuasion  of  Gratiot  was  effective.  Mullanphy  moved 
to  St.  Louis.  He  opened  a  store  on  Second  street.  Shrewd  in  business,  speaking 
equally  well  the  language  of  the  old  habitants  and  of  the  newcomers  he  pros- 
pered. 

"The  St.  Louis  millionaire,"  Brackenridge  called  John  Mullanphy.  There 
were  other  men  of  wealth  during  the  decade  after  the  American  occupation  but 
Brackenridge  picked  Mullanphy  for  "the  millionaire."  He  told  how  the  million 
came  about.  At  the  time  of  the  war  of  1812  Mullanphy  was  speculating  in 
cotton.  He  had  on  hand  a  considerable  quantity  at  New  Orleans.  General 
Jackson  took  this  cotton  to  make  the  breastworks  behind  which  he  waited  for 
Packenham,  the  English  general.  Mullanphy  went  to  "Old  Hickory"  and  pro- 
tested. "This  is  your  cotton  ?"  said  General  Jackson.  "Then  no  one  has  a  better 
right  to  defend  it.  Take  a  musket  and  stand  in  the  ranks."  When  the  war 
was  over,  Mullanphy  tore  the  breastworks  to  pieces,  shipped  his  bales  of  cotton 
to  England  and  cleared  a  million  dollars.  That  was  the  story  Brackenridge  told 
preliminary  to  this: 

One  day  he  called  to  see  me  and  invited  me  to  dine  with  him.  I  found  him  in  a 
large  brick  house,  perhaps  the  largest  in  the  town,  unfurnished  and  untenanted  with  the 
exception  of  a  back  room  of  which  he  was  the  sole  occupant.  Here  I  found  him  seated 
before  a  wood  fire  (coal  was  not  in  use  at  that  time),  while  two  catfish  heads  were  broiling 
on  two  chips  of  wood.  "There,"  said  he,  "you  see  your  dinner;  that  head  is  yours  and 
this  is  mine;  we  must  each  do  the  cooking."  It  was  a  Barmecide  feast,  and  I  determined 
to  humor  it.  We  had  some  excellent  bread  and  butter,  and  to  make  amends  for  the  dishes, 
drank  exquisite  Madeira  out  of  tumblers.  The  dessert,  I  must  add,  was  the  most  substantial 
part  of  the  entertainment.  Going  to  his  safe,  he  brought  forth  a  bag  of  dollars  and 
placing  it  on  the  table,  ' '  There, ' '  said  he,  "  is  a  retaining  fee  if  I  should  want  your  pro- 
fessional se'rvices. " 

Two  years  previous  to  his  arrival  in  St.  Louis  Mullanphy  built  a  brig  at 
Frankfort,  on  the  Kentucky  river,  loaded  the  ship  with  products  and  sent  it  to 
the  Indies  while  the  Mississippi  river  at  its  mouth  was  yet  in  the  possession  and 
control  of  Spain.  Everything  in  which  Mr.  Mullanphy  engaged  seemed  to  turn 
out  prosperously.  He  kept  a  book  store  several  years  prior  to  1800  at  Frankfort 
and  made  money  at  it.  John  Mullanphy  knew  books;  he  became  possessed 
of  the  finest  private  library  in  St.  Louis.  It  was  said  of  him  that  he  built  more 
houses  and  contributed  more  than  any  other  citizen  to  the  early  building  of  St. 
Louis.  He  was  repeatedly  a  member  of  the  board  of  aldermen. 


ST.   LOUISANS    IN    THE   PUBLIC   EYE  595 

In  the  biography  of  General  Andrew  Jackson  this  version  of  Mr.  Mullan- 
phy  and  the  cotton  bales  is  given : 

An  additional  number  of  bales  was  taken  to  defend  the  embrasures.  A  Frenchman 
whose  property  had  been  thus  without  his  consent  seized,  fearing  of  the  injury  it  might 
sustain,  proceeded  in  person  to  General  Jackson  to  reclaim  it  and  demand  its  delivery. 
The  general,  having  heard  his  complaint  and  ascertaining  from  him  that  he  was  employed 
in  no  military  service,  directed  a  musket  be  brought  him  and  placing  it  in  his  hand  ordered 
him  on  the  line,  remarking  at  the  same  time,  "that  as  he  seemed  to  be  a  man  possessed 
of  property  he  knew  of  none  who  had  a  better  right  to  fight  to  defend  it." 

The  error  of  the  biographer  in  calling  Mr.  Mullanphy  a  Frenchman  may 
be  easily  explained  by  the  fact  that  the  Irishman  had  obtained  a  good  knowledge 
of  the  French  language  and  might  easily  have  passed  for  a  Frenchman.  The 
most  accurate  version  of  the  New  Orleans  experience  was  undoubtedly  that 
which  Mr.  Mullanphy  gave  to  John  F.  Darby  and  which  Mr.  Darby  made  public: 

After  the  battle  was  over,  Mr.  Mullanphy  said  he  could  hear  people  on  all  sides  saying 
they  would  look  to  the  government  for  their  cotton;  and  he  knew  it  would  take  a  long  time 
to  get  money  out  of  the  government.  Great  delay,  much  expense,  and  an  act  of  Congress 
would  have  been  required.  He  went  to  General  Jackson,  and  said  if  he  would  order  the  same 
number  of  sound  bales,  not  torn  by  cannon  balls  or  damaged  in  any  way,  returned  to  him 
as  had  been  taken  from  him,  he  would  give  a  release  for  all  claims  upon  the  government. 
General  Jackson  directed  his  quartermaster  to  do  this,  and  Mullanphy  received  the  same 
number  of  sound  bales  as  had  been  taken  from  him.  All  the  balance  of  the  cotton  used  in  the 
breastworks  was  put  up  at  auction  and  sold  for  a  mere  trifle. 

No  cotton  could  be  sold  for  more  than  three  or  four  cents  a  pound.  After  the  battle 
Mr.  Mullanphy  seemed  to  have  a  premonition  that  peace  would  be  made  soon.  The  maila 
were  carried  to  New  Orleans  at  that  time  all  of  the  way  on  horseback  via  Natchez.  No 
steamboats  were  running  there  at  that  date,  and  no  mail  coaches  ran  in  that  flat  swampy 
country.  Mr.  Mullanphy  hired  a  couple  of  men  to  take  a  skiff  and  row  him  up  the  Mississippi 
river  to  Natchez.  They  ate  and  slept  in  the  skiff.  No  one  knew  the  object  of  his  visit;  the 
men  with  him  knew  nothing  of  his  purpose,  and  were  left  in  charge  of  the  skiff  on  their 
arrival  at  Natchez,  with  injunctions  to  stay  in  the  boat  all  of  the  time,  as  he  did  not  know 
what  minute  he  might  want  to  return.  He  went  up  into  the  town  of  Natchez  and  sauntered 
around,  when  late  in  the  evening  the  post  rider  came  riding  at  full  speed,  shouting,  "Peace! 
Peace!"  having,  it  is  said,  got  a  fresh  horse  every  ten  miles  to  hasten  the  glad  tidings  and 
prevent  the  further  destruction  of  life.  Mr.  Mullanphy  ran  down  to  the  river,  jumped  into 
his  skiff  and  ordered  his  men  to  row  with  all  their  might  for  New  Orleans,  as  he  had  im- 
portant business  there  to  attend  to.  The  men  knew  not  what  had  occurred,  and  rowed  all  night 
and  all  next  day  with  the  swift  current  of  the  Mississippi,  reaching  New  Orleans  in  good 
time.  Mr.  Mullanphy  was  the  only  man  in  the  city  who  had  the  news  of  peace.  He  was  self- 
composed — showed  no  excitement.  He  began  purchasing  all  the  cotton  he  could  buy  or  bargain 
for.  He  had  about  two  days'  the  start  of  the  others.  Late  in  the  evening  of  the  second  day 
from  the  large  amount  of  cotton  purchased  by  him,  people  began  to  talk  and  to  suspect  that 
he  had  some  secret  information.  The  third  day,  in  the  morning,  the  whole  town  was  re- 
joicing; the  news  of  peace  had  come,  and  cannon  were  announcing  it,  but  Mr.  Mullanphy 
had  the  cotton.  Mr.  Mullanphy  chartered  a  vessel  and  took  the  cotton,  which  he  had  pur- 
chased at  three  or  four  cents  a  pound,  to  England,  where  he  sold  it,  as  was  reported,  at  thirty 
cents  a  pound.  And  a  part  of  the  specie  and  bullion  brought  back  with  him  as  the  returns 
from  his  cotton  was  sold  by  him  to  the  government  of  the  United  States  on  which  to  base  the 
capital  for  the  Bank  of  the  United  States. 

John  Mullanphy  was  very  tenacious  of  his  legal  rights.  He  frequently 
made  use  of  the  expression  that  he  would  spend  $1,000  before  he  would  be 
cheated  out  of  one  dollar.  The  many  houses  which  he  constructed  brought  him 
into  disputes  with  mechanics  and  laborers,  but  he  would  insist  on  fighting  in 


596  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

court  and  would  not  accept  compromises.  Not  infrequently  a  change  of  venue 
in  some  of  his  litigation  would  take  Mr.  Mullanphy  to  St.  Charles,  for  he  made 
it  a  practice  to  be  present  in  court  whenever  he  was  interested  in  a  case  there. 
Driving  over  from  St.  Louis  to  St.  Charles  he  carried  with  him  a  box  of  his 
own  imported  wine  which  he  labeled  "Tracts."  He  prided  himself  on  importing 
the  best  wine  brought  to  St.  Louis.  After  court  at  St.  Charles  Mr.  Mullanphy 
entertained  in  the  hotel,  drew  on  his  supply  of  wine  and  narrated  recollections 
of  Napoleon  and  of  his  military  experience  in  the  French  army. 

On  one  occasion  Mr.  Mullanphy  repudiated  the  bill  of  Victor  Hab  who  had 
charged  $7  for  boring  out  a  pump  on  a  property  owned  by  Mr.  Mullanphy.  The 
case  was  kept  in  court  and  cost  a  great  deal  of  money,  Mr.  Mullanphy  refusing 
to  pay  more  than  $5  and  preferring  to  pay  witness  fees  and  costs  rather  than 
acknowledge  the  justice  of  Victor  Hab's  bill. 

Mr.  Mullanphy  was  a  very  aggressive  opponent  of  Free  Masons.  He  used 
to  tell  John  F.  Darby,  his  lawyer,  that  the  Free  Masons  had  beaten  him  out  of 
$50,000  by  getting  on  juries  and  rendering  verdicts  against  him.  During  a 
certain  trial,  when  the  witness  put  his  hand  to  the  head  and  ran  his  fingers 
through  the  hair,  Mr.  Mullanphy  cried  out:  "Look!  look!  he  is  giving  the  jury 
the  sign;  he  is  a  Free  Mason."  He  would  advise  young  lawyers  to  be  on  their 
guard  against  letting  Free  Masons  on  the  jury.  He  professed  to  know  the  grips 
and  signs  and  exposed  them ;  he  would  say :  "You  are  a  young  man  and  I  want 
to  admonish  you  to  look  out  for  these  fellows." 

John  Mullanphy's  contributions  to  charity  were  the  most  notable  in  that 
period  of  the  city's  life.  He  gave  a  large  piece  of  ground  for  the  Sister's  hos- 
pital, covering  a  block  on  Fourth  street.  He  left  a  large  site  for  the  Sacred 
Heart  convent,  on  Fourth  street  opposite  the  French  market.  He  founded  a 
convent  in  Florissant.  A  favorite  custom  with  him  was  to  place  in  the  hands  of 
the  only  baker  in  St.  Louis,  Daniel  D.  Page,  a  considerable  sum  of  money,  some- 
times as  much  as  $300  or  $400,  with  instructions  to  give  loaves  of  bread  to  those 
unable  to  buy  and  to  let  him  know  when  the  credit  was  exhausted. 

The  first  and  second  delegates  from  Missouri  Territory  to  congress  were 
Connecticut  men  from  St.  Louis — Edward  Hempstead  and  Rufus  Easton.  The 
first  two  United  States  senators  for  Missouri  were  North  Carolina  men  both  of 
them  from  St.  Louis.  The  first  territorial  legislature  met  here.  St.  Louis  was 
the  political  center  of  Missouri  for  many  years  after  the  American  flag  went  up 
at  government  house  on  Walnut  street.  When  campaigns  came  on,  leaders  went 
out  from  the  metropolis  to  inform  the  country  constituency  upon  the  issues  of 
the  day.  During  Andrew  Jackson's  first  candidacy  for  President,  one  of  the 
speakers  sent  from  St.  Louis,  a  young  lawyer,  brought  back  from  the  interior 
of  the  state  a  story  of  his  experience  which  was  told  in  political  circles  for  many 
years.  This  spellbinder  of  1820-30  was  addressing  a  meeting  of  pioneers  in 
the  woods,  some  distance  this  side  of  what  is  now  Jefferson  City.  He  told  of 
Jackson's  military  services  at  New  Orleans,  in  the  Creek  war  and  in  Florida. 
He  dwelt  upon  the  political  principles  of  Jackson  as  appealing  to  the  plain  peo- 
ple. It  was,  in  those  days  quite  the  proper  thing  for  auditors  to  ask  questions 
of  a  speaker.  When  Mr.  Lincoln  went  east  in  1859  to  make  his  Cooper  Union 
speech  and  followed  it  with  several  addresses  in  New  England,  he  would  occa- 


GHX.    A.    J.    SMITH 


COL.  SAMUEL  McREE 


GEN.   JOHN   W.   TURNKR 


GEN.  EMMETT  McDONALD  GEN.  S.  W.  KEARNY 

THE  MILITARY  LIFE 


ST.    LOUISANS    IN    THE    PUBLIC   EYE  597 

sionally  pause  as  if  he  expected  a  question  or  a  comment  from  the  audience. 
At  Exeter,  after  one  of  these  pauses  in  which  he  had  looked  from  side  to  side 
as  if  waiting  for  something  to  be  said,  he  began  again  with :  "You  people  here 
don't  jaw  back  at  a  fellow  as  they  do  out  west." 

The  St.  Louis  orator  calculated  on  making  his  most  effective  points  in 
response  to  questions  or  interruptions.  At  the  Jackson  meeting,  a  settler  broke  in 
with,  "Wa'll  now  capting,  mought  I  ax  if  Ginral  Jacksing's  a  riglar  Missourian, 
an'  what  he  did  for  the  people  of  this  here  state?" 

"A  very  fair  question,"  replied  the  orator  from  St.  Louis,  with  an  air  of 
gratitude  toward  the  settler.  "General  Jackson  settled  away  far  west  in  Mis- 
souri, and  there  opened  a  store  for  the  special  accommodation  of  farmers  who 
were  at  the  mercy  of  Yankee  speculators  charging  big  prices  for  their  'notions' 
and  taking  in  return  three  times  the  fair  amount  in  'prodooce.'  It's  well  known 
the  honest  general,  when  things  were  dearest,  never  charged  more  than  a 
picayune  a  pound  for  sugar  and  coffee." 

The  orator  told  when  he  returned  to  St.  Louis  that  this  statement  aroused 
great  enthusiasm  with  shouts  of  "Hurrah  for  Jacksing!"  "Bully  for  the  ginral!" 
"He'll  carry  Osage  county,  sure!" 

The  story  lived  beyond  the  campaign  of  1824.  It  was  told  in  Washington. 
Long  after  Jackson  had  been  twice  President,  St.  Louisans  visiting  the  east 
were  asked  if  it  was  true  that  Democrats  in  Missouri  were  "still  voting  for 
Gineral  Jacksing." 

A  most  enthusiastic  volunteer  soldier  was  Thornton  Grimsley,  commonly 
known  as  Colonel  Grimsley.  He  held  everything  in  the  militia  service  from 
orderly  to  division  inspector.  He  raised  the  St.  Louis  volunteer  command  in 
1832  for  the  Black  Hawk  War.  Four  years  later  General  Jackson  tendered  to 
Thornton  Grimsley  a  captain's  commission  in  the  dragoons  of  the  regular  army, 
but  the  honor  was  declined.  When  the  Mexican  war  came  in  1846,  Colonel 
Grimsley  raised  a  St.  Louis  regiment  of  800  men  for  the  war.  He  was  politically 
in  opposition  to  the  governor  of  Missouri  at  that  time ;  the  commission  went  to 
another  man. 

John  Shackford  was  a  wholesale  grocer  on  the  St.  Louis  Levee.  His 
partner  was  his  son-in-law,  General  Nathan  Ranney.  Grocery  stocks  were 
brought  down  the  Ohio.  When  steamboats  came  into  use  they  had  great  trouble 
in  passing  the  falls  at  Louisville.  In  the  earlier  period  of  flat  boats  and  keel 
boats  of  lighter  draft,  the  obstruction  was  not  so  serious.  John  Shackford 
became  an  advocate  of  a  canal  around  the  falls.  He  took  stock  in  a  proposed 
canal.  Then  he  gave  up  his  business  in  St.  Louis  and  went  to  Louisville  to  push 
the  canal.  The  government  had  assisted  by  taking  stock  in  the  canal  company. 
Funds  gave  out.  John  Shackford  went  to  Washington  and  induced  the  govern- 
ment to  give  more  aid.  The  canal  was  built.  Navigation  in  the  Ohio  was  made 
easy.  History  gives  the  credit  to  John  Shackford.  The  visit  to  Washington 
brought  about  wide  acquaintance  with  public  men.  John  Shackford  was  made, 
sergeant-at-arms  of  the  senate  and  held  that  office  till  his  death. 

Mr.  Benton  seldom  spoke  of  the  duel  with  Lucas.  One  of  the  few  occasions 
was  on  New  Year's  day  1856,  in  Washington.  Mr.  Benton,  who  had  then 
become  a  representative,  was  receiving  a  call  from  Hon.  Elihu  B.  Washburne 


598  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

who  was  also  a  member  of  the  Thirty-fourth  Congress.  The  conversation  had 
turned  upon  the  Hempstead  family  in  St.  Louis.  Mr.  Benton  paused  in  the 
midst  of  his  reminiscences  and  said: 

Sir,  how  we  did  things  in  those  days!  After  being  up  with  my  dead  friend  all  night, 
I  went  to  my  office  in  the  morning  to  refresh  myself  a  little  before  going  out  to  bury  him 
five  miles  from  town.  While  sitting  at  my  table  writing,  a  man  brought  me  a  challenge  to 
fight  a  duel.  I  told  the  bearer  instanter:  "I  accept,  but  I  must  now  go  and  bury  a  dead 
friend;  that  is  my  first  duty.  After  that  is  discharged  I  will  fight,  tonight  if  possible,  if  not, 
tomorrow  morning  at  daybreak.  I  accept  your  challenge,  sir,  and  Colonel  Lawless  will  write 
the  acceptance  and  fix  the  terms  for  me."  I  was  outraged,  sir,  that  the  challenge  should 
have  been  sent  when  I  was  burying  a  friend.  I  thought  it  might  have  been  kept  a  few 
days.  But  when  it  came  I  was  ready  for  it. 

Mr.  Washburne  was  so  impressed  with  the  statement  of  Mr.  Benton  that 
as  soon  as  he  returned  to  his  boarding  house  he  wrote  it  out.  The  friend  to 
whom  Mr.  Benton  referred  was  Edward  Hempstead,  the  first  of  the  Hempsteads 
to  come  to  St.  Louis.  He  took  up  his  residence  here  in  1805.  In  August,  1817, 
he  had  been  out  campaigning  in  behalf  of  John  Scott  whom  he  was  supporting 
for  delegate  to  Congress.  As  he  rode  from  St.  Charles  to  St.  Louis  he  was 
thrown  from  his  horse.  The  injury  to  the  head  which  Mr.  Hempstead  received 
did  not  seem  serious  but  a  few  days  later,  during  the  argument  of  a  case  in 
court,  a  fatal  attack  of  congestion  of  the  brain  occurred  suddenly.  Of  his 
friend  Mr.  Benton  said: 

Missouri  met  an  irreparable  loss  when  Edward  Hempstead  died.  No  man  could  have 
stood  higher  in  public  or  private  estimation,  and  had  he  lived  he  would  have  received 
every  honor  that  the  state  could  bestow,  and  would  certainly  have  been  the  first  United 
States  senator.  He  lost  his  life  in  serving  a  friend,  Mr.  Scott.  I  was  with  him  the  night 
of  his  death. 

It  is  not  at  all  improbable  that  much  admiration  and  love  of  Benton  was 
because  of  the  enemies  he  made.  That  is  an  element  of  success  in  political  life 
which  some  public  men  have  understood  and  applied  with  marked  results.  Ben- 
ton  was  such  a  politician.  He  not  only  did  not  placate  but  he  lost  no  opportunity 
to  pillory  his  enemies. 

"Citizens,"  he  said,  "I  have  been  dogged  all  over  the  state  by  such  men  as 
Claud  Jones  and  Jim  Burch.  Pericles  was  once  so  dogged.  He  called  a  servant, 
made  him  light  a  lamp,  and  show  the  man  who  had  dogged  him  to  his  gate  the 
way  home.  But  it  could  not  be  expected  of  me,  citizens,  that  I  should  ask  any 
servant  of  mine,  either  white  or  black,  or  any  free  negro,  to  perform  an  office 
of  such  humiliating  degradation  as  to  gallant  home  such  men  as  Claud  Jones  and 
Jim  Burch;  and  that  with  a  lamp,  citizens,  that  passers  by  might  see  what  kind 
of  company  my  servants  kept." 

"Citizens !"  he  said  on  another  occasion,  "when  I  went  to  Fayette,  in  Howard 
county,  the  other  day,  to  address  the  people,  Claib  Jackson,  old  Doctor  Lowry, 
and  the  whole  faction  had  given  out  that  I  should  not  speak  there.  When  the 
time  came  to  fulfill  my  appointment,  I  walked  up  into  the  college  hall  and  com- 
menced my  address  to  the  large  assembly  of  people  collected  to  hear  me ;  and  I 
had  not  spoken  ten  minutes  before  Claib  Jackson,  old  Doctor  Lowry,  and  the 
whole  faction  marched  in,  and  took  seats  as  modestly  as  a  parcel  of  disreputable 
characters  at  a  baptizing." 


ST.    LOUISANS    IN    THE    PUBLIC   EYE  599 

The  greatness  of  Benton  was  not  dimmed  in  his  closing  hours.  Only  three 
days  before  his  death  Mr.  Benton  sent  for  President  Buchanan  to  exhort  him  to 
preserve  the  Union.  Taking  the  hand  of  the  president,  he  said : 

Buchanan,  we  are  friends;  we  have  differed  on  many  points,  as  you  well  know,  but  I 
always  trusted  in  your  integrity  of  purpose.  I  supported  you  in  preference  to  Fremont, 
because  he  headed  a  sectional  party,  whose  success  would  have  been  the  signal  for  disunion. 
I  have  known  you  long,  and  I  knew  you  would  honestly  endeavor  to  do  right.  I  have  that 
faith  in  you  now,  but  you  must  look  to  a  higher  power  to  support  and  guide  you.  We 
will  soon  meet  in  another  world;  I  am  going  now;  you  will  soon  follow.  My  peace  with 
God  is  made,  my  earthly  affairs  arranged;  but  I  could  not  go  without  seeing  you  and  thank- 
ing you  for  your  interest  in  my  child. 

Death  came  to  the  old  Roman  on  the  loth  of  April,  1858.  Almost  to  the 
last  hour  he  was  engaged  in  dictating  the  closing  chapter  of  his  great  work.  Two 
days  before  he  died  Mr.  Benton  wrote  the  following  note  to  "Samuel  Houston, 
Esq.,  Senator  in  Congress  from  the  State  of  Texas,"  and  "George  W.  Jones, 
Esq.,  Representative  in  Congress  from  the  State  of  Tennessee,''  viz. : 

C  STREET,  WASHINGTON,  April  8,  1858. 

To  you,  as  old  Tennessee  friends,  I  address  myself,  to  say  that  in  the  event  of  my 
death  here  I  desire  that  there  should  not  be  any  notice  taken  of  it  in  Congress.  There  is 
no  rule  of  either  house  that  will  authorize  the  announcement  of  my  death,  and  if  there  were 
such  a  rule  I  should  not  wish  it  to  be  applied  in  my  case,  as  being  contrary  to  my  feelinga 
and  convictions  long  entertained. 

Your  old  Tennessee  friend, 

THOMAS  H.  BENTON. 

The  venerable  Horatio  King,  postmaster  general  in  Buchanan's  cabinet  and 
"the  first  man  in  office  to  deny  the  right  of  a  state  to  withdraw  from  the  Union," 
wrote  to  the  Washington  Chronicle  this  account  of  Mr.  Benton's  fatal  illness : 

As  early  as  in  September,  1857,  Colonel  Benton  had  a  severe  attack  of  what  he  sup- 
posed to  be  colic,  when  Dr.  J.  F.  May,  his  physician,  pronounced  his  disease  (cancer  of  the 
bowels)  incurable,  and  so  informed  him.  This  Dr.  May  states  in  a  letter,  under  date  of 
April  13,  1858,  to  Mr.  William  Carey  Jones,  the  son-in-law  of  Mr.  Benton.  Dr.  May  proceeds: 

"Before  he  was  relieved,  in  the  attack  just  spoken  of,  he  had  given  up  all  hope  of 
life.  He  told  me  he  was  satisfied  the  hour  of  his  dissolution  was  near  at  hand — that  it 
was  impossible  for  him  to  recover — and  that  his  only  regrets  at  parting  with  the  world 
were  in  '  separating  from  his  children,  and  in  leaving  his  great  wrork  undone ;  that  death 
had  no  terrors  for  him,  for  he  had  thought  on  that  subject  too  long  to  feel  any. '  ' ' 

In  the  intervals  of  his  visits  to  him  during  the  last  week  of  his  illness  Dr.  May  said 
he  ascertained  that  he  was  in  the  habit  of  correcting  proof-sheets,  and  "I  recollect  one 
occasion  (said  he)  when  I  did  not  suppose  he  could  stand,  he  suddenly  arose  from  his 
bed,  and,  in  the  face  of  all  remonstrance,  walked  to  his  table  at  some  distance  off,  and 
corrected  and  finished  the  conclusion  of  another  work  on  which  he  was  engaged.  His  un 
conquerable  will  enabled  him  to  do  it,  but  when  done  he  was  so  exhausted  I  had  to  takt> 
the  pen  from  his  hand  to  give  it  the  direction.  As  soon  as  he  recovered  from  the  immediate 
danger  of  this  attack  he  labored,  as  he  had  done  for  years  before,  constantly  at  his  task, 
rising  at  daylight,  and  writing  incessantly,  with  the  exception  of  the  hour  he  usually  de- 
voted to  his  afternoon  ride  on  his  horse,  which  he  seemed  to  think  was  a  benefit  to  him, 
and  at  this  labor  he  continued  from  day  to  day  until  about  a  week  before  his  death,  when, 
no  longer  able  to  rise  from  weakness  he  wrote  in  his  bed,  and  when  no  longer  able  to  do 
that  dictated  his  views  to  others." 

Thus  it  may  be  truly  said  of  him,  he  literally  died  in  harness,  battling  steadily,  from 
day  to  day,  with  the  most  formidable  malady  that  afflicts  humanity,  his  intellect  unclouded, 
and  his  iron  will  sustaining  him  in  the  execution  of  his  great  national  work  to  the  last 
moment  of  his  existence. 


600  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Byron  Sunderland  conducted  the  funeral  of  Mr.  Benton  held 
in  Washington  before  the  departure  for  St.  Louis.  He  said : 

During  the  last  week  of  Colonel  Benton  'a  life  I  had  several  interviews  with  him  at 
his  own  request.  Our  conversation  was  mainly  on  the  subject  of  religion,  and  in  regard 
to  his  own  views  and  exercises  in  the  speedy  prospect  of  death.  In  these  conversations 
he  most  emphatically  and  distinctly  renounced  all  self-reliance,  and  cast  himself  entirely  on 
the  mediation  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  as  the  ground  of  his  acceptance  with  God.  His 
own  words  were  "God's  mercy  in  Jesus  Christ  is  my  sole  reliance." 

The  Bay  State  gave  to  St.  Louis  the  man  who  for  nearly  a  decade  was 
probably  the  leading  financier  between  the  Alleghanies  and  the  Rocky  Mountains. 
In  1854  the  exchanges  of  the  banking  house  of  Page  &  Bacon  reached  the  enor- 
mous total  for  that  period  of  $80,000,000.  Henry  D.  Bacon  was  from  East 
Granville,  Massachusetts.  Mr.  Bacon  was  the  son-in-law  of  Daniel  D.  Page, 
who  had  made  a  very  large  fortune  at  St.  Louis  in  flour.  The  firm  went  down 
in  1855,  but  not  until  after  it  had  shown  a  spirit  of  enterprise,  which  had  accom- 
plished a  great  deal  for  St.  Louis.  Page  &  Bacon  advanced  the  money  for  the 
building  of  the  larger  part  of  the  Ohio  &  Mississippi  Railroad  to  St.  Louis. 
Henry  D.  Bacon  went  west  after  the  failure  in  St.  Louis.  On  the  Pacific  coast 
he  built  another  fortune.  The  generation  of  St.  Louisans  who  knew  of  his 
good  works  in  this  city  had  almost  passed  away  when  in  1881  news  came  back 
of  the  dedication  of  "The  Bacon  Art  and  Library  Building,"  as  part  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  California.  Besides  giving  largely  toward  the  building  Mr.  Bacon 
presented  a  collection  of  paintings  and  sculpture  and  a  library  of  several  thou- 
sand volumes. 

The  battle  of  Ball's  Bluff  sent  a  shock  through  the  north.  For  numbers 
engaged  it  was  insignificant.  The  time  was  the  first  year  of  the  Civil  war,  before 
great  engagements  had  inured  the  people  to  the  consequences  of  fighting.  That 
which  made  Ball's  Bluff,  the  Virginia  landmark,  long  remembered  was  the  death 
of  Edward  Dickinson  Baker,  at  the  head  of  a  regiment  which  he  had  raised. 
At  the  time  of  his  death  Baker  was  a  United  States  senator  from  Oregon. 
Thirty-five  years  before  he  was  a  boy  driving  a  horse  and  cart  in  St.  Louis.  His 
father  had  come  from  Lancaster  in  England,  bringing  a  large  family  and  little 
means.  The  boy  was  put  to  work  with  the  horse  and  cart,  hauling  dirt  and 
doing  such  express  errands  as  could  be  found.  One  day  he  left  the  horse  stand- 
ing at  the  corner  of  Third  and  Market  streets,  and,  while  waiting  for  a  job,  went 
into  the  circuit  court  then  held  in  the  building  erected  for  the  Baptist  church. 
Edward  Bates  was  addressing  a  jury.  He  was  a  gentle,  quiet  mannered  man. 
When  he  arose  to  speak,  he  had  a  power  which  was  peculiarly  his  own  with  an 
audience.  There  was  not  the  slightest  tendency  to  bombast.  There  was  no 
effort  to  be  impressive.  Bates  was  a  winning  speaker.  He  charmed  all  who  lis- 
tened. The  boy,  uneducated  and  unformed  in  character,  forgot  his  horse  and 
cart,  remaining  in  the  courtroom  to  the  end  of  the  speech.  He  went  home  and 
told  his  father  that  was  the  end  of  cart  driving  for  him.  "I'm  going  to  be  a 
lawyer,"  he  said  in  reply  to  the  question  what  he  meant. 

The  boy  picked  up  education  in  scraps.  His  father,  who  had  been  a  school- 
master, taught  him  as  well  as  he  could.  Almost  before  he  reached  manhood, 
young  Baker  got  a  school  to  teach  in  Illinois.  He  lost  no  opportunity  to  practice 
public  speaking.  On  Sundays  he  preached  in  the  Baptist  church.  It  is  tradition 


ST.    LOUISANS    IN    THE    PUBLIC   EYE  601 

that  he  picked  up  some  medical  knowledge  and  did  a  little  at  doctoring.  But  the 
law  was  his  goal.  He  read  as  opportunity  permitted.  In  1837  ne  was  elected 
to  the  Illinois  legislature  and  in  1840  he  became  a  state  senator.  After  that  he 
ranked  with  Lincoln  and  Douglas  as  a  political  speaker.  There  is  a  story  of 
ambition  handed  down  from  the  Illinois  campaign  of  1840  in  which  Baker  was 
one  of  the  leading  participants.  It  is  said  that,  referring  to  the  fact  his  foreign 
birth  debarred  him  from  aspiring  to  the  presidency,  he  declared  "it  is  a  great 
calamity  and  misfortune  to  me,"  and  shed  tears.  Four  years  later  an  Illinois 
district  sent  Baker  to  Congress.  The  Mexican  war  came  on.  Baker  went  in 
command  of  an  Illinois  regiment.  Then  he  settled  in  California  when  the  dis- 
covery of  gold  prompted  the  flood  of  immigration  there.  He  moved  to  Oregon 
and  was  elected  a  senator  when  that  territory  was  admitted  to  the  Union  in  1860. 
At  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  Baker  went  to  Pennsylvania  and,  appealing  to  re- 
turned gold  seekers,  raised  a  command  which  was  called  the  "California  Regi- 
ment." In  October,  1861,  he  fell  on  the  battlefield.  At  that  time  the  lawyer 
whose  speech  in  the  court  at  St.  Louis  had  captivated  the  English  boy  and  had 
furnished  the  inspiration  of  his  career  was  a  member  of  President  Lincoln's 
cabinet, — Attorney  General  Bates. 

"I  wish  you  to  get  the  St.  Louis  Democrat — change  its  name  and  character 
— for  no  useful  paper  can  now  ever  be  made  of  it.  I  will  be  in  St.  Louis  in 
April  and  assist  you.  The  paper  is  given  up  to  the  slavery  subject,  agitating 
state  emancipation  against  my  established  and  known  policy." 

Thus  Thomas  H.  Benton  wrote  from  Washington  to  one  of  his  wealthy 
and  influential  friends  in  St.  Louis  in  1857.  Back  of  this  letter  of  "the  old 
Roman"  is  a  story  of  journalism  and  politics  with  Abraham  Lincoln  as  one  of  the 
principals.  Between  the  law  office  in  Springfield  and  the  printing  office  in  St. 
Louis  was  growing  a  relationship  which  was  of  far  reaching  influence.  Benton 
realized  that  new  forces  were  at  work.  He  failed  to  measure  them.  Bentonism 
was  waning  rapidly.  A  new  master  hand  in  the  making  of  public  sentiment  was 
in  the  field.  Benton,  in  his  third  of  a  century  of  political  success  had  never 
minimized  the  importance  of  newspaper  support.  Lincoln  had  Benton's  respect 
for  the  power  of  the  press  and  more  than  Benton's  facility  for  making  use  of 
it  to  form  public  sentiment  as  the  political  and  newspaper  evolution  at  St.  Louis 
showed. 

Not  all  of  Benton's  remarkable  letter  on  the  subject  of  the  Missouri  Dem- 
ocrat has  been  given.  The  demand  that  the  paper  be  obtained  and  changed 
was  preceded  by  this: 

"My  friends  told  me  that  these  persons  would  turn  out  for  abolition  in  the 
state  as  soon  as  the  election  was  over  but  I  would  not  believe  them.  For  persons 
calling  themselves  my  friends  to  attack  the  whole  policy  of  my  life,  which  was 
to  keep  slavery  agitation  out  of  the  state,  and  get  my  support  in  the  canvass  by 
keeping  me  ignorant  of  what  they  intended  to  do  is  the  greatest  outrage  I  have 
experienced.  Those  who  have  done  it  have  never  communicated  one  word  to 
me  in  justification  or  explanation  of  their  conduct ;  for  it  is  something  they  can 
neither  explain  nor  justify." 

Benton's  protest  was  of  no  avail.  The  next  year,  1858,  the  Missouri  Demo- 
crat was  openly  fighting  the  battle  of  Lincoln  against  Douglas  in  Illinois,  and 


602  ST.    LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

John  Hay  was  the  staff  correspondent,  attending  and  reporting  for  the  Democrat 
the  joint  debates.  From  that  time  to  the  nomination  in  1860,  the  Missouri 
Democrat  was  the  consistent  supporter  of  Mr.  Lincoln,  the  circulation  in  Illinois 
and  the  staff  correspondence  from  Kansas  making  the  paper  of  great  influence. 
Between  Mr.  Lincoln's  law  office  in  Springfield  and  the  Missouri  Democrat 
editorial  room  in  St.  Louis,  there  was  frequent  communication  through  John 
Hay. 

The  statesman  of  St.  Louis  in  that  period,  the  clearest-sighted  of  them  all, 
was  Edward  Bates.  He  had  seen  the  Whig  party  go  to  pieces.  He  was  in 
thorough  sympathy  with  the  work  of  party  construction  which  Lincoln  was 
doing  in  Illinois.  He  was  not  active  in  the  Lincoln  movement  at  St.  Louis  but 
he  was  a  wise  adviser.  There  was  but  very  little  of  the  Republican  party  in 
Missouri  outside  of  St.  Louis.  And  in  the  city  the  interest  centered  at  the  Mis- 
souri Democrat  office.  When  the  time  came  to  send  a  delegation  to  the  Chicago 
convention  of  1860,  the  delegation  went  committed  to  Edward  Bates,  but,  as 
Mr.  Bates  explained,  not  with  the  expectation  that  he  would  be  nominated.  The 
purpose  was  to  hold  the  delegation  away  from  an  eastern  candidate.  Lincoln 
was  almost  as  much  the  candidate  of  the  Missouri  delegation  as  if  instructions 
had  been  given  for  him.  After  the  nomination  Mr.  Bates  wrote  a  letter  to  O.  H. 
Browning  of  Quincy.  He  not  only  declared  for  Mr.  Lincoln  but  he  pointed  out 
in  his  convincing  way  the  strength  of  Mr.  Lincoln  as  a  candidate.  He  considered 
Mr.  Lincoln  stronger  than  the  platform. 

"As  to  the  platform,"  Judge  Bates  wrote,  "I  have  little  to  say,  because 
whether  good  or  bad,  that  will  not  constitute  the  ground  of  my  support  of  Mr. 
Lincoln." 

I  consider  Mr.  Lincoln  a  sound,  safe,  national  man.  He  could  not  be  sectional  if  he 
tried.  His  birth,  the  habits  of  his  life  and  his  geographical  position  compel  him  to  be 
national.  All  his  feelings  and  interests  are  identified  with  the  great  valley  of  the  Missis- 
sippi, near  whose  center  he  has  spent  his  whole  life.  That  valley  is  not  a  section,  but  con- 
spicuously the  body  of  the  nation,  and,  large  as  it  is,  it  is  not  capable  of  being  divided 
into  sections,  for  the  great  river  cannot  be  divided.  It  is  one  and  indivisible  and  the  north 
and  the  south  are  alike  necessary  to  its  comfort  and  prosperity.  Its  people,  too,  in  all 
their  interests  and  affections,  are  as  broad  and  generous  as  the  regions  they  inhabit.  They 
are  emigrants,  a  mixed  multitude,  coming  from  every  state  in  the  Union,  and  from  most 
countries  in  Europe.  They  are  unwilling,  therefore,  to  submit  to  any  one  petty  local  stand- 
ard. They  love  the  nation  as  a  whole,  and  they  love  all  its  parts,  for  they  are  bound  to 
them  all,  not  only  by  a  feeling  of  common  interest  and  mutual  dependence,  but  also  by  the 
recollections  of  childhood  and  youth,  by  blood  and  friendship,  and  by  all  those  social  and 
domestic  charities  which  sweeten  life,  and  make  this  world  worth  living  in.  The  valley  is 
beginning  to  feel  its  power,  and  will  soon  be  strong  enough  to  dictate  the  law  of  the 
land.  Whenever  that  state  of  things  shall  come  to  pass,  it  will  be  most  fortunate  for  the 
nation  to  find  the  powers  of  the  government  lodged  in  the  hands  of  men  whose  habits  of 
thought,  whose  position  and  surrounding  circumstances  constrain  them  to  use  those  powers  for 
general  and  not  sectional  ends. 

With  such  broad  and  statesmanlike  views  of  the  situation,  Mr.  Bates  led  up 
to  his  personal  and  intimate  estimate  of  Mr.  Lincoln. 

I  have  known  Mr.  Lincoln  for  more  than  twenty  years,  and  therefore  have  a  right 
to  speak  of  him  with  some  confidence.  As  an  individual  he  has  earned  a  high  reputa- 
tion for  truth,  courage,  candor,  morals  and  amiability,  so  that  as  a  man  he  is  most  trust- 
worthy. And  in  this  particular  he  is  more  entitled  to  our  esteem  than  some  other  men, 


MAJOR  THOMAS   BIDDLE 
Principal   in  the   fatal   Pettis-Biddle   Duel 


HENRY  S.  TURNER 


GEN.   DAVID  M.  FROST 

From  a  picture  taken  a  short  time 

before  the  capture  of  Camp 

Jackson 


THE  MILITARY  LIFE 


ST.    LOUISANS    IN    THE    PUBLIC   EYE  603 

his  equals,  who  had  far  better  opportunities  and  aids  in  early  life.  His  talents  and  the 
will  to  use  them  to  the  best  advantage  are  unquestionable;  and  the  proof  is  found  in  the 
fact  that,  in  every  position  in  life,  from  his  humble  beginning  to  his  present  well  earned 
elevation,  he  has  more  than  fulfilled  the  best  hopes  of  his  friends.  And  now  in  the  full 
vigor  of  his  manhood  and  in  the  honest  pride  of  having  made  himself  what  he  is,  he  is 
the  peer  of  the  first  men  of  the  nation,  well  able  to  sustain  himself  and  advance  his  cause 
against  any  adversary,  and  in  any  field  where  mind  and  knowledge  are  the  weapons  used. 

In  politics  he  has  acted  out  the  principles  of  his  own  moral  and  intellectual  character. 
He  has  not  concealed  his  thoughts  or  hidden  his  light  under  a  bushel.  With  the  boldness  of 
'conscious  rectitude  and  the  frankness  of  downright  honesty,  he  has  not  failed  to  avow  hia 
opinions  of  public  officers  upon  all  fitting  occasions. 

I  give  my  opinion  freely  in  favor  of  Mr.  Lincoln  and  I  hope  that  for  the  good  of  the 
whole  country  he  may  be  elected. 

Edward  Bates  had  declined  a  place  in  the  cabinet  of  Mr.  Fillmore  a  few 
years  before.  He  accepted  the  attorney  generalship  with  Mr.  Lincoln.  The 
selection  of  Mr.  Bates  and  Mr.  Montgomery  Blair  for  cabinet  positions  was 
almost  equivalent  to  giving  St.  Louis  two  places.  One  of  the  early  acts  of  the 
President  was  the  appointment  of  Mr.  Foy,  who  had  been  the  editorial  writer  on 
the  Democrat  during  the  period  of  the  close  relationship  with  Mr.  Lincoln,  to 
the  postmastership  of  St.  Louis. 

Just  before  the  Civil  war,  Ulysses  S.  Grant  was  selling  wood  in  St.  Louis; 
William  Tecumseh  Sherman  was  managing  the  Fifth  street  railroad;  John  M. 
Schofield  was  an  instructor  in  Washington  University.  They  rose  to  the  rank 
of  lieutenant-general,  commanding  the  United  States  army.  Franz  Sigel  was 
teaching  school  in  St.  Louis  and  Peter  John  Osterhaus  had  a  little  business  across 
the  river.  They  became  major  generals  of  volunteers  in  the  Union  army. 

An  incident  of  hitherto  unwritten  war  history  was  the  action  of  a  confer- 
ence held  in  the  office  of  the  State  Journal  at  St.  Louis.  The  editor  was  Deacon 
Tucker.  His  paper  was  looked  upon  as  the  organ  of  the  Democrats  who  sympa- 
thized most  strongly  with  the  south.  Governor  Claiborne  Jackson  came  from 
Jefferson  City  to  attend  the  conference.  David  H.  Armstrong,  Basil  Duke, 
Robert  M.  Renick  were  among  the  St.  Louisans  present,  while  the  interior  of 
the  state  was  represented  by  half  a  dozen  generals  and  colonels  of  the  state 
militia.  The  purpose  of  the  conference  was  to  select  some  one  to  command  the 
state  troops.  Governor  Jackson  proposed  Captain  U.  S.  Grant.  Deacon  Tucker 
urged  the  selection  of  Sterling  Price.  At  that  time  Price  was  a  pronounced 
Union  man.  He  had  presided  over  the  state  convention  which  declared  against 
secession.  Governor  Jackson  continued  to  urge  the  reasons  why  he  favored 
Grant  until  Mr.  Dent,  the  father-in-law  of  Captain  Grant,  strenuously  opposed 
the  proposition.  The  choice  fell  upon  Price.  The  day  after  the  conference  an 
effort  was  made  to  find  Grant,  when  it  was  discovered  that  he  had  gone  to  Illinois. 
Shortly  afterwards  he  offered  his  services  to  Governor  Yates  and  was  given  a 
regiment.  Price  clung  to  the  hope  that  he  could,  with  his  state  guards,  preserve 
the  neutrality  of  Missouri ;  that  the  United  States  troops  would  not  go  outside 
of  the  arsenal  and  Jefferson  Barracks  against  the  protest  of  the  state  govern- 
ment. Then  came  the  capture  of  St.  Louis  militia  in  Camp  Jackson.  Price 
joined  his  fortunes  with  the  Confederacy. 

Grant  tried  to  establish  himself  permanently  in  St.  Louis.  He  lived  several 
years  in  his  own  house.  On  the  I5th  of  August,  1859,  he  filed  his  application 


604  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

for  the  appointment  of  county  engineer.  Addressing  his  letter  to  the  county 
commissioners,  he  submitted  the  names  of  "a  few  citizens  who  have  been  kind 
enough  to  recommend  me  for  the  office."  He  added,  "I  have  made  no  effort 
to  get  a  large  number  of  names  nor  the  names  of  persons  with  whom  I  am 
not  personally  acquainted."  The  petition  bore  the  signatures  of  these: 

THOMAS  E.  TUTT  Isr.  J.  EATON 

FEED  OVERSTOLZ  THORNTON  GRIMSLEY 

JOHN  P.  HELFENSTEIN  SAM  B.  CHURCHILL 

TAYLOR  BLOW  L.  A.  BEXOIST  &  Co. 

JAMES  M.  HUGHES  L.  G.  PARDEE 

JOHN  MITCHELL  JAMES  C.  MOODEY 

J.  G.  MCCLELLAN  FELIX  COSTE 

CHARLES  A.  POPE  BAUMAN  &  Co. 

W.    S.    HlLLYER  WM.   L.   PlTKIN 

C.  S.  PUSKETT  J.  A.  BARRETT 

C.  W.  FORD  K.  MCKENZIE 

A.  J.  EOBINSON  GEORGE  A.  MOORE 

DANIEL  M.  FROST  E.  A.  BARNES 

EGBERT  M.  EENICK  G.  W.  FISHBACK 

EGBERT  J.  HORN  SB  Y  J.  MCKNIGHT 

THOMAS  MARSHALL  JOHN  How 

JOHN  O'FALLON  EDWARD  WALSH 
JOHN  F.  DARBY 

Accompanying  the  application  were  the  following  high  indorsements : 

St.  Louis,  August  1,  1859. — Capt.  U.  S.  Grant  was  a  member  of  the  class  at  the  mili- 
tary academy,  West  Point,  which  graduated  in  1843.  He  always  maintained  a  high  stand- 
ing and  graduated  with  great  credit,  especially  in  mathematics,  mechanics  and  engineer- 
ing. From  my  personal  knowledge  of  his  capacity  and  acquirements,  as  well  as  his  strict 
integrity  and  unremitting  industry,  I  consider  him  in  an  eminent  degree  qualified  for  the 
office  of  county  engineer.  I.  I.  EEYNOLDS. 

Professor  Mechanics  and  Engineering,  Washington   University, 

I  was  for  three  years  in  the  corps  of  cadets  at  West  Point  with  Capt.  Grant  and  after- 
ward served  with  him  for  some  eight  years  in  the  army,  and  can  fully  indorse  the  fore- 
going statements  of  Prof.  Eeynolds.  (Signed)  D.  M.  FROST. 

On  the  back  of  the  application  was  indorsed,  "1859,  application  of  Captain 
U.  S.  Grant  to  be  appointed  county  engineer.  Rejected." 

During  the  Civil  war  this  indorsement  was  changed  to  read,  "Not  ap- 
pointed." 

The  county  commissioners  were  John  H.  Lightner,  Benjamin  Farrar,  Wil- 
liam Taussig,  -Alton  R.  Easton,  and  Peregrine  Tippett.  Mr.  Easton  and  Mr. 
Tippett  voted  for  Grant.  The  others  voted  for  Charles  E.  Salomon.  With 
grim  satire  General  Grant,  in  his  memoirs  recalled  this  experience: 

While  a  citizen  of  St.  Louis  and  engaged  in  the  real  estate  agency  business,  I  was  a 
candidate  for  the  office  of  county  engineer,  an  office  of  respectability  and  emolument,  which 
would  have  been  very  acceptable  to  me  at  that  time.  The  incumbent  was  appointed  by 
the  County  Court,  which  consisted  of  five  members.  My  opponent  had  the  advantage  of 
birth  over  me  (he  being  a  citizen  by  adoption),  and  carried  off  the  prize. 

The  Grants  never  returned  to  St.  Louis  to  live  but  the  memories  of  the 
children  of  the  general  clung  to  the  early  home.  General  Grant  acquired  the 
estate  of  his  father-in-law,  White  Haven,  and  maintained  it  for  years.  While 
at  the  head  of  the  army  and  while  President  he  made  several  visits  to  the 


ST.    LOUISANS   IN    THE    PUBLIC   EYE  605 

place.  He  looked  forward  to  the  time  when  he  might  retire  and  spend  his 
declining  years  there.  During  the  World's  Fair,  General  Frederick  Dent 
Grant  spoke  feelingly  of  the  house  in  which,  as  a  boy,  he  had  lived.  He  visited 
it  in  company  with  Cyrus  F.  Blanke  and  was  photographed,  sitting  on  his 
horse,  at  the  front  door.  Mrs.  Nellie  Grant  Sartoris  always  showed  strong 
affection  for  St.  Louis.  When  Nellie  Grant's  marriage  occurred  in  the  White 
House,  John  N.  Edwards  wrote  for  the  St.  Louis  Times  a  congratulation  from 
St.  Louis  which  brought  from  Mrs.  Grant  a  personal  letter  full  of  appreciation 
for  the  remembrance  of  the  Grants  by  their  old  time  friends. 

The  year  before  Camp  Jackson,  in  1860,  the  militia  of  St.  Louis  wer 
ordered  into  camp  under  the  same  provisions  of  law  that  applied  to  the  forma- 
tion of  Camp  Jackson.  Among  the  militia  companies  which  went  into  camp 
in  1860  were  Germans  who,  the  next  year,  participated  with  Lyon  in  the 
capture  of  Camp  Jackson.  Captain  Stifel  who  commanded  a  regiment  of 
Lyon's  force  had  a  company  of  militia  cavalry  under  Frost  in  the  camp  of 
1860.  Some  of  the  German  militia  in  the  camp  of  1860,  it  was  found,  had 
difficulty  in  understanding  the  commands  given  in  English.  At  Captain  StifeFs 
suggestion,  Franz  Sigel,  then  a  St.  Louis  school  teacher,  was  employed  to 
translate  commands  into  German  so  that  German  militia  could  learn  the  tactics. 
This  was  carried  out.  A  few  months  later  Sigel  was  in  command  of  one  of 
the  Lyon  regiments  which  marched  on  Camp  Jackson.  His  men  sang  through 
years  of  war  their  song  "Fight  mit  Sigel."  A  statue  of  Sigel  stands  in  Forest 
Park. 

The  Blairs  were  Kentuckians.  Their  father  was  an  editor  and  a  politician 
in  Lexington  and  afterwards  in  Washington  when  the  Democratic  administra- 
tion maintained  an  organ  in  the  Globe.  On  the  mother's  side  the  descent  was 
from  Gist,  the  companion  of  Daniel  Boone.  When  Francis  P.  Blair,  Jr.,  a 
young  lawyer,  just  graduated  from  Transylvania  joined  his  brother  Mont- 
gomery in  St.  Louis,  in  1843,  ne  was  so  delicate  in  health,  his  physician  sent 
him  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  to  rough  it  with  the  trappers  and  traders.  He 
joined  General  Kearny's  command  as  a  lieutenant  and  served  in  the  Mexican 
war.  When  he  came  back  to  St.  Louis  in  1847  he  was  ready  for  stratagem 
and  fighting.  A  member  of  the  legislature  in  1852,  a  free  soil  representative 
in  Congress  in  1856,  a  colonel  of  Union  volunteers  in  1861,  a  major  general 
before  the  war  ended,  a  Democratic  nominee  for  vice-president  in  1868,  a 
United  States  senator,  Frank  Blair  won  a  conspicuous  place  in  the  St.  Louis 
hall  of  fame.  It  is  interesting  to  read  in  a  biography  of  Blair  written  about 
1857,  and  presumably  approved  if  not  written  by  him,  his  political  position 
given  in  these  words: 

He  is  no  believer  in  the  unholy  and  disgusting  tenets  advocated  by  Abolition  fanati- 
cism, but  advocates  the  gradual  abolution  of  slavery  in  the  Union,  and  the  colonization  of  the 
slaves  emancipated  in  Central  America,  which  climate  appears  to  be  happily  adapted  to 
their  constitutional  idiosyncracies. 

Mrs.  Francis  P.  Blair  was  Miss  Apolline  Alexander  of  the  Woodward 
county,  Kentucky,  Alexanders. 

With  a  cloak  drawn  over  his  shoulders,  his  strongly  marked  features,  deep 
set  eyes,  long  drooping  moustache,  Francis  P.  Blair  was  a  man  people  on  the 
streets  of  St.  Louis  turned  to  look  after. 


606  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

In  the  presidential  campaign  of  1868,  a  former  St.  Louisan  headed  one 
ticket — Grant  and  Col  fax !  a  St.  Louisan  held  the  second  place  on  the  other 
side — Seymour  and  Blair.  For  that  campaign  Francis  P.  Blair  furnished  the 
issue  in  what  became  historic  as  "the  Broadhead  letter." 

WASHINGTON,  June  20,  1868. 
COLONEL  JAMES  O.  BROADHEAD: 

Dear  Colonel:  In  reply  to  your  inquiries  I  beg  to  say  that  I  leave  to  you  to  determine, 
on  consultation  with  my  friends  from  Missouri,  whether  my  name  shall  be  presented  to 
the  Democratic  convention,  and  to  submit  the  following  as  what  I  consider  the  real  and 
only  issue  in  this  contest: 

The  reconstruction  policy  of  the  Radicals  will  be  complete  before  the  next  election; 
the  states,  so  long  excluded,  will  have  been  admitted;  negro  suffrage  established,  and  the 
carpet-baggers  installed  in  their  seats  in  Congress.  There  is  no  possibility  of  changing 
the  political  character  of  the  Senate,  even  if  the  Democrats  should  elect  their  President, 
and  a  majority  of  the  popular  branch  of  Congress.  We  cannot,  therefore,  undo  the  radical 
plan  of  reconstruction  by  Congressional  action;  the  Senate  will  continue  a  bar  to  its  repeal. 
Must  we  submit  to  it?  How  can  it  be  overthrown?  It  can  be  overthrown  only  by  the 
authority  of  the  executive,  who  is  sworn  to  maintain  the  Constitution,  and  who  will  fail 
to  do  his  duty  if  he  allows  the  Constitution  to  perish  under  a  series  of  Congressional  en- 
actments which  are  in  palpable  violation  of  its  fundamental  principles. 

If  the  President,  elected  by  the  Democracy,  enforces  or  permits  others  to  enforce 
the  reconstruction  acts,  the  Radicals,  by  the  accession  of  twenty  spurious  senators  and 
fifty  representatives  will  control  both  branches  of  Congress  and  his  administration  will  be 
as  powerless  as  the  present  one  of  Mr.  Johnson. 

There  is  but  one  way  to  restore  the  government  and  the  constitution,  and  that  is  for 
the  President-elect  to  declare  these  acts  null  and  void,  compel  the  army  to  undo  its  usurpa- 
tion at  the  south,  disperse  the  carpet-bag  state  governments,  allow  the  white  people  to 
organize  their  own  governments  and  elect  senators  and  representatives.  The  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives will  contain  a  majority  of  Democrats  from  the  north,  and  they  will  admit  the 
representatives  elected  by  the  white  people  of  the  south,  and  with  the  cooperation  of  the 
President  it  will  not  be  difficult  to  compel  the  Senate  to  submit  once  more  to  the  obliga- 
tions of  the  Constitution.  It  will  not  be  able  to  withstand  the  public  judgment,  if  distinctly 
invoked  and  clearly  expressed,  on  this  fundamental  issue,  and  it  is  the  sure  way  to  avoid 
all  future  strife  to  put  the  issue  plainly  to  the  country. 

I  repeat  that  this  is  the  real  and  only  question  which  we  should  allow  to  control  us. 
Shall  we  submit  to  the  usurpations  by  which  the  government  has  been  overthrown,  or  shall 
we  exert  ourselves  for  its  full  and  complete  restoration?  It  is  idle  to  talk  of  bonds,  green- 
backs, gold,  the  public  faith  and  the  public  credit.  What  can  a  Democratic  President  do 
in  regard  to  any  of  these,  with  a  Congress  in  both  branches  controlled  by  carpet-baggers  and 
their  allies?  He  will  be  powerless  to  stop  the  supplies  by  which  idle  negroes  are  organ- 
ized into  political  clubs — by  which  an  army  is  maintained  to  protect  these  vagabonds  in 
their  outrages  upon  the  ballot.  These,  and  things  like  these,  eat  up  the  revenues  and  re- 
sources of  the  government  and  destroy  credit — make  the  difference  between  gold  and  green- 
backs. We  must  restore  the  Constitution  before  we  can  restore  the  finances,  and  to  do  this 
we  must  have  a  President  who  will  execute  the  will  of  the  people  by  trampling  into  dust 
the  usurpations  of  Congress  known  as  the  reconstruction  acts.  I  wish  to  stand  before  the 
convention  upon  this  issue,  for  it  is  one  which  embraces  everything  else  that  is  of  value 
in  its  large  and  comprehensive  results.  It  is  the  one  thing  that  includes  all  that  is  worth  a 
contest,  and  without  it  there  is  nothing  that  gives  dignity,  honor,  or  value  to  the  strug- 
gle. Your  friend,  FRANK  P.  BLAIR. 

"There  is  no  item  of  that  letter  that  I  take  back,"  Blair  said  afterwards,  in 
1871,  when  he  was  a  candidate  for  United  States  senator  from  Missouri.  His 
action  in  regard  to  the  taking  of  Camp  Jackson  was  another  matter  upon  which 
Blair  had  no  apologies  to  make.  Blair  and  Frost  were  guests  at  a  dinner  in 


ETHAN  ALLEN  HITCHCOCK 

Ex-Secretary  of  the  Interior 


FREDERICK  L.  BILLON 


HENRY    CLAY 
From  a  Daguerreotype  taken  in  St.  Louis  about  1850 


JOHN  RICHARD  BARRET 
Better  known  as  "Missouri  Dick" 


COL.  THORNTON  GRIMSLEY 


ST.    LOUISANS    IN    THE    PUBLIC    EYE  607 

the  Florissant  valley  some  years  after  the  close  of  the  war.  The  Camp  Jackson 
incident  was  mentioned.  Blair,  addressing  Frost,  said:  "If  we  had  not  taken 
you,  you  would  have  taken  us  in  two  weeks  more." 

Ethan  Allen  Hitchcock  was  one  of  the  most  notable  surprises  of  this 
generation  in  public  life.  In  November,  1896,  a  group  of  Missouri  congress- 
men en  route  to  Washington  stopped  over  at  Canton.  Mr.  McKinley  was 
President-elect.  Missouri  Democrats  had  in  1894  gone  a  fishing.  The  con- 
gressional delegation  was  largely  Republican.  These  Representatives  from 
Missouri  were  on  their  way  to  Washington  to  serve  the  short  session  of  what 
was  for  most  of  them  their  only  term  in  Congress.  They  stopped  at  Canton 
to  pay  their  respects  to  the  President-elect.  "Pay  their  respects"  has  covered 
more  political  effort  than  any  other  phrase  in  the  English  language.  The 
party  asked  Mr.  McKinley  to  choose  a  member  for  his  cabinet  from  Missouri. 
Mr.  McKinley  was  kind.  He  talked  pleasantly,  as  he  always  did,  and  encourag- 
ingly as  he  did  not  always  mean  to  do.  But  when  the  conversation  became 
definite  the  president-elect  suddenly  asked : 

"How  would  Mr.  Hitchcock  do?" 

The  congressmen  went  on  to  Washington  and  immediately  confided  to  a 
newspaper  correspondent  that  Mr.  McKinley  was  "considering  Henry  Hitch- 
cock for  a  place  in  the  cabinet."  And  the  correspondent  promptly  wired  it  to 
his  paper.  The  next  day  came  reflection.  Henry  Hitchcock  had  been  during 
the  Harrison  administration  very  close  to  an  appointment  on  the  United  States 
Supreme  bench — so  close  in  fact  that  for  some  days  the  presidential  mind 
hesitated  between  the  eminent  St.  Louis  lawyer  and  another  man.  Decision 
in  favor  of  the  latter  had  been  made,  it  was  understood,  only  for  the  reason 
that  he  was  a  Federal  judge  and  was  from  a  Republican  state.  It  did  not  seem 
probable  that  Henry  Hitchcock,  whose  tastes  and  qualifications  so  eminently 
fitted  him  for  the  Supreme  bench  would  be  under  consideration  for  a  cabinet 
appointment.  The  members  of  the  Missouri  group  who  had  called  at  Canton 
were  seen  and  catechised.  They  were  asked  to  repeat  exactly  what  Mr.  Mc- 
Kinley said.  They  agreed  that  he  had  asked  them: 

"How  would  Mr.  Hitchcock  do?" 

Did  the  President-elect  say  Mr.  Henry  Hitchcock?  No;  the  congressmen 
were  quite  sure  he  did  not.  Did  he  mention  Mr.  Hitchcock's  first  name  at  any 
time  during  the  conversation?  No;  they  could  not  recall  that  he  did.  But 
who  else  could  he  have  had  in  mind  but  Henry  Hitchcock?  So  questioned  the 
congressmen. 

It  was  no  special  test  of  memory  to  recall  that  when  Mr.  McKinley  as 
chairman  of  the  Ways  and  Means  committee  was  framing  his  famous  tariff  bill 
a  few  years  before  he  had  sought  information  and  advice  from  Ethan  A.  Hitch- 
cock upon  certain  schedules.  Notably  was  this  true  about  glass.  It  was 
remembered  that  Mr.  Hitchcock  had  spent  some  time  in  Washington  helping 
Mr.  McKinley,  and  that  Mr.  McKinley  had  expressed  strongly  his  admiration 
of  Mr.  Hitchcock's  clear-headed,  business-like  ways.  Therefore  the  Washing- 
ton dispatches  a  day  later  withdrew  Henry  Hitchcock  from  the  cabinet  pos- 
sibility and  substituted  Ethan  A.  Hitchcock. 

In  the  abundance  of  advice  Mr.  McKinley  laid  aside  his  earliest  impres- 
sions and  intentions  which  were  his  best.  He  constructed  a  cabinet  which  fell 


608  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

to  pieces.  Ethan  A.  Hitchcock  went  to  Russia  as  ambassador  only  to  be  recalled 
and  put  at  the  head  of  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  when  Cornelius  N. 
Bliss,  after  a  few  months  trial  of  the  duties,  had  given  up  in  disgust. 

Phenomenal  is  the  word  that  describes  the  career  of  Mr.  Hitchcock  as  a 
cabinet  minister.  When  he  sat  down  to  the  cabinet  table,  toward  the  close  of 
his  secretaryship,  he  saw  only  one  face  that  was  there  at  the  time  he  began  his 
service.  He  was  secretary  of  the  interior  to  two  Presidents  as  dissimilar  as 
any  two  men  who  have  occupied  the  White  House.  He  won  the  unreserved 
confidence  and  unstinted  commendation  of  both  of  them.  He  held  one  of  the 
hardest  places  to  fill  in  the  cabinet.  He  held  it  longer  than  any  predecessor. 

As  secretary  of  the  interior  Mr.  Hitchcock  dealt  with  more  varied  internal 
interests  of  the  country  than  any  other  member  of  the  cabinet.  He  had  to  do 
directly  with  more  committees  of  Congress.  His  was  the  department  where 
eternal  vigilance  is  the  price  of  safety  from  scandals. 

For  three  years  after  Mr.  Hitchcock  entered  upon  his  duties  he  had  to  face 
two  elements  of  antagonism  and  it  was  the  wonder  of  all  of  Washington  that 
those  elements  did  not  crush  him.  One  was  covert  opposition  from  a  part  of 
the  Republican  party  organization.  The  other  was  inimical  surveillance  from 
certain  senators  and  representatives  who  desired  a  more  pliant,  less  scrupulous 
secretary  of  the  interior. 

Doubtless  Mr.  Hitchcock  himself  would  have  deprecated  the  mention  of 
these  antagonistic  influences  which  operated  in  the  early  part  of  his  career  at 
Washington.  Possibly  he  did  not  know  how  far  they  went  in  the  policy  to 
break  him,  how  actively  they  sought  to  inspire  unwarranted  criticism  of  him, 
how  often  they  promoted  the  rumor  that  he  was  to  leave  the  cabinet. 

The  estimation  in  which  Mr.  Hitchcock  was  held  by  Washington  the  latter 
half  of  his  career  was  in  striking  contrast  with  that  which  greeted  him  when 
he  entered  the  McKinley  cabinet.  At  first  he  was  either  an  unknown  or  an 
undesired  quantity,  according  to  the  passive  or  active  point  of  view.  Later  he 
was  trusted  and  honored  implicitly  by  President  and  Congress.  When  with 
shattered  health  he  left  the  cabinet,  it  was  a  distinct  loss  to  the  public  service 
of  the  country. 

Three  other  St.  Louisans  filled  the  office  of  secretary  of  the  interior  with 
honor — Carl  Schurz,  John  W.  Noble  and  David  R.  Francis.  A  St.  Louisan, 
Norman  J.  Colman,  was  the  first  secretary  of  agriculture.  With  the  opening 
of  the  administration  of  President  Taft  in  1909  St.  Louis  was  still  worthily 
represented  in  the  cabinet — Charles  Nagel  being  secretary  of  commerce  and 
labor.  The  department  of  commerce  was  advocated  by  St.  Louis  in  a  move- 
ment started  fifteen  years  before  the  establishment.  One  of  the  strongest  argu- 
ments for  this  new  department  was  an  address  by  Nathan  Frank. 

Political  climate  is  trying.  Some  men  have  that  within  them  which  draws 
nourishment  and  stimulus  from  public  life.  They  grow  on  it.  They  are  not 
many.  One  of  the  most  notable  cases  of  individual  expansion  and  growth  at 
Washington  in  the  present  generation  is  Richard  Bartholdt.  He  was  connected 
with  a  German  afternoon  newspaper  in  St.  Louis.  Previously  he  had  news- 
paper training  as  a  reporter  on  a  German  paper  in  New  York.  He  was  sent 
to  Albany  to  do  the  legislature  about  the  time  Grover  Cleveland  was  elected 
governor.  Then  he  drifted  out  to  St.  Louis  and,  in  a  short  time,  was  sent  to 


ST.    LOUISANS    IN    THE    PUBLIC   EYE  609 

Congress.  Mr.  Bartholdt  breathed  the  air  of  Washington  with  satisfaction. 
He  filled  his  lungs  with  the  inspiration  to  do.  His  progress  has  been  steady 
until,  in  1911,  he  ranks  with  the  most  effective  men  in  the  House.  If  some- 
thing for  constituents  is  to  be  accomplished  no  other  representative  can  do 
more.  Further  than  this,  Mr.  Bartholdt  has  developed  in  national  lines  of 
legislation  force  which  gives  him  rank  as  a  leader.  He  is  the  acknowledged 
authority  on  questions  relating  to  immigration.  He  has  become  the  admitted 
champion  in  Congress  of  international  arbitration  with  a  reputation  for  further- 
ance of  the  cause  which  is  international. 

Benjamin  F.  Yoakum,  coming  up  from  a  trip  to  Texas,  in  May,  1908, 
thought  earnestly  on  a  situation  which  was  without  precedent.  He  had  seen 
for  himself  that  the  basis  of  good  times — the  agricultural  interests — were  all 
right.  He  conferred  with  the  presidents  of  the  three  parts  of  the  great  system, 
— Davidson  of  the  Frisco,  Winchell  of  the  Rock  Island  and  Miller  of  the  Eastern 
Illinois.  Every  inquiry  strengthened  his  opinion  that  the  prevalent  lethargy  in 
trade  and  traffic  was  without  material  justification;  that  the  trouble  was  with 
the  country's  mind  rather  than  its  body. 

'  Mr.  Yoakum  went  to  Festus  J.  Wade  with  his  diagnosis.  Wasn't  it  possible 
to  arouse  the  patient  from  the  torpor?  Should  not  the  movement  start  in  St. 
Louis?  Could  not  the  man  to  head  such  a  movement  be  found  here? 

Mr.  Wade  said  "yes"  to  all  three  questions  in  one  time,  called  over  the 
phone  to  E.  C.  Simmons  a  request  to  stop  for  a  moment  on  his  way  up  town  to 
his  bank  meeting.  When  Mr.  Simmons  came  into  the  Mercantile  Trust  com- 
pany, Mr.  Wade  told  him  what  Mr.  Yoakum  thought  and  added  the  joint  opinion 
that  it  was  quite  possible  to  do  some  good  if  Mr.  Simmons  would  "go  to  the 
front." 

"Now,"  argued  Mr.  Wade,  "don't  turn  us  down.  Please  take  a  day  to 
think  it  over.  We  believe  there  is  something  in  it." 

"I  don't  need  to  take  a  day  to  think  about  it,"  replied  Mr.  Simmons.  "I  can 
tell  you  right  now,  the  idea  is  good  and  I'm  with  you." 

If  there  was  a  party  of  progressivists  in  this  country  Benjamin  F.  Yoakum 
could  qualify  for  the  apostle  of  it.  The  mental  habit  of  Festus  J.  Wade  is  of 
the  instantaneous  exposure  order.  "The  best  known  merchant  in  the  United 
States,"  E.  C.  Simmons  has  been  truthfully  called. 

The  next  day  the  board  room  of  the  Mercantile  Trust  company  was  filled 
with  men  representing  almost  every  large  business  interest  in  the  city.  Mr.  Sim- 
mons sat  at  the  head  of  the  table.  Down  one  side  and  up  the  other  each  man 
expressed  himself  on  the  situation.  Summarized  their  conclusions  were: 

Fundamentally  \ve  are  all  right.  What  we  need  most  is  to  think  right.  The  panic  ought 
to  be  over.  It  would  be,  but  for  lack  of  confidence.  Is  it  possible  by  a  strong  energetic,  in- 
telligent campaign  of  sentiment  to  expedite  normal  business  activity?  Yes,  but  some  of  the 
causes  of  timidity  must  be  banished.  Business  men  are  entitled  to  the  credit  of  ten  years 
of  the  greatest  prosperity  the  country  has  known.  Some  business  men  are  to  blame  for 
the  panic.  Business  men  must  find  and  apply  the  remedy  for  present  troubles.  We  cannot 
criticise  the  President  of  the  United  States  for  the  exposure  of  vices  and  evils  in  business 
methods.  The  American  people  have  passed  judgment  that  in  some  measure  his  charges 
are  true.  Corrective  laws  have  been  passed  by  Congress;  they  are  wise.  Prosecutions  which 
the  President  caused  to  be  instituted  should  proceed  to  finality.  But  demagogic  agitation 
should  cease.  Radical,  hasty,  experimental  legislation,  the  country  over,  against  railroads  should 
be  condemned  and  checked,  and  the  way  to  do  it  is  through  public  sentiment. 

13- VOL.  II. 


610  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

The  business  men  of  St.  Louis  organized  "The  National  Prosperity  Asso- 
ciation" with  E.  C.  Simmons  at  the  head  of  it.  Other  members  of  the  executive 
committee  were  W.  K.  Bixby,  vice  chairman,  James  E.  Smith,  Murray  Carleton, 
Jackson  Johnson,  George  A.  Meyer,  Festus  J.  Wade. 

There  was  no  precedent  to  guide.  But  the  facts  supported.  Crop  pros- 
pects favored.  The  philosophy  of  the  movement  was  sound.  Two  strongly 
favoring  factors  contributed.  In  St.  Louis  the  harmonious,  effective  organiza- 
tion of  business  interests  has  been  a  progressive  development  of  seventy  years. 
Perhaps  in  no  other  American  city  have  the  business  men  perfected  organization 
for  general  good  so  thoroughly  and  efficiently.  The  machinery,  in  the  form  of 
the  Business  Men's  League,  was  ready  for  immediate  application  to  the  pros- 
perity movement.  The  other  factor  was  the  relationship  which  the  business 
houses  of  St.  Louis  sustain  to  their  traveling  salesmen.  That  relationship  is 
close,  confidential,  encouraging  on  the  one  side,  loyal,  enthusiastic  and  zealous 
on  the  other.  Every  business  man  who  attended  the  first  meeting  of  the  pros- 
perity movement  went  to  his  office  to  prepare  a  letter  in  his  own  way  to  his  corps 
of  traveling  men.  Within  twenty-four  hours  every  business  house  in  the  city, 
having  men  on  the  road,  had  been  asked  to  cooperate.  And  as  rapidly  as  the 
mails  could  carry  the  appeal  from  St.  Louis  wholesale  houses  west,  north,  south 
and  east,  traveling  men  began  to  talk  the  encouragement  which  bottom  facts 
justified,  The  response  was  quick  and  emphatic. 

i  Then  was  opened  the  most  extensive  interchange  of  correspondence  which 
had  been  attempted  among  the  business  organizations  of  the  country.  There 
are  100,000  of  these  associations.  Many  thousands  of  them  had  come  into  ex- 
istence within  five  years.  Never  before  were  these  organizations  massed  in  a 
common  movement.  Responses  of  appreciation,  tenders  of  cooperation,  inquiries 
showing  interest  were  almost  innumerable.  If  the  National  Prosperity  Associa- 
tion of  St.  Louis  accomplished  no  more,  it  taught  the  tremendous  power  which 
the  business  organizations,  united  in  a  common  purpose,  possess. 

The  St.  Louisans  took  the  movement  to  the  White  House.  To  Mr.  Sim- 
mons and  his  delegation  President  Roosevelt  gave  his  hearty  indorsement  of  the 
movement : 

The  business  and  commercial  interests  of  this  country  to  be  prosperous  in  any  enduring 
sense  must  be  administered  honestly.  With  occasional  exceptions  they  have  been  and  are 
now  so  administered.  As  you  have  well  said,  wherever  there  is  evidence  of  dishonesty  it  must 
be  pursued  relentlessly  and  punished;  but  having  thus  moved  forward  to  a  high  plane  of 
business  integrity,  and  on  that  plane  built  wisely,  let  no  man  seize  the  moment  when  we 
have,  as  a  nation,  pilloried  the  real  malefactors,  to  say  that  all  American  business  men,  or 
even  any  considerable  number  of  them,  are  malefactors.  I  welcome  your  work  and  shall 
be  glad  to  co-operate  with  you  in  any  effort  to  establish  prosperity  on  right  and  honest  lines. 

Its  second  month  the  National  Prosperity  Association  opened  with  Re-em- 
ployment Day  and  with  orders  for  goods  in  anticipation  of  demand.  The  in- 
dustries of  St.  Louis  and  vicinity  added  to  their  labor  rolls  between  17,000  and 
20,000  people.  The  wholesale  houses  placed  orders  for  $5,000,000  worth  of 
new  stock.  This  was  an  application  of  works  to  go  with  faith  which  was  novel 
in  business  rules.  It  was  taken  up  by  other  cities  and  Re-employment  Days,  one 
after  another,  came  in  quick  succession  through  the  summer  in  different  parts 
of  the  country. 


ST.    LOUISANS   IN   THE   PUBLIC   EYE  611 

To  delegates  and  alternates  and  national  committees  of  the  great  political 
parties,  the  National  Prosperity  Association  submitted  its  appeal  that  platforms 
be  framed  and  campaigns  be  conducted  with  consideration  for  the  business  in- 
terests of  the  country.  There  is  no  record  of  a  presidential  year  which  caused 
less  disturbance  of  trade,  less  anxiety  among  business  men. 

Week  after  week  through  telling  addresses  of  President  Simmons  and  his 
associates,  through  almost  endless  correspondence,  through  an  encouraging 
press,  the  movement  of  sentiment-making  went  on.  The  unemployed  became 
fewer,  the  idle  cars  on  the  sidetracks  diminished,  the  swelling  volume  of  trade 
recorded  the  change. 

The  National  Prosperity  Association  made  no  claim.  It  congratulated. 
The  movement  was  one  of  protest  against  doubters  and  pessimists.  It  sought 
return  of  confidence  by  that  which  had  brought  on  the  distrust — public  senti- 
ment. Business  activity  returned,  in  spite  of  the  political  campaign,  more  rap- 
idly than  was  ever  before  known  after  a  panic.  A  business  organization  upon 
the  Atlantic  seaboard,  when  the  improvement  became  so  apparent  and  permanent 
that  it  could  not  be  mistaken,  sent  this  message  to  President  Simmons  and  the 
National  Prosperity  Association : 

"You  have  shown  the  rest  of  us  that  St.  Louis  is  the  nerve-center  of  the 
United  States." 


CHAPTER  XXIV. 

THE  EDUCATIONAL  LIFE. 

Maria  Josepha  Rigauche,  Schoolmistress  and  Heroine — Trudeau,  Schoolmaster  and  Patriot — 
The  Song  of  1780 — George  Tomplcins'  Debating  Society — Eiddick's  Ride  to  Washington 
to  Save  the  School  Lands — Mother  Duchesne  and  the  Sacred  Heart  Academy — Bishop 
Dubourg's  College  of  1820 — Coming  of  Father  Quiclenborne  and  the  Band  of  Jesuits — 
Inception  of  St.  Louis  University — Educational  WorTc  of  Father  DeSmet  Among  the 
Indians — Captain  Elihu  Hotchkiss  Shepard's  "Boys" — The  First  Public  School  in  1838 — 
Wyman's  Cadets — The  Original  High  School — Beginning  of  the  Kindergarten — Stalwart 
German  Support  of  Free  Education — Evolution  of  Manual  Training — Woodward  and  His 
Ideas  Borrowed  by  Other  Nations — Samuel  Cupples  on  Negro  Education — When  Wayman 
Crow  Wrote  the  Washington  University  Charter — The  Non-Sectarian  Spirit  Boldy  Empha- 
sized— Edward  Everett  at  the  Inauguration — Dr.  Post's  Forecast  of  the  University's 
Success — Education  as  Self  Made  Men  Idealised  It — Secret  of  Robert  S.  Broolcings' 
Success — Life  Worlc  of  William  Greenleaf  Eliot — Gifts  of  the  "Mechanic  Princes" — 
Fifty  Years  of  Development. 

Nothing  could  be  more  abhorrent  to  my  feelings  than  to  speak  disparagingly  of  self- 
taught  men.  I  have  neglected  no  fitting  opportunity  to  eulogize  them  among  the  departed,  or  to 
manifest  sympathy  and  respect  for  them  among  the  living.  I  know  of  no  spectacle  on  earth, 
pertaining  to  intellectual  culture,  more  interesting  than  that  of  a  noble  mind  struggling  against 
the  obstacles  thrown  by  adverse  fortune  in  the  way  of  its  early  improvement,  no  triumph 
greater  than  that  which  so  often  rewards  these  heroic  exertions.  It  is  because  I  appreciate  the 
severity  of  the  struggle,  and  deeply  sympathize  with  those  who  have  forced  their  way  to 
eminence,  in  the  face  of  poverty,  friendless  obscurity,  distance  from  all  the  facilities  for  im- 
provement, and  inability  to  command  their  time,  that  I  would  multiply  the  means  of  education 
and  bring  them  into  as  many  districts  of  the  country  and  as  near  the  homes  of  as  large  a  pro- 
portion of  the  population  as  possible,  in  order  to  spare  to  the  largest  number  of  gifted  minds 
the  bitter  experience  by  which  those  who  succeed  in  doing  so  are  compelled  to  force  their  way 
to  distinction. — Edward  Everett,  Inauguration,  Washington  University,  1857. 

Maria  Josepha  Rigauche  was  the  first  schoolmistress  in  St.  Louis.  She 
was  a  heroine.  She  gave  the  whole  settlement  a  lesson  in  courage.  That  was 
one  of  the  last  days  of  May,  1780.  At  noon,  a  habitant  ran  along  the  Rue 
Principale  shouting  "To  arms!  To  arms!"  The  settlers  left  their  dinner 
tables  and  hurried  into  the  street,  every  man  carrying  a  weapon.  They  had 
been  expecting  the  alarm.  A  cannon  boomed  from  the  tower  on  the  hill,  where 
the  Southern  hotel  is  now.  It  was  the  signal  that  the  Indians  were  coming. 
Out  on  the  grand  prairie,  women  and  children  were  looking  for  early  straw- 
berries. Madam  Rigauche  put  on  the  coat  of  her  husband,  Ignace.  She  but- 
toned it  to  the  chin.  With  a  pistol  in  one  hand  and  a  knife  in  the  other  she 
made  her  way  down  the  street  to  the  upper  gate,  calling  on  others  to  follow,  and 
took  her  place  with  the  defenders.  There  she  remained  encouraging  the  men, 
exposing  herself  to  the  fire  and  preparing  to  take  part  in  the  fight  if  the  Indians 
assaulted.  The  enemy  came  near  enough  to  send  their  bullets  into  the  settle- 
ment, but  they  recoiled  before  the  return  fire  and  retreated.  Madam  Rigauche 
went  back  to  her  school  teaching.  The  story  of  her  bravery  was  passed  down 
from  generation  to  generation. 

While  Madam  Rigauche  taught  the  girls  of  old  St.  Louis,  John  B.  Trudeau 
was  schoolmaster  to  the  boys.  Trudeau  was  a  patriot  and  a  poet.  He  per- 

613 


614  ST.   LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH   CITY 

formed  his  part  in  relation  to  the  affair  of  1780  by  composing  a  song  which 
held  up  to  ridicule  the  Spanish  officers.  Trudeau  taught  his  boys  to  sing  this 
song: 

What  did  they  in  that  moment,  then? 

Lacked  they  all,  the  souls  of  men? 

What!     Had  ye  not  the  great  Leybaf 

Where  was  the  famous  Cartabona? 

Your  major,  where  was  he,  as  well; 

The  garrison,  too,  your  force  to  swell  f 

The  salvation  of  St.  Louis  that  day  was  due  to  the  heroic  habitants,  in- 
cluding Madame  Rigauche.  The  Spanish  governor,  major  and  garrison  took 
no  part  in  the  defense. 

In  a  room  on  Market  street,  near  Second,  George  Tompkins  opened  the 
first  English  school.  He  was  a  young  Virginian,  coming  to  St.  Louis  in 
1808.  •  His  journey  exhausted  his  resources.  The  school  was  planned  to  make 
the  living  while  Mr.  Tompkins  studied  law.  In  time  Mr.  Tompkins  became 
Chief  Justice  Tompkins  of  the  supreme  court  of  Missouri.  While  he  was 
teaching  school  he  organized  a  debating  society  which  held  open  meetings  and 
afforded  a  great  deal  of  entertainment  to  visitors.  The  members  and  active 
participants  included  Bates,  Barton,  Lowry,  Farrar,  O'Fallon  and  most  of  the 
young  Americans  who  were  establishing  themselves  in  the  professions. 

"The  most  trifling  settlement  will  contrive  to  have  a  schoolmaster  who 
can  teach  reading,  writing  and  some  arithmetic,"  a  traveler  in  the  Louisiana 
Purchase  wrote  from  St.  Louis  in  1811.  The  next  year  the  Missouri  territory 
came  into  political  existence  with  this  declaration  adopted  by  the  territorial 
body  which  met  in  St.  Louis: 

Eeligion  and  morality  and  knowledge  being  necessary  to  good  government  and  the 
happiness  of  mankind,  schools  and  the  means  of  education  shall  be  encouraged  and  pro- 
vided from  the  public  lands  of  the  United  States  in  the  said  territory  in  such  manner  as 
Congress  may  deem  expedient. 

Thomas  Fiveash  Riddick  was  an  enthusiast.  When  Third  street  was  the 
limit  of  settlement  he  told  people  St.  Louis  would  some  day  have  a  million  of 
population.  Thereat,  the  habitants  smiled.  Riddick's  enthusiasm  prompted  him 
to  works.  Coming  from  Virginia,  a  young  man  just  past  his  majority,  he  was 
made  clerk  of  the  land  claims  commission  in  1806.  His  duties  revealed  to  him 
lots  and  strips  and  blocks  of  ground,  in  various  shapes,  which  nobody  owned. 
Instead  of  capitalizing  his  information,  forming  a  syndicate  and  acquiring  these 
pieces  of  real  estate,  Riddick  was  true  to  his  inheritance.  That  was  a  high 
sense  of  public  duty.  The  Riddicks  of  Nansemond  county  for  generations, 
through  the  colonial  period,  through  the  Revolutionary  years,  through  Virginia's 
early  statehood,  had  been  patriots  who  made  laws  or  fought  in  war  as  the  con- 
ditions demanded.  Pro  bono  publico  might  have  been  the  family  motto. 
Thomas  Fiveash  Riddick  was  true  to  the  strain.  He  started  the  agitation  to 
have  all  of  this  unclaimed  land  in  the  suburbs  of  St.  Louis  "reserved  for  the 
support  of  schools."  The  situation  called  for  more  than  mere  suggestion. 
Speculators  already  had  their  plans  to  buy  these  scattered  lands  at  public 
sale.  That  generation  was  too  busy  taking  care  of  itself  to  give  serious  con- 
sideration to  the  next.  Quietly  Riddick  got  together  the  data,  mounted  his 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  615 

horse  and,  in  winter,  rode  away  to  Washington.  Before  Edward  Hempstead, 
the  delegate  for  Missouri  in  Congress,  Riddick  laid  the  proposition.  Hemp- 
stead  was  Connecticut  born  and  educated.  He  took  up  Riddick's  idea  and 
coupled  it  with  a  general  bill  to  confirm  titles  to  portions  of  the  common  fields 
and  commons  in  accordance  with  rights  established  by  residence  or  cultivation 
before  1803.  And  he  added  a  section  that  the  lands  "not  rightfully  owned  by 
any  private  individual,  or  held  as  commons"  shall  be  "reserved  for  the  support 
of  schools."  Riddick  remained  in  Washington  until  assured  that  this  legis- 
lation would  pass.  Then  he  mounted  his  horse  and  rode  back  to  St.  Louis. 
All  of  this  he  did  of  his  own  motion  and  at  his  own  expense.  "Riddick's  Ride," 
merits  honorable  mention  in  the  history  of  the  public  schools  of  St.  Louis. 

Convent  education  to  the  earlier  generations  of  St.  Louis  womanhood 
meant  more  than  book  teaching.  It  was  association  with  teachers  who  knew 
all  about  the  pioneer  life.  Five  sisters  of  the  Sacred  Heart  arrived  in  St.  Louis 
from  France  in  August  of  1818.  They  were  the  first  of  the  order.  Their 
coming  was  the  answer  to  an  urgent  appeal  of  Bishop  Dubourg.  The  superior 
was  Phillipine  Duchesne.  With  her  were  Sisters  Octavie  Berthold,  Eugenie 
Ande,  Catharine  Lamarre  and  Marguerite  Manteau.  A  year's  trial  of  teaching 
at  St.  Charles  failed  to  show  that  the  school  would  be  supporting.  The  sisters, 
for  economy,  moved  to  a  farm  at  Florissant.  Mother  Duchesne  described  the 
moving : 

Sister  Octavie  and  two  of  our  pupils  next  embarked.  I  was  to  close  the  march  in  the 
evening  with  Sister  Marguerite,  the  cows  and  the  hens.  But  the  cows  were  so  indignant 
at  being  tied  up,  and  the  heat  was  so  great  that  we  were  obliged  to  put  off  our  departure 
to  the  cool  hours  of  the  morning.  Then  by  dint  of  cabbages  which  we  had  taken  for  them 
in  the  cart  they  were  induced  to  proceed.  I  divided  my  attention  between  the  reliquaries 
and  the  hens.  We  crossed  the  Missouri  opposite  Florissant.  On  landing  Marguerite  and  I 
drew  up  our  charges  in  a  line — she  the  cows  and  I  the  hens — and  fed  them  with  motherly 
solicitude.  The  Abbe  Delacroix  came  on  horseback  to  meet  us.  He  led  the  way  galloping 
after  our  cows  when,  in  their  joy  at  being  untied,  they  darted  into  the  woods. 

Upon  the  farm  these  sisters  lived  and  toiled.  They  planted  and  raised 
corn.  They  gathered  their  own  firewood.  They  cared  for  their  cows.  The 
bishop  riding  by  at  milking  time,  smiled  and  asked  Sister  Ande  "if  it  was  at 
Napoleon's  court  she  had  learned  to  milk  cows." 

After  a  year  on  the  farm,  the  house  in  Florissant  was  ready.  Driving 
their  livestock  before  them  the  sisters  moved  one  cold  day  in  December  with 
snow  knee-deep.  Mother  Duchesne  wrote  of  that  experience: 

Having  tried  in  vain  to  lead  with  a  rope  one  of  our  cows,  I  hoped  to  make  her  follow 
of  her  own  inclination  by  filling  my  apron  with  maize,  with  which  1  tried  to  tempt 
her  on;  but  she  preferred  her  liberty  and  ran  about  the  fields  and  brushwood,  where  we 
followed  her,  sinking  into  the  snow,  and  tearing  our  habits  and  veils  amidst  the  bushes. 
At  last  we  were  obliged  to  let  her  have  her  will  and  make  her  way  back  to  the  farm.  I 
carried  in  my  pocket  our  money  and  papers,  but  the  strings  broke  and  everything,  including 
a  watch,  fell  into  the  snow.  The  wind  having  blown  the  snowr  on  my  gloves,  they  were 
frozen  on  my  hands,  and  I  could  not  take  hold  of  anything.  Eugenie  had  to  help  me  pick 
up  my  bag,  and  also  my  pocket,  which  I  was  obliged  to  carry  under  my  arm. 

Pioneering  did  not  end  with  that  first  year  on  the  farm.  After  the  open- 
ing of  the  school  in  Florissant,  Mother  Duchesne  wrote :  "There  was  a  moment 


616  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

this  month  when  I  had  in  my  pocket  only  six  sous  and  a  half,  and  debts  be- 
sides." 

"Bishop  Dubourg's  college"  was  the  name  commonly  bestowed  upon  the 
first  institution  for  higher  education  established  in  St.  Louis.  The  first  build- 
ing occupied  was  where  the  log  church  stood  on  the  block  Laclede  reserved 
for  religious  and  burial  purposes.  When  the  college  opened  in  1820,  the  news- 
papers announced  this  faculty: 

Eev.  Francis  Niel,  Curate  of  the  Cathedral,  President. 

Eev.  Leo  Deys,  Professor  of  Languages. 

Eev.  Andreas  Ferrari,  Professor  of  Ancient  Languages. 

Eev.  Aristide  Anduze,  Professor  of  Mathematics. 

Eev   Michael  G.  Saulnier,  Professor  of  Languages. 

Mr.  Samuel  Smith,  Professor  of  Languages. 

Mr.  Patrick  Sullivan,  Professor  of  Ancient  Languages. 

Mr.  Francis  C.  Guyot,  Professor  of  Writing  and  Drawing. 

Mr.  John  Martin,  Prefect  of  the  Studies. 

Two  years  earlier  than  this,  Rev.  Francis  Niel  with  two  other  priests  had 
conducted  "an  academy  for  young  gentlemen"  in  the  house  of  Mrs.  Alvarez. 

In  the  desire  of  the  Monroe  administration  to  start  an  Indian  school,  St. 
Louis  University  had  its  inception.  John  C.  Calhoun  was  President  Monroe's 
secretary  of  war.  Indian  affairs  came  under  his  supervision.  The  President 
and  the  secretary  had  hopes  of  beneficial  results  from  education  of  Indian 
boys.  The  secretary  opened  correspondence  with  Bishop  Dubourg  at  St.  Louis. 
The  result  was  the  coming  of  Father  Van  Quickenborne  and  his  party  to  estab- 
lish the  school  at  Florissant. 

The  little  band  of  Jesuits  who  established  St.  Louis  University  walked  to 
St.  Louis.  Rev.  Charles  Van  Quickenborne,  as  superior,  headed  the  party. 
He  and  his  assistant,  Rev.  Peter  J.  Timmerman,  rode  part  of  the  way  in  the 
one-horse  wagon  which  conveyed  the  light  baggage.  F.  J.  Van  Assche,  who 
half  a  century  later  became  known  widely  in  St.  Louis  as  "Good  Father  Van 
Assche;"  P.  J.  De  Smet,  the  "Father  De  Smet"  of  international  fame  as  arr 
Indian  missionary;  J.  A.  Elet,  F.  L.  Verreydt,  P.  J.  Verhaegen,  J.  B.  Smedts 
and  J.  De  Maillet  were  young  men.  They  trudged  across  the  Alleghanies  to 
Wheeling.  Leaving  "the  floating  monastery"  as  they  called  their  flat  boat,  at 
Shawneetown,  they  walked  across  the  prairies  of  Illinois  140  miles,  spreading 
their  blankets  at  night  in  house  or  barn  as  the  opportunity  offered. 

Charles  Van  Quickenborne,  Peter  J.  Verhaegen,  John  Elet  and  Peter  J.  De 
Smet,  the  faculty,  raised  $4,000  and  started  St.  Louis  University  on  the  Connor 
lot.  The  first  building  was  forty  by  fifty  feet  fronting  on  Green  street.  It 
was  opened  for  students  in  November,  1829.  Within  four  months  the  uni- 
versity had  fifteen  boarders  and  115  day  students.  Two  years  later  the  build- 
ing was  enlarged  with  a  wing.  Two  years  after  that  a  second  wing  was  added. 

In  1829  the  St.  Louis  University  was  founded.  Father  De  Smet,  who 
had  been  ordained  two  years  before,  was  made  a  member  of  the  faculty.  He 
went  out  to  the  Flatheads  with  the  annual  fur  trade  caravan  in  1840.  "In  a 
fortnight,"  he  reported  "all  knew  their  prayers."  He  called  them  his  "dear 
Flatheads."  Father  De  Smet  was  not  a  large  man,  physically,  but  he  was 
very  strong.  He  could  bend  a  five-franc  piece,  a  silver  coin  about  the  size  of 


DAVID  H.  ARMSTRONG 


PROFESSOR  EDWARD  WYMAN 


ST.  LOUIS  UNIVERSITY  IN  1858 
Ninth  street  and  Washington  avenue 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  617 

the  dollar,  between  his  fingers.  A  copy  of  Father  De  Smet's  map  of  the 
Columbia  river  and  Puget  sound  region  is  among  the  historical  treasures  of 
St.  Louis  University.  Father  De  Smet  made  the  original.  He  carried  it  with  a 
letter  of  introduction  from  Bryan  Mullanphy  to  President  Polk.  The  inter- 
national controversy  with  England  over  the  northwestern  boundary  had  aroused 
the  whole  United  States.  The  cry  was  "Fifty-four,  Forty,  or  Fight."  The 
map  was  important  evidence. 

In  1836  the  closing  of  the  college  of  St.  Achenil  in  France  gave  St.  Louis 
University  the  opportunity  to  purchase  chemical  and  philosophical  apparatus 
of  great  value.  A  fourth  building  of  the  group  housed  this  acquisition  which 
was  the  finest  west  of  the  Alleghanies.  The  institution  took  at  once  and  has 
always  maintained  high  scientific  rank.  A  museum  of  natural  history  was  in- 
stalled. In  1840,  St.  Xavier's,  "the  college  church,"  as  the  community  knew  it, 
was  begun.  Building  after  building  was  added  until  the  two  blocks  of  ground 
became  crowded.  In  1854,  carrying  out  the  plan  formed  by  President  John 
B.  Druyts,  the  university  erected  at  Ninth  street  and  Washington  avenue  an 
imposing  structure  with  towers  one  of  which  was  the  observatory.  This  build- 
ing afforded  better  room  for  the  museum,  the  philosophical  apparatus  and 
provided  an  exhibition  hall. 

If  St.  Louis  was  slow  to  put  into  operation  the  public  school  system, 
there  was  some  reason  for  it  in  the  excellence  of  the  private  schools.  Captain 
Elihu  Hotchkiss  Shepard  taught  successfully  two  generations  of  St.  Louis 
youth.  He  was  of  Vermont  birth,  coming  to  St.  Louis  when  he  was  twenty- 
five  years  of  age.  His  title  was  earned  in  the  War  of  1812.  With  a  thorough 
education,  Captain  Shepard  arrived  in  St.  Louis  in  1820.  He  made  teaching 
not  temporary  employment  to  tide  over  until  he  could  establish  himself  in 
something  else.  He  was  the  born  schoolmaster.  Teaching  was  his  profession. 
After  he  retired,  he  wrote  a  quaint  autobiography.  Judge  Shepard  Barclay  is 
a  grandson  of  Captain  Shepard.  In  his  old  age,  Captain  Shepard  spoke  with 
pride  of  the  boys  he  had  taught  in  his  schoolmaster  days.  He  had  seen  three 
of  these  boys  sitting  as  judges  of  courts  at  one  time — Judge  Krum,  of  the  cir- 
cuit court;  Judge  Bates,  presiding  justice  of  the  supreme  court;  and  Wm.  Fergu- 
son, judge  of  the  probate  court.  Three  of  Captain  Shepard's  boys  had  risen 
to  high  rank  in  the  military  service  and  had  become  generals.  They  were  General 
Easton,  of  the  quartermaster  department,  who,  as  Captain  Shepard  said,  "had 
never  been  accused  of  stealing  one  dollar ;"  General  Paul,  wounded  at  the  battle 
of  Gettysburg,  and  General  Dent,  brother-in-law  of  General  Grant. 

The  act  of  Congress  of  1812  set  apart  the  vacant  pieces  of  land  such  as 
were  "not  rightfully  claimed  by  individuals"  or  were  "not  reserved  for  military 
purposes"  and  devoted  them  for  purposes  of  public  education.  The  land  was 
not  valuable  at  the  time  it  was  granted.  The  amount  of  it  was  not  known. 
Nothing  more  was  done  until  1836  when  the  legislature  incorporated  the 
board  of  public  schools.  This  body  leased  much  of  the  school  lands  on  long 
time  at  low  rates.  The  income  came  in  too  slowly  to  provide  public  school 
facilities  as  the  population  increased.  To  the  voters  was  put  the  alternative 
of  tax  and  more  schools  or  no  tax  and  limited  facilities.  The  people  of  St. 
Louis  voted  a  tax  of  "one-tenth  of  one  per  cent"  for  public  schools. 


618  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

In  March,  1837,  the  legislature  authorized  the  people  of  St.  Louis  to  sell 
the  town  commons,  a  tract  of  about  2,000  acres.  The  proceeds  were  to  be 
divided,  nine-tenths  be  used  for  improvement  of  streets  and  one-tenth  for 
public  schools.  The  school  board  met  on  the  iQth  of  June,  1837,  the  members 
being  M.  P.  Leduc,  A.  Gamble,  A.  Kerr,  John  Finney  and  H.  L.  Hoffman. 
There  had  been  a  school  board  organized  in  April,  1833,  but  it  had  taken  until 
1837  to  accumulate  the  funds  considered  adequate  to  commence  building  school 
houses. 

In  his  inaugural  message  to  the  board  of  aldermen,  the  first  mayor  of  St. 
Louis,  William  Carr  Lane,  advocated  public  education.  "I  will  hazard  the 
broad  assertion,"  he  said,  "that  a  free  school  is  more  needed  here  than  in  any 
town  of  the  same  magnitude  in  the  Union."  In  1838,  the  people  of  St.  Louis 
were  said  to  have  "better  facilities  for  educating  their  children,  agreeably  to 
their  own  taste,  than  the  people  of  any  other  city  in  the  United  States."  That 
year  public  schools  had  been  established  and  had  become  immediately  popular. 
Kemper  College  opened  on  the  I5th  of  October  under  the  direction  of  Rev. 
P.  R.  Minard.  It  was  given  supervision  by  seventeen  trustees,  and  had  the 
support  of  the  Episcopal  church.  St.  Louis  University  had  increased  its  faculty 
and  was  offering  advantages  in  higher  education  not  equaled  in  any  other  city 
of  the  Mississippi  Valley.  The  Convent  of  the  Sacred  Heart  was  affording  un- 
usual opportunities  for  young  women. 

Edward  Wyman  began  his  English  and  Classical  High  School  in  1843 
with  one  pupil,  occupying  a  small  room  for  which  he  paid  eight  dollars  a  month. 
He  built  Wyman's  hall  on  Market  street  opposite  the  court  house  for  the 
accommodation  of  his  growing  institution.  Afterwards  this  became  known  as 
the  Odeon  and  was  used  for  public  entertainments.  When  the  founding  of 
St.  Louis  was  celebrated  in  1847,  tne  spectacular  feature  of  the  procession  was 
the  marching  of  the  cadets  from  Wyman's  High  School.  When  the  head  of 
the  school  went  into  other  business  in  1852  he  had  over  300  students,  many 
of  them  from  outside  of  St.  Louis.  One  of  "Wyman's  boys,"  was  Edward 
Lawrence  Adreon,  who  went  into  the  office  of  the  city  comptroller  on  a  month's 
trial  and  remained  twenty  years,  eight  of  them  as  the  city's  chief  financial  of- 
ficer. To  three  generations  of  St.  Louis  boys,  Dr.  Wyman  was  preceptor; 
except  during  two  periods  when  ill  health  compelled  him  to  change  temporarily 
his  vocation  he  taught  boys  for  forty-five  years.  When  he  died  he  was  con- 
ducting Wyman's  Institute.  The  zenith  of  this  born  master's  career  was  when 
he  conducted  the  City  University  at  Pine  and  Sixteenth  streets.  Three  full 
companies  of  cadets  splendidly  drilled  carried  the  university  banner  through 
the  streets  of  St.  Louis.  The  enrollment  of  the  university  reached  600  students 
at  a  time  when  St.  Louis  had  about  one-third  of  the  present  population.  The 
master  came  to  St.  Louis  from  the  home  of  his  colonial  and  revolutionary  an- 
cestors at  Charlestown,  Mass.  When  he  died  in  1888  "Edward  Wyman's 
boys"  numbered  many  thousands.  They  were  in  places  of  influence  and  import- 
ance throughout  the  southwest.  The  preceptor  knew  and  followed  the  career 
of  every  boy.  He  taught  more  than  books  contained.  He  trained  character. 

Six  teachers  and  two  school  houses  composed  the  public  school  system 
of  St.  Louis  in  1842.  One  school  was  on  Fourth,  the  other  on  Sixth  street. 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  619 

Salaries  were  not  munificent.  Three  of  the  teachers  were  men.  One  of  them 
received  $900  a  year,  the  others  $500  each.  One  of  the  young  women,  the 
principal,  was  paid  $500  a  year.  Her  assistants  received  $400  each.  The  school 
board  in  1840-1850  was  composed  of  two  members  from  each  ward.  These 
directors  served  without  compensation.  They  had  a  superintendent  and  they 
elected  the  teachers.  In  1854,  the  97,000  people  were  served  with  twenty-five 
schools.  The  children  attending  were  3,881.  They  had  seventy-two  teachers. 
The  first  school  houses  were  small.  But  in  1854  the  city  took  pride  in  the  pos- 
session of  several  three-story  buildings  "with  ample  provision  for  ventilation 
and  heated  by  furnaces  properly  constructed." 

The  high  school  on  Fifteenth  and  Olive  was  in  course  of  construction. 
It  was  to  be  "an  ornament  to  the  city,  a  monument  to  its  liberality  and  a  perfect 
adaptation  to  the  purposes  for  which  it  is  designed."  It  was  located  "near  the 
present  western  limits  of  the  city."  This  high  school  was  to  be  "for  the  use 
of  those  scholars  of  the  public  schools  who  have  demeaned  themselves  the  best, 
made  most  proficiency  in  the  studies  taught  below  and  whose  parents  or  guar- 
dians may  desire  them  to  acquire  the  higher  rudiments  of  education." 

For  what  is  called  "higher  education,"  this  city  owes  mjich  to  the  German 
tide  of  immigration.  That  tide  was  more  than  numbers.  It  included  an  extraor- 
dinary proportion  of  men  who  had  been  trained  in  the  gymnasiums;  who  had 
sat  at  the  feet  of  the  ablest  professors  in  the  universities. 

The  kindergarten  in  St.  Louis  had  its  origin  when  Robert  J.  Rombauer, 
William  D'Oench  and  Thomas  Richeson  recommended  the  acceptance  of  Miss 
Susie  Blow's  proposition.  The  daughter  of  Henry  T.  Blow  had  become  inter- 
ested in  kindergarten  work.  She  offered  to  give  her  time  to  the  supervision 
if  the  school  board  would  assign  one  teacher  and  set  apart  a  room.  The  offer 
was  accepted  and  the  "play  school,"  as  the  school  board  called  it,  was  started 
in  1873  at  the  Des  Peres  -school  with  Miss  Mary  A.  Timberlake  as  the  paid 
assistant  to  Miss  Blowr^ 

The  character  of  support  which  the  Germans  gave  the  public  school  system 
was  illustrated  about  1888.  Up  to  that  time  German  was  an  important  part 
of  the  curriculum.  When  the  language  was  dropped,  friends  of  the  system 
looked  with  some  apprehension  for  the  effect.  The  president  of  the  board 
announced : 

The  unselfish  devotion  of  our  fellow  citizens  of  German  ancestry  was  signally  illus- 
trated in  that  the  schools  suffered  no  perceptible  loss  of  attendance  in  any  part  of  the 
city,  and  the  most  urgent  demands  for  new  school  accommodations  continued  from  what 
were  known  as  distinctively  German  districts. 

Forty  years  Professor  Frank  Louis  Soldan  was  connected  with  the  public 
schools  of  St.  Louis,  one-third  of  the  time  occupying  the  highest  position — 
superintendent.  When  Professor  Soldan  died  William  T.  Harris  telegraphed 
from  Washington: 

Dr.  Soldan  has  been  a  tower  of  strength  all  these  years  for  wise  education.  His  death 
is  a  great  loss,  not  only  to  St.  Louis  but  to  the  United  States.  Thousands  who  respect  his 
memory  will  mourn  with  you  today. 

In  1883  Sir  William  Mather  came  to  this  country  to  investigate  industrial 
education.  The  British  government  had  suddenly  become  aroused  to  the  un- 
pleasant situation  that  her  works,  her  great  manufacturing  establishments, 


620  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

were  under  the  supervision  of  men  educated  in  France,  Germany  and  Belgium. 
This  was  a  blow  to  British  pride.  It  was  a  revelation  of  the  inadequacy  of  the 
British  educational  system.  Sir  William  Mather  was  on  a  tour  of  inves- 
tigation to  discover  the  remedy  which  Great  Britain  might  apply  to  the  weakness 
in  her  system.  He  came  to  the  United  States  and  visited  the  eastern  educational 
centers.  He  was  soon  told,  "If  you  want  to  be  thoroughly  informed  on  the 
development  of  industrial  education  in  this  country,  go  out  to  St.  Louis  and 
see  Doctor  Woodward." 

Sir  William  came  to  St.  Louis  and  remained  a  week  or  more.  What  he 
found  in  the  manual  training  school  of  Washington  University  so  impressed 
the  visitor  that  he  was  almost  extravagant  in  his  expressions  of  satisfaction  and 
admiration.  He  said  that  in  St.  Louis  he  recognized  the  most  practical  forms 
of  industrial  education  he  had  seen  anywhere.  After  Sir  William  Mather 
returned  home  there  came  a  pressing  call  for  Dr.  Woodward  to  visit  Manchester. 
Dr.  Woodward  went,  remained  three  or  four  months  until  he  had  started  fairly 
an  institution  on  the  plan  of  the  St.  Louis  school.  When  the  doctor  sent  back 
to  St.  Louis  the  catalogue  showing  the  plan  and  curriculum,  Mr.  Cupples  wrote 
him:  "I  recognize  every  word.  The  only  change  you  have  made  is  to  substi- 
tute 'Manchester'  for  'Washington  University.' " 

The  English  are  not  slow  to  act  when  convinced.  As  a  result  of  the 
Manchester  experiment,  introduced  by  Calvin  M.  Woodward  after  the  model 
of  the  St.  Louis  school,  Great  Britain  has  appropriated  a  million  pounds 
sterling  every  year  since  1888  for  industrial  education.  A  manual  training 
school  for  the  Soudanese  youth  has  been  established  at  Khartoum  by  Sir  William 
Mather,  as  a  department  of  Gordon  College. 

Sir  William  Mather  made  a  second  visit  to  St.  Louis  five  years  ago  to 
note  the  progress  of  St.  Louis  in  educational  lines.  He  was  accompanied  by 
Mrs.  Mather.  Mr.  Cupples  and  Dr.  Woodward  took  the  visitors  to  the  Me- 
Kinley  and  Yeatman  high  schools  and  showed  them  a  thousand  boys  and  girls 
learning  to  use  their  hands  as  well  as  their  heads,  the  boys  in  the  manual 
training,  the  girls  in  domestic  science.  There  is  nothing  better  in  high  school 
architecture  and  equipment  in  the  United  States  than  St.  Louis  possesses.  The* 
English  visitors  had  not  seen  the  equal  anywhere  abroad.  Then  the  party 
went  to  the  colored  school  and  saw  the  boys  and  girls  receiving  the  same  prac- 
tical instruction. 

"I  am  surprised,"  exclaimed  the  lady.  "Wasn't  this  a  slave  state?  I  am 
surprised  that  you  are  doing  so  much  for  the  negroes." 

"Madam,"  said  Mr.  Cupples,  "the  only  people  who  understand  the  negroes 
and  who  know  how  to  make  good  citizens  of  them  are  those  who  lived  in  the 
former  slave  states." 

Then  Mrs.  Mather  insisted  upon  having  some  pictures  of  the  colored  school 
children  of  St.  Louis  at  their  studies  and  especially  engaged  in  the  manual 
training  and  domestic  science  work. 

"When  we  go  up  to  Khartoum,"  she  said  to  Sir  William,  "I  want  to  show 
what  these  people  are  doing  for  the  little  Africans  in  St.  Louis." 

The  introduction  of  colored  teachers  for  colored  schools  was  one  of  the 
innovations  which  St.  Louis  tried  with  admirable  results.  It  came  about  after 
Samuel  Cupples  and  Dr.  Calvin  M.  Woodward  had  become  active  in  the  public 


THE  NORMAL  SCHOOL 

Seventeenth  street  and  Christy  avenue,  before  the  war 


CONCORDIA  COLLEGE  IN  1860 
On  Carondelet  Road,  South  of  the  Arsenal 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  621 

school  board.  For  a  number  of  years  the  teachers  of  the  colored  schools  were 
white.  When  a  young  white  woman  was  assigned  to  teach  a  colored  school 
there  followed  an  indignant  protest  from  her  friends.  White  teachers  failed 
to  arouse  the  interest  among  their  pupils  necessary  for  best  results.  Mr.  Cupples 
was  a  trustee  of  the  Lincoln  Institute  at  Jefferson  City,  a  seminary  for  colored 
youth.  He  made  inquiries  as  to  the  capabilities  of  the  students  who  were  being 
educated  at  the  institute  and  proposed  the  trial  of  colored  teachers  in  the  St. 
Louis  colored  schools.  Dr.  Harris,  Dr.  Woodward  and  others  favored  the 
experiment.  At  that  time  the  enrollment  of  children  in  the  colored  schools 
was  about  2,000.  Mr.  Cupples,  Dr.  Harris  and  Dr.  Woodward  visited  the 
colored  schools,  invited  the  parents  to  a  conference,  had  refreshments  and 
explained  the  purpose  to  better  the  educational  facilities  for  the  children.  They 
urged  that  they  must  have  the  cooperation  of  the  parents  to  obtain  the  improve- 
ment desired.  Children  must  attend  regularly,  must  not  be  kept  out  on  Mondays 
to  go  after  the  laundry  and  at  other  times  to  run  errands,  but  must  be  present 
five  days  in  the  week. 

In  a  year  the  enrollment  of  the  colored  schools  of  St.  Louis  had  doubled. 
The  improved  conditions  under  colored  teachers  has  been  so  marked  and  grati- 
fying that  it  brought  the  public  school  board  to  the  conclusion  to  build  in  1909 
a  colored  high  school  to  cost  $250,000,  the  best  equipped  high  school  for  colored 
pupils  in  the  United  States. 

The  educational  theory  upon  which  manual  training  has  been  encouraged 
and  developed  in  the  public  schools  of  St.  Louis  and  in  Washington  University 
is  well  stated  in  these  words  by  the  recognized  authority,  Professor  Wood- 
ward: 

I  do  not  believe  it  a  good  policy  to  keep  a  certain  proportion  of  our  youth  relatively 
ignorant  that  they  may  be  willing  to  fill  what  is  called  the  industrial  demand.  It  is  said 
that  boys  from  the  mills  and  from  the  farms  are  needed  there  and  should  be  so  trained 
that  they  will  remain  in  the  mills  and  on  the  farms,  hence  they  must  not  be  taught  or 
trained  too  much. 

On  this  theory  training  shops  and  agricultural  schools  sometimes  have  been  managed, 
but  I  question  the  policy.  We  are  told  it  is  best.  Best  for  whom,  and  best  for  what? 
Best  for  citizenship  or  best  for  the  consumer  and  the  business?  Would  it  be  best  for 
your  son  or  mine,  and  would  it  have  been  best  for  us  when  we  were  boys? 

I  was  a  farmer's  son,  and  at  sixteen  I  was  a  good  and  able  farmer,  but  my  high  school 
training  enabled  me  to  see  over  the  fences,  and  I  broke  for  pastures  new.  I  believe  in 
giving  every  boy  a  glimpse  of  the  world's  activities  and  opportunities,  and  in  allowing  him  to 
make  the  most  of  himself,  but  at  the  same  time  he  must  be  trained  for  usefulness  of  some 
lort. 

One  word  in  regard  to  an  industrial  training  which  best  fosters  our  industries.  I  am 
decidedly  of  the  opinion  that  they  make  a  mistake  who  contract  the  range  of  one's  educa- 
tion, in  order  to  confine  him  to  a  limited  range  of  work.  Managers  of  our  industries 
should  realize  that  it  is  ultimately  in  the  interest  of  their  own  business  affairs  to  secure 
workmen  of  greater  efficiency  and  intellectual  as  well  as  manual  skill. 

I  believe  the  system  of  education  which  is  of  the  greatest  benefit  to  the  youth  of  a 
community  is  also  of  the  greatest  benefit  to  the  industries  of  a  community,  provided  those 
industries  are  wholesome  and  desirable.  It  is  impossible  to  raise  the  grade  of  citizenship 
all  through  the  length  and  breadth  of  a  community  without  increasing  its  value  in  every 
domain  of  labor,  whether  manual  or  mental,  or  both. 

It  may  not  be  really  fashionable  to  be  a  skilled  workman,  but  a  skilled  workman  may 
be  a  gentleman  and  a  cultivated  man.  And  when  we  look  to  the  highest  interests  of  the 


622  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

community;  when  we  look  at  the  interests  of  the  unschooled  half  of  our  boys,  the  most 
effectual  way  of  making  them  cultivated  gentlemen  is  by  first  making  them  skillful  work- 
men. And  it  is  high  time  that  it  should  be  understood  in  all  our  public  schools,  which  aim 
first  and  last  at  the  development  of  character,  that,  as  Newton  said,  "the  thrifty  mechanic 
is  the  most  moral  of  men ' '  and,  as  Franklin  said,  ' '  the  best  workmen  are  the  best  citizens. ' ' 

Sir  William  Mather  went  on  record  with  a  remarkable  tribute  to  St.  Louis 
and  Professor  Woodward.  He  wrote  that  what  he  saw  and  learned  on  his 
first  visit  to  St.  Louis  prompted  him  to  take  up  the  cause  of  manual  training, 
or,  as  he  called  it,  technical  training,  in  England.  In  Parliament,  Sir  William 
stood  sponsor  for  the  Technical  Education  bill.  He  led  the  discussion  in  com- 
mittee and  in  the  House  and  was  largely  responsible  for  the  passage.  When 
success  came  he  wrote  to  Dr.  Woodward  again,  telling  the  result  to  show  "how 
far  one  little  candle  throws  its  beams."  Like  testimony  to  the-  origin  of  the 
manual  training  movement  was  given  by  Grasby  in  his  interesting  volume  on 
"Teaching  in  Three  Continents — America,  Europe  and  Australia."  He  found 
the  source  of  the  movement  in  the  St.  Louis  manual  training  school  of  Wash- 
ington University.  Professor  Chamberlain  of  Los  Angeles  once  said  that  no 
educator  ever  comprehended  so  much  of  an  educational  creed  in  six  words 
as  Professor  Woodward  did  when  he  said  in  an  after  dinner  speech  at  the 
Vendome,  Boston,  1885:  "Put  the  whole  boy  to  school." 

A  characteristic  of  St.  Louis  educational  institutions  in  all  forms  has 
been  steady  progress.  At  no  time  have  St.  Louis  educators  rested  content 
with  accomplishment.  The  year  1911  found  the  universities  and  colleges  put- 
ting forth  effort  to  increase  their  facilities  while  the  public  school  board  was 
adding  to  the  equipment  new  buildings  which  were  unsurpassed  anywhere  in 
the  country.  Washington  University,  in  1908,  came  under  the  chancellorship 
of  one  of  the  foremost  of  the  younger  educators  of  the  country,  David  Franklin 
Houston.  A  short  time  previously,  St.  Louis  University  received  a  new  head 
in  the  person  of  one  of  the  most  talented  Jesuits,  Rev.  John  P.  Frieden.  The 
high  literary  standard  always  maintained  by  St.  Louis  University  was  illustrated 
in  the  spring  of  1909  by  the  winning  of  three  out  of  four  prizes  for  English 
composition,  for  which  ten  universities  and  colleges  of  the  Mississippi  Valley 
competed.  St.  Louis  University  has  entered  upon  a  new  era  with  an  advisory 
board,  composed  of  professional  and  business  men  and  with  a  decision  to 
increase  its  endowment.  Washington  University,  in  1908,  launched  a  movement 
to  increase  its  endowment  $1,000,000.  There  is  no  relaxation  from  the  strong 
support  which  St.  Louis  has  for  generations  given  to  higher  education  but 
rather  a  raising  of  ideals. 

By  the  light  of  a  tallow  candle,  in  his  room  at  a  boarding  house  of  Jefferson 
City,  the  session  of  1853,  Wayman  Crow  wrote  the  charter  of  Washington 
University.  He  did  it  alone  and  of  his  own  motion.  He  was  a  state  senator. 
From  time  to  time  he  had  heard  Dr.  Eliot  and  others  talk  of  the  need  of  an 
institution  above  the  high  school  for  St.  Louis.  But  no  suggestion  or  request 
had  come  to  him  to  obtain  this  legislation. 

The  charter  was  very  brief,  not  as  long  as  a  lawyer  might  have  written. 
But  it  went  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  and  was  sustained 
It  gave  the  institution  this  distinctive  character: 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  623 

No  instruction,  either  sectarian  in  religion  or  partisan  in  politics,  shall  be  allowed  in 
any  department  of  said  university,  and  no  sectarian  or  party  test  shall  be  allowed  in  the 
election  of  professors,  teachers  or  officers  of  said  university,  or  in  the  admission  of  scholars 
thereto,  or  for  any  purpose  whatever. 

The  creators  meant  what  this  non-sectarian,  non-political  section  said.  They 
provided  for  the  strongest  possible  enforcement.  In  the  very  next  section,  the 
charter  provided  that  if  any  violation  of  the  foregoing  was  reported  an  investi- 
gation must  be  made.  Any  officer  offending  in  the  matter  of  political  or  sectarian 
instruction  must  be  removed  and  he  would  be,  thereafter,  ineligible  to  any  office 
in  the  university.  If  the  board  of  directors  failed  to  enforce  the  prohibition  of 
sectarian  and  political  instruction,  the  St.  Louis  circuit  court  was  made  com- 
petent to  compel  the  board  by  mandamus  to  act. 

Marshall  S.  Snow,  coming  up  from  Nashville,  where  he  had  been  teaching, 
stopped  over  in  St.  Louis  with  Frederick  N.  Judson,  in  1870.  Mr.  Judson  was 
about  to  locate  as  a  lawyer.  Mr.  Snow  was  willing  to  spend  a  few  days  en 
route  to  his  New  England  home  for  vacation.  The  two  young  men  made  the 
acquaintance  of  Dr.  Eliot.  Almost  before  he  realized  it,  Professor  Snow 
found  himself  engaged  as  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  Washington  University. 
He  suggested  that,  possibly,  Dr.  Eliot  might  wish  to  make  some  inquiries  about 
him  in  Nashville,  but  Dr.  Eliot  assured  him  he  was  ready  to  close  the  matter  if 
the  professor  was.  Then,  when  the  arrangement  had  been  closed,  Dr.  Eliot 
remarked : 

"May  I  ask  what  church  you  attend?  I  never  ask  that  question  until 
after  a  member  of  the  faculty  has  been  engaged." 

That  was  the  non-sectarian  spirit  of  Washington  University  in  its  practical 
application.  Upon  two  men  in  those  early  days  Dr.  Eliot  leaned  for  what  he 
called  "the  intramural  affairs"  of  the  institution.  These  men  were  Snow  and 
Woodward.  To  Professor  Snow  the  relationship  with  Washington  University 
recalled  student  memories  of  peculiar  interest.  Snow  had  been  a  student  at 
Exeter  under  Hoyt,  the  much  loved  preceptor,  and  Hoyt  had  come  west  to  be 
the  first  chancellor  of  Washington  University,  dying  in  the  harness.  During 
two  considerable  periods  of  the  university's  history  Dr.  Snow  was  called  upon 
to  perform  the  duties  of  chancellor  in  addition  to  the  duties  of  his  own  pro- 
fessorship. 

At  the  inauguration  of  Washington  University  in  1857  Edward  Everett 
delivered  an  address,  one  of  the  most  impressive,  the  most  masterly  of  the 
many  which  made  him  the  acknowledged  foremost  orator  of  his  day.  He  was 
introduced  to  his  St.  Louis  audience  by  Dr.  Eliot.  The  meeting  was  held  in 
Mercantile  Library  hall,  the  largest  auditorium  in  the  city.  Prefacing  his 
introduction,  Dr.  Eliot  explained  concisely  why  the  name  of  "Washington  Uni- 
versity" had  been  chosen. 

Under  a  happy  coincidence,  the  charter  had  been  approved  on  the  22nd  of  February, 
1853,  and  the  first  meeting  of  the  incorporators,  at  which  the  organization  of  the  institution 
was  accomplished,  was  held  on  the  22nd  of  February,  1854.  By  this  coincidence  of  birth, 
the  name  of  Washington  University  was  suggested.  It  is  also  a  name  admirably  adapted  to 
the  plan  proposed,  namely,  the  establishment  of  an  American  university,  upon  the  broad 
foundation  of  republican  and  Christian  principles  free  from  the  trammels  of  sect  and  party; 
a  university  for  the  people,  whom  Washington  served;  to  educate  the  rising  generations  in 


624  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

that  love  of  country  and  of  our  whole  country  which  the  Farewell  Address  of  Washington 
inculcates,  and  in  that  faithfulness  to  God  and  Truth  which  made  Washington  great. 

Twenty-five  years  after  the  beginning  Dr.  Eliot  in  a  reminiscent  strain 
recalled  the  circumstances  of  the  selection  of  title: 

Some  of  us  may  remember  the  meeting  when  the  name  to  be  adopted  for  our  embryo 
institution  was  under  discussion,  whether  it  should  be  seminary,  or  institute,  or  college,  or 
school,  and  the  suggestion  of  university  was  made  by  Judge  Treat,  indicating  fairly,  not 
what  we  were  likely  to  be  in  our  day,  but  the  ultimate  end,  which  was  to  be  held  con- 
stantly in  view.  It  seemed  to  me,  at  the  time,  to  savor  not  a  little  of  grandiloquence, 
and,  to  say  the  truth,  I  have  not  entirely  overcome  that  feeling  yet;  for  university  is  a 
great  word,  and  the  first  American  university,  in  full  significance  of  the  terms,  is  yet  to  be 
established.  But  of  late  years  I  have  begun  to  think  that  the  way  is  opening  before  us, 
and  that  the  road,  though  very  steep,  may  not  be  very  long. 

The  distinctive  character  of  Washington  University  was,  perhaps,  never 
more  forcibly  stated  than  in  the  language  of  Rev.  Dr.  Truman  M.  Post.  A 
Congregationalist,  the  first  professor  appointed  to  the  collegiate  department  of 
the  university,  Dr.  Post,  at  the  inauguration,  most  happily  stated  wherein  Wash- 
ington University  was  a  pioneer  in  a  new  educational  era: 

It  seems  to  me  also  to  augur,  or  at  least  to  merit  success  for  the  institution  inaug- 
urated, that,  while  it  is  in  especial  sympathy  with  the  masses,  and  aims  to  bless  labor  with 
culture,  and  unite  in  happy  combination  the  speculative  and  scientific  with  the  great  prac- 
tical issues  of  popular  education,  it  is  also  placed  on  a  broad  and  liberal  basis  on  which 
men  of  different  ecclesiastical  or  political  schools  can  labor  together.  Such  joint  action 
for  a  noble  object  is,  through  its  unitive  influence,  a  public  benefit  as  well  as  an  augury 
of  success. 

But  though  the  institution  is  by  its  character  pledged  to  be  unpartisan  and  unsec- 
tarian,  God  forbid  it  should  ever  be  unpatriotic  or  unchristian.  And  I  am  happy  to 
believe  there  is  a  common  ground  on  which,  though  with  different  partisan  and  ecclesiastic 
names  and  symbols,  we  can  stand  together  in  the  great  work  of  national  education, 
without  compromising  or  discarding  those  great  and  vital  truths  and  principles,  religious 
and  political,  which  must  constitute  the  ultimate  warp  and  woof  of  all  valuable  culture 
and  character.  The  tendency  among  us  unquestionably  has  been  too  much  toward  division 
and  subdivision  in  educational  enterprises;  until  society  is  resolved  into  fragments  so 
minute  that  hardly  any  one  is  strong  enough  to  establish  for  itself  a  respectable  system 
of  institutions. 

I  am  far  from  affirming  that  institutions  distinctively  ecclesiastic  have  not  place  and 
position,  and  are  not  doing  a  great  and  good  work  in  American  society.  But  while 
experiments  are  being  made  all  around  us,  of  institutions  of  that  description,  I  am  gratified 
to  see  in  our  young  city  an  effort  of  such  promise  to  establish  a  university  on  a  catholic 
and  general  basis,  on  which  fellow-citizens  whose  walk  in  life  may  be  in  other  respects 
somewhat  different,  can  unite.  I  believe  such  an  institution  has  at  this  epoch  in  our 
history,  a  great,  a  good,  a  necessary  work  to  do  Should  this  enterprise  succeed  as  it 
promises,  we  may  regard  it  as  in  some  measure  inaugurative  of  a  new  educational  era 
among  us. 

Perhaps  only  one  time  in  its  history  has  the  non-sectarian  character  of 
Washington  University  been  distorted  to  furnish  ground  for  adverse  criticism. 
In  1895  a  number  of  ministers  held  a  meeting  and  talked  of  starting  a  school 
for  girls  because  the  influences  of  Washington  University  were  not  orthodox. 
It  was  the  opinion  of  some  of  these  ministers  that  irreligious  teachers  were 
employed;  that  young  people  were  encouraged  to  break  away  from  the  beliefs 
of  their  parents.  A  canvass  of  the  faculties  of  the  departments  of  the  univer- 
sity showed  that  nearly  all  of  the  teachers  were  members  of  churches  and  that 
the  denomination  which  had  taken  the  lead  in  the  adverse  criticism  of  the 


PROFESSOR  SYLVESTER 
WATERHOUSE 


PROFESSOR  B.  T.  BLEWETT 


WASHINGTON  UNIVERSITY 
Washington  avenue  and   Seventeenth  street,  in  1861 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  625 

institution  had  nearly  twice  as  many  representatives  as  any  other  denomination 
in  the  faculties.  The  distribution  of  professors  and  teachers  of  the  university 
among  the  churches  at  that  time  was:  Presbyterian,  10;  Unitarian,  9;  Lutheran, 
2;  Methodist,  6;  Episcopal,  10;  Baptist,  4;  Catholic,  2;  Congregational,  17; 
Swedenborgian,  I ;  not  members  of  any  church,  22.  So  far  as  was  made  public 
the  ministers  held  but  one  meeting  to  find  fault  with  the  university's  non- 
sectarian  character.  The  movement  met  with  no  public  sympathy  and  the 
proposed  church  school  for  girls  was  not  heard  of  again. 

Edward  Everett's  oration  at  the  inauguration  of  Washington  University 
in  1857  was  a  glowing,  fascinating  plea  for  educational  advantages.  But  two 
paragraphs  went  home  with  peculiar,  individual  interest  to  the  creators  of  the 
university.  Around  the  orator,  on  the  platform  and  in  the  front  rows  before 
him,  sat  the  men  who  had  taken  up  Wayman  Crow's  charter  and  of  their 
thought  and  substance  were  making  the  institution.  Four  out  of  five  of  them 
had  never  sat  in  a  college  class  room.  Most  of  them  had  never  enjoyed  school 
training  beyond  the  rudiments.  To  such  men  the  thought  could  not  have  been 
better  expressed  than  in  the  words  which  Mr.  Everett  gave  it: 

Nothing  could  be  more  abhorrent  to  my  feelings  than  to  speak  disparagingly  of 
self-taught  men.  I  have  neglected  no  fitting  opportunity  to  eulogize  them  among  the 
departed,  or  to  manifest  sympathy  and  respect  for  them  among  the  living.  I  know  of  no 
spectacle  on  earth,  pertaining  to  intellectual  culture,  more  interesting  than  that  of  a  noble 
mind,  struggling  against  the  obstacles  thrown  by  adverse  fortune  in  the  way  of  its  early 
improvement;  no  triumph  more  glorious  than  that  which  so  often  rewards  these  heroic 
exertions.  It  is  because  I  appreciate  the  severity  of  the  struggle,  and  deeply  sympathize 
with  those  who  have  forced  their  way  to  eminence,  in  the  face  of  poverty,  friendless 
obscurity,  distance  from  all  the  facilities  for  improvement,  and  inability  to  command  their 
time,  that  I  would  multiply  the  means  of  education,  and  bring  them  into  as  many  districts 
of  the  country,  and  as  near  the  homes  of  as  large  a  portion  of  the  population  as  possible, 
in  order  to  spare  to  the  largest  number  of  gifted  minds  the  bitter  experience  by  which 
those  who  succeed  in  doing  so  are  compelled  to  force  their  way  to  distinction. 

This  premised,  I  have  four  words  to  say  concerning  self-taught  men.  The  first  is, 
that  while  a  few  minds  of  a  very  high  order  rise  superior  to  the  want  of  early  oppor- 
tunities, with  the  mass  of  men,  that  want,  where  it  exists,  can  never  be  fully  repaired. 
In  the  next  place,  although  it  is  given  to  a  few  very  superior  intellects  to  rise  to  eminence 
without  opportunities  for  early  education,  it  by  no  means  follows  that,  even  in  their  cases, 
such  opportunities  would  not  have  been  highly  beneficial,  in  smoothing  the  arduous  path 
and  leading  to  an  earlier  and  more  perfect  development  of  the  mental  powers.  Accord- 
ingly we  find  in  the  third  place,  that  highly  intelligent  men,  who  have  felt  the  want  of 
early  education  themselves,  are  (without  an  exception,  so  far  as  my  observation  has  gone) 
the  best  friends  of  academic  education,  as  if  determined  that  others  should  enjoy  the 
advantages  of  which  they  were  deprived.  It  would  not  be  necessary  to  leave  this  platform 
to  find  the  most  striking  illustrations  of  the  truth  of  this  remark.  Lastly,  this  epithet, 
self-taught,  is  subject  itself  to  great  misconception.  It  is  by  no  means  to  be  supposed 
because  eminent  men,  in  any  department  of  science  or  art,  passed  their  first  years  and 
earned  their  first  laurels  without  early  opportunities  of  education,  that  they  remained, 
more  than  other  men,  destitute  to  the  end  of  their  lives  of  instruction  from  abroad.  Far 
otherwise;  in  all  ordinary  cases,  the  epithet  in  question  applies  only,  with  real  significance, 
to  the  early  stages  of  a  distinguished  career.  As  soon  as  a  gifted  person,  however  desti- 
tute of  early  culture,  has  possessed  himself  of  the  keys  of  science  and  literature,  and 
gained  access  to  books,  he  is  no  longer  self-taught,  he  is  a  regularly  entered  pupil  in  the 
great  high  school  of  recorded  knowledge,  in  which  the  wise  and  famous  of  every  age 
are  the  masters. 


14-VOL.  II. 


626  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

Original  in  its  theory,  Washington  University  at  the  very  beginning  at- 
tempted the  solution  of  the  new  problems  in  education.  "The  Practical  de- 
partment" was  the  first  organized.  That  was  the  name  which  Dr.  Eliot  gave 
to  this  branch  at  the  inauguration  of  the  university  in  1857.  St.  Louisans 
knew  it  as  the  O'Fallon  Polytechnic  Institute.  John  How,  who  was  president 
of  the  board  having  special  charge  of  the  Practical  department,  explained  the 
new  field  of  education  which  his  associates  hoped  to  occupy  and  cultivate  in  St. 
Louis : 

Our  desire  is  to  establish  here  in  St.  Louis  an  institution  that  shall  have  all  of  the 
advantages  of  the  mechanics'  institutes  of  our  country,  with  those  of  the  polytechnic 
institutes  of  Berlin,  Vienna,  and  other  cities  of  Europe;  to  have  a  building  where,  besides 
the  library  and  reading  rooms  usually  found  in  the  mechanics'  institutes,  will  be  found  a 
place  for  the  model  of  the  inventor,  with  the  engine  to  work  it,  and  for  a  school  of  design. 
The  professors  of  the  various  branches  of  science  treat  of  the  mechanic  arts,  and  there 
are  few  of  these  arts  which  do  not  need  for  their  successful  prosecution  a  scientific 
education. 

Time  has  proven  that  the  germ  which  John  How,  John  O'Fallon,  Samuel 
Treat  and  their  associates,  more  than  half  a  century  ago  sought  to  develop,  was 
one  of  great  possibilities  for  good.  Financial  stress,  following  the  inauguration 
of  the  university,  Civil  war,  misjudgment  in  the  construction  of  a  building  in 
the  wrong  location  were  handicaps  the  idea  encountered.  The  university .  never 
abandoned  the  theory  but  the  practice  of  it  did  not  begin  to  attain  hoped  for 
results  until  Calvin  M.  Woodward  took  hold  of  it.  Professor  Woodward  was 
backed  by  a  new  generation  of  business  men  imbued  with  the  same  public  spirit 
as  the  John  O'Fallons  of  the  fifties.  Foremost  among  these  friends  of  engineer- 
ing and  manual  or  "hand-and-head"  education  has  been  Samuel  Cupples.  Other 
notable  contributors  whose  gifts  enabled  Professor  Woodward  to  perfect  his 
manual  training  plans  have  been  Edwin  Harrison,  Gottlieb  Conzelman,  Carlos 
S.  Greeley,  Ralph  and  Timothy  G.  Sellew,  William  L.  Huse,  William  Brown, 
William  Barr  and  Emiline  F.  Rea. 

Far  beyond  the  perhaps  dim  theory  of  those  who  started  the  polytechnic 
idea  in  St.  Louis,  Professor  Woodward  carried  his  plans  until  the  "Practical" 
features  of  Washington  University  became  of  more  than  national  renown.  The 
innovation  was  received  with  skepticism  and  even  with  some  ridicule.  Dr.  Eliot 
was  prompted  to  say  of  those  who  opposed : 

A  carpenter's  shop  and  blacksmith's  forge  seemed  to  them  a  singular  appendage  to 
the  college  ' '  humanities ' '  and  the  schools  of  philosophy  and  advanced  learning  which 
dignify  the  university  career.  It  seems  to  have  been  forgotten  that  the  word  "university" 
was  itself  borrowed  from  the  "guilds"  or  trade  associations  which  were  known  as  univer- 
sities two  or  three  hundred  years  ago,  as  the  ' '  university  of  bakers, ' '  of  smiths,  of  watch- 
makers, etc.,  in  Eome  and  London.  Already  the  prejudice  is  passing  away,  and  it  ia 
recognized  as  a  proper  American-republic  idea  that  skilled  labor  may  command  the  same 
respect  with  intellectual  development,  and  that  the  two  should,  so  far  as  possible,  go  hand 
in  hand. 

As  the  experiment  of  manual  training  established  beyond  question  its  merits, 
Dr.  Eliot  said: 

"It  is  in  fact  only  a  more  systematic  development  of  the  educational  ideas 
which  lie  at  the  foundation  of  our  whole  university  enterprise." 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  627 

"In  a  republic,"  he  continued,  "the  head  cannot  say  to  the  hand:  I  have 
no  need  of  thee;  nor  can  the  hand  say  it  to  the  head.  The  dependence  is 
mutual,  and  the  more  frankly  we  recognize  it  the  better  for  all  concerned.  If 
we  can  bring  educated  brains  to  the  work-bench,  and  at  the  same  time  respect 
for  skilled  labor  into  the  daily  thoughts  of  the  student,  we  shall  be  doing  the 
best  work  of  an  American  university." 

"Surely,"  Dr.  Eliot  concluded,  "it  is  not  beneath  the  dignity  of  a  western 
university,  however  high  its  standard,  to  inaugurate  a  new  order  of  things 
by  elevating  skilled  labor  to  its  due  respect  among  educated  men." 

Coeducation  came  naturally  as  a  principle  of  Washington  University  in 
view  of  the  relationship  of  the  institution  to  the  public  school  system  of  St. 
Louis. 

"Equal  advantages  and  the  survival  of  the  fittest  should  everywhere  be  the 
rule,"  was  Dr.  Eliot's  theory  and  practice  in  respect  to  educational  relationship 
of  the  sexes. 

The  practice  was  illustrated  in  the  full  graduation  of  a  woman  as  LL.B. 
by  the  University  Law  School,  the  first  instance  in  this  country.  As  early  as 
1870.  a  St.  Louis  girl  was  a  member  of  the  freshman  class  of  the  college. 

Always  in  view  was  kept  the  distinctive  character  of  Washington  Uni- 
versity. The  words  in  the  charter  and  the  expressions  of  the  inaugural  ad- 
dresses were  not  uttered  to  be  forgotten.  Addressing  the  first  graduating  class 
in  1872  the  acting  chancellor,  Professor  Chauvenet  said: 

With  no  party  connections,  no  sectarian  bias,  no  dependence  upon  the  uncertain 
patronage  of  state  governments  or  legislatures,  independent  and  self-sustaining,  it  standa 
before  the  world  simply  as  the  advocate  and  promoter  of  sound  learning,  true  science  and 
just  moral  culture.  It  may  take  years  to  develop  its  system  in  its  full  proportions,  and  to 
produce  those  results  by  which  alone  the  mass  of  the  community  will  judge  of  its  merits. 
But  they  (the  founders)  are  content  to  wait.  They  are  content  with  having  laid  the 
foundations  of  an  institution  which  is  destined  to  be  a  great  beating  heart  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi Valley,  sending  forth  by  its  annual  pulsations  new  arterial  blood  into  the  social 
system. 

In  1872  Dr.  Eliot,  who  had  been  almost  everything  else  to  the  university, 
was  induced  to  take  the  chancellorship.  In  his  inaugural  he  presented  the  ideal 
of  the  creators: 

Washington  University,  in  its  ante-typal  idea,  prefigures  an  institution  worthy  of  the 
great  name  it  bears;  a  name  which  is  the  symbol  of  Christian  civilization  and  American 
patriotism,  and  to  which,  therefore,  no  thought  of  sectarian  narrowness  or  of  party  strife 
can  ever  be  attached;  an  institution  of  learning,  at  once  conservative  and  progressive,  with 
foundations  so  broad  that  there  is  room  for  every  department  of  human  culture,  and  so 
deep  that  neither  praise  nor  blame  shall  shake  its  allegiance  to  truth.  We  would  found  a 
university  so  strong  in  its  faculty  of  instruction,  so  generous  in  its  ideas,  so  thoroughly- 
provided  with  all  facilities  of  education,  so  hospitable  to  all  comers,  and  so  rich  in  its 
benefactions  conferred,  that  it  should  gather  round  itself  a  constituency  of  learning  and 
science,  and  give  tone  to  the  educational  movement  of  the  region  in  which  we  live.  We 
would  found  a  university  so  widely  acknowledged  in  its  influence,  that  St.  Louis  and 
Missouri  should  be  honored  throughout  the  world  by  its  being  established  here;  and  the 
best  class  of  citizens  from  all  parts  of  the  land,  the  intelligent,  the  enterprising,  the  philan- 
thropic, the  skilled  laborer  and  artist,  men  of  wealth  and  men  of  intellect,  the  true  bone 
and  sinew,  the  nerve-power  and  brain  and  controlling  will  of  the  republic,  should  be 
attracted  here  to  find  a  favored  home. 


628  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

A  business  study  of  the  subject  of  education  was  what  Robert  S.  Brook- 
ings  set  about  when  he  found  himself  at  the  head  of  the  trustees  of  Washing- 
ton University.  Mr.  Brookings  was  sixteen  or  seventeen  years  of  age  when  he 
came  out  from  Maryland  to  enter  business  life  in  St.  Louis.  He  joined  his 
brother  who  had  preceded  him  in  the  house  of  Cupples  &  Marston.  The 
secret  of  Robert  S.  Brooking's  success  in  business  is  said  to  have  been  his  habit 
of  making  a  most  thorough  investigation  and  then  of  working  intelligently. 
Mr.  Brookings,  Mr.  Cupples  said,  never  went  into  anything  until  he  had  given 
it  an  exhaustive  inquiry.  Satisfied  as  the  result  of  his  examination  he  went 
ahead  with  perfect  confidence.  This  business  trait  Mr.  Brookings  applied  to  his 
investigation  of  educational  matters.  He  made  a  study  of  the  workings  of 
American  universities  so  thorough  and  so  complete  that  his  knowledge  and 
conclusions  have  surprised  many  professional  educators.  Few  men  have  such 
complete  information  of  the  operations  of  the  higher  institutions  of  this  country 
as  has  Mr.  Brookings,  the  result  of  his  personal,  tireless  investigation.  Upon 
a  great  chart,  the  president  of  Washington  University  has  before  him  at  all 
times  the  compiled  information  of  what  all  of  the  large  institutions  are  doing. 

"A  poor  boy's  college,"  President  Brookings  of  the  corporation  recently 
called  Washington  University.  And  he  told  in  glowing  words  how  Washing- 
ton University  had  supplied  the  advantages  of  higher  education  to  boys  of 
limited  means  from  the  high  schools  and  from  the  Manual  Training  School 
who  wanted  to  go  on  and  who  have  become  eminent  in  their  callings.  It  was 
a  story  to  stimulate  the  pride  of  all  St.  Louisans : 

Washington  University  struggled  along  for  nearly  half  a  century,  furnishing  St.  Louis 
with  practically  every  branch  of  higher  education.  Having  neither  building,  equipment 
nor  funds  enough  for  either  a  college  or  school  of  engineering,  it  managed  to  support 
both,  and  as  evidence  of  the  earnest  quality  of  the  work  done,  witness  the  following  service: 

In  our  civic  life  I  think  no  one  will  question  the  overwhelming  importance  of  the 
administration  of  our  public  schools.  Superintendent  Blewitt  and  his  assistant,  Mr  Bryan, 
are  both  Washington  University  men. 

The  next  most  important  branch  of  public  service  is  certainly  the  department  of 
public  improvements.  Glance  through  the  army  of  engineers  that  have  administered  or 
been  connected  with  this  department  over  a  long  period  of  years  and  you  can  scarcely  lay 
your  hand  on  a  man  that  did  not  receive  his  training  at  Washington  University.  Holman, 
Flad,  Burnett,  O'Reilly  and  Adkins  are  all  Washington  University  men.  Probably  the 
most  important  branch  of  this  service  is  the  Water  Department,  as  it  requires  the  greatest 
skill  in  nearly  every  branch  of  engineering.  At  the  end  of  the  term  of  the  present  Water 
Commissioner,  Mr.  Adkins,  this  department  will  have  been  administered  by  three  Wash- 
ington University  men  (Holman,  Flad  and  Adkins)  for  twenty-four  consecutive  years. 
During  this  period  the  waterworks  have  been  rebuilt  and  their  capacity  nearly  quadrupled, 
and  in  this  work  of  reconstruction  there  were  employed  as  division  and  assistant  engineers 
more  than  twenty  graduates  of  Washington  University.  If  the  university  had  produced 
only  two  men,  John  T.  Wixford,  who  by  chemical  experiment  discovered  a  method  for 
clarifying  and  purifying  our  water  supply,  and  Commissioner  Adkins,  wrho  solved  the 
engineering  problem  of  applying  it,  the  city  would  be  largely  its  debtor. 

A  glance  at  the  eleemosynary  institutions  shows  that  Doctor  Runge,  late  Superin- 
tendent of  the  Insane  Asylum;  Doctor  Elbreeht,  Superintendent  of  the  Female  Hospital, 
and  Doctor  Kirchner,  Superintendent  of  the  City  Hospital,  are  all  Washington  University 
men.  The  Public  Library,  with  its  branches  all  over  the  city,  has  become  no  small  factor 
in  our  educational  life  owing  to  the  preeminent  efficiency  of  the  Librarian,  Mr.  Crunden, 
a  graduate,  who  has  served  the  city  as  librarian  for  more  than  thirty  years. 


WASHINGTON  UNIVERSITY  IN  1885 


WAYMAN  CROW 


WILLIAM   GREENLEAF  ELIOT 

From  a  Daguerreotype  taken  before 
Washington  University  was  founded 


WASHINGTON  UNIVERSITY  IN  1909 


THE   EDUCATIONAL    LIFE  629 

In  the  little  class  of  six  which  were  graduated  in  1870  was  a  man  who  fifteen  years 
later  served  the  city  as  mayor;  four  years  later  the  state  as  governor;  and  still  six  years 
later  the  United  States  as  secretary  of  the  interior;  and  four  years  ago,  as  president  of 
the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition,  was  the  spirit  of  embodiment  of  that  great  enterprise. 
He  is  now  a  director  of  Washington  University.  What  has  Washington  University  given 
to  the  judiciary?  More  than  one  state  has  been  furnished  with  a  Supreme  judge,  while 
between  twenty-five  and  thirty  graduates  have  occupied  seats  on  the  United  States  and  state 
circuit  and  district  court  benches. 

In  the  everyday  walks  of  life  it  would  be  impossible  to  gather  together  a  group  of 
professional  men  of  any  strength  in  either  medicine,  dentistry,  law  or  engineering  without 
being  struck  by  the  large  proportion  of  Washington  graduates.  Two  talented  young 
engineers,  Eichard  McCulloch,  who  has  made  an  international  reputation,  and  now  practically 
superintends  and  directs  the  city's  vast  street  railway  system,  and  Harvey  Fleming,  who  is 
chief  engineer  of  the  Chicago  Street  Railway  company,  are  in  the  public  eye  at  the  moment. 

For  nearly  half  a  century  Washington  graduated  from  the  College  and  School  of 
Engineering  an  average  of  only  about  ten  students  per  year.  What  impression  have  they 
made  on  the  outside  world?  Who  is  the  most  prominent  civil  engineer  in  the  country? 
Some  would  probably  say  George  Pegram,  chief  engineer  of  the  New  York  subway  and 
Brooklyn  tunnel.  Others,  appreciating  the  skill  of  the  bridge  builder,  would  say  Charles 
W.  Bryan,  chief  engineer  and  manager  of  the  American  Bridge  Company,  which  is  the 
bridge  department  of  the  great  steel  corporation  that  is  building  bridges  all  over  the  world. 
Both  of  them  are  Washington  University  graduates,  as  is  also  F.  C.  McMath,  president 
and  chief  engineer  of  the  Canadian  Bridge  company,  and  William  L.  Breckenridge,  chief 
engineer  of  the  Burlington  Kailway  system. 

Those  who  read  The  New  York  Evening  Post  and  The  Nation  are  utterly  ignorant 
of  the  fact  that  Paul  Elmer  More,  literary  editor  of  both  these  papers,  is  a  Washington 
University  graduate,  as  is  Surgeon  General  Walter  Wyman,  of  the  United  States  Hospital 
Marine  Service,  and  Samuel  T.  Armstrong,  president  New  York  Academy  of  Medicine,  author, 
and  superintendent  of  Bellevue  and  allied  hospitals. 

Go  to  the  great  mining  camps  of  Colorado,  and  ask  who  is  the  most  eminent  mining 
engineer  in  that  State.  Some  will  probably  say  Regis  Chauvenet,  former  president  of  the 
Colorado  School  of  Mines.  Others  may  say  Seely  Mudd,  but  it  makes  no  difference  to  us, 
as  they  are  both  Washington  University  men.  When  John  Hayes  Hammond,  acknowledged 
the  most  eminent  living  mining  engineer,  was  leaving  South  Africa  as  a  result  of  his  con- 
nection with  the  famous  Jamison  raid,  he  was  asked  by  the  owners  of  the  vast  properties 
he  had  been  managing  to  name  the  most  capable  man  he  knew  as  his  successor.  He  named, 
and  was  succeeded  by  Pope  Yeatman,  a  Washington  University  graduate. 

In  addition  to  Washington 's  public  school  service  what  has  she  done  for  that  noblest 
of  all  causes — education?  Conceding  to  the  Institute  of  Technology  of  Boston  first  place 
among  the  technical  schools  of  the  country,  the  Worcester  Polytechnic  School  is  fre- 
quently mentioned  as  the  second.  Washington  gave  them  Engler  for  their  president. 
Rochester  Ford,  late  president  of  the  University  of  Arizona;  Regis  Chauvenet,  former 
president  of  the  Colorado  School  of  Mines;  William  G.  Raymond,  dean  of  the  engineer- 
ing department  of  the  Iowa  State  University;  Doctor  G.  V.  Black,  dean  of  the  Northwestern 
Dental  School,  at  Chicago,  probably  the  highest  dental  authority  in  the  world;  Wil- 
liam S.  Curtis,  dean  of  our  own  law  department;  Professor  McMillan,  dean  of  the  West- 
ern Dental  College  of  Kansas  City;  Professor  Miller,  dean  of  the  North  Pacific  Dental 
School  of  Portland,  Oregon;  Doctor  McAlister,  dean  of  the  Missouri  State  University 
Medical  College,  and  a  long  list  of  eminent  professors,  is  the  record  of  the  university's 
contribution  to  education. 

Practically  every  physician  and  surgeon  of  prominence  in  this  city  is  a  graduate  of 
the  medical  department  of  Washington. 

It  is  perhaps  surprising  to  many  that  Washington  University,  with  so  small  a  stu- 
dent body,  has  made  such  an  impression  upon  the  life  of  the  city  and  the  nation.  The 
explanation  is  simple.  It  has  always  been  a  poor  boys'  college,  drawing  its  students  almost 
entirely  from  the  Manual  Training  School  and  the  High  School,  more  than  a  third  of 


630  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

whom,  through  scholarships,  paid  no  tuition.  They  had  no  social  conception  of  higher 
education,  of  being  a  ' '  college  man. ' '  They  came  for  earnest  training,  and  they  received 
it  from  a  staff  of  professors,  every  man  of  whom  was  a  master.  Think  of  a  small  school 
with  a  department  of  mathematics  containing  three  such  men  as  Woodward,  Pritchett 
and  Engler;  a  strong  faculty  giving  its  entire  attention  to  a  few  earnest  boys.  The  result 
was  inevitable. 

These  boys  went  out  into  the  world  adequately  equipped,  and  their  record  is  the 
university's  most  valuable  endowment,  an  endowment  more  precious  than  funds.  Emer- 
son truly  says :  ' '  The  best  political  economy  is  the  care  and  culture  of  men. ' ' 

Washington  University  is  "a  poor  boys'  college"  in  a  sense  other  than 
that  Robert  S.  Brookings  had  in  mind  when  he,  in  terse,  graphic  sentences, 
told  of  the  alumni  and  their  achievements.  The  university  stands  today,  in 
tKe  majesty  of  its  granite  quadrangles,  a  monument  to  the  honor  and  glory 
of  "poor  boys"  of  St.  Louis  who  began  with  their  unskilled  hands  in  the  in- 
dustries, who  swept  out  stores,  who  succeeded  without  the  advantages  of  liberal 
education,  who  determined  that  any  boy  of  St.  Louis  coming  after  them  should 
have  the  opportunity  to  start  better  equipped  than  they  did. 

Late  one  night  Dr.  Eliot  was  preparing  to  retire.  He  had  taken  off  coat 
and  vest.  A  ring  called  him  to  the  door.  There  stood  James  Smith  holding  a 
bundle  in  his  hand.  Between  the  doctor  and  the  merchant,  who  had  been  warm 
friends  for  years,  it  was  "William"  and  "James." 

"Why,  what  is  the  matter,  James?    Is  Persis  sick?"  asked  Dr.  Eliot. 

"Persis"  was  Mrs.  Smith.  The  young  professors  of  Washington  Uni- 
versity called  her  "Aunt  Persis." 

"No,"  said  Mr.  Smith,  "Persis  is  well.  But  Persis  and  I  have  been  think- 
ing and  talking  tonight  about  the  university  and  its  needs.  .  We  have  concluded 
we  ought  to  do  something  now.  Here  is  this  Boatmen's  bank  stock.  I  can't 
sleep  and  Persis  can't  sleep  until  it  is  in  your  hands.  So  I  have  brought  it  over 
to  you." 

"In  that  singular  manner  one  early  donation  of  thousands  of  dollars  came 
to  Washington  University. 

For  the  first  quarter  of  a  century  of  its  existence  the  largest  individual 
contributor  to  Washington  University  was  James  Smith.  With  his  brother, 
William  H.  Smith,  and  his  brother-in-law  John  Cavender,  James  Smith  came 
from  New  Hampshire  to  St.  Louis  in  1833.  The  three  young  men  started 
the  grocery  house  of  Smith  Brothers  &  Co.  It  is  tradition  that  the  partners 
in  the  struggling  period  were  not  above  doing  any  part  of  the  work.  They 
handled  the  goods,  waited  on  customers  and  kept  their  own  books.  The  house 
they  founded  became  nearly  twenty  years  later  Partridge  &  Co.  When  James 
Smith  died  childless,  it  was  found  that  he  had  bequeathed  one-half  of  his  estate 
to  his  wife  and  the  remainder,  except  minor  bequests,  was  left  to  William  G. 
Eliot  without  conditions  or  instructions.  This  was  in  accordance  with  an  un- 
derstanding that  the  greater  part  of  the  property  should  go  to  Washington 
University.  It  was  a  fine  illustration  of  one  St.  Louisan's  absolute  confidence 
in  another.  Smith  Academy  perpetuated  the  memory  of  James  Smith.  William 
Henry  Smith,  the  brother  of  James  Smith,  was  the  founder  of  one  of  the 
best  endowed  lecture  courses,  giving  $27,000  for  this  purpose. 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  631 

James  Smith  had  the  New  England  thrift  in  material  things  and  the 
New  England  hunger  for  education.  Circumstances  of  his  youth  had  prevented 
him  from  satisfying  that  hunger.  He  lived  and  worked  to  make  possible  for 
other  young  men  what  had  been  denied  him.  The  Smiths  lived  on  Olive  street 
near  Seventeenth.  One  day  Dr.  Eliot  called  there  and  was  met  by  Mrs.  Smith. 

"Persis,  where  is  James?"  the  doctor  asked. 

"You'll  find  him  in  the  cellarway  blacking  his  boots,"   said  Mrs.   Smith. 

Sure  enough!  There  was  James  Smith,  who  was  giving  more  than  any 
other  man  in  St.  Louis  to  place  Washington  University  on  its  feet,  putting  a 
polish  on  his  boots. 

"Why.  James,"  exclaimed  Dr.  Eliot.  "Why  don't  you  let  one  of  the 
servants  do  that?" 

"Well,  William,"  replied  the  old  son  of  New  Hampshire,  with  a  little 
smile,  "the  servants  are  so  wasteful  with  the  blacking." 

Wayman  Crow  was  a  giver  to  the  university  from  the  beginning.  He 
subscribed  $10,000  in  1860.  He  gave  $138,000  to  establish  the  Art  Museum. 
He  sustained  the  indefatigable  Halsey  C.  Ives  in  the  creation  of  the  Art  school. 
He  established  a  scholarship  fund.  He  provided  other  funds  for  special  pur- 
poses. How  often  and  how  much  he  helped  when  emergencies  arose  during 
the  many  years  he  was  a  director  will,  perhaps,  never  be  known.  The  men  who 
were  Mr.  Crow's  partners  and  successors  in  business  gave.  They  had  started, 
as  he  had,  from  the  ground,  even  below  the  first  round  of  the  mercantile  ladder. 
As  early  as  1860  William  A.  Hargadine  and  Phocion  McCreery  were  two  of 
twenty  who  subscribed  $192,500  to  the  support  of  the  young  university.  Hugh 
McKittrick,  of  the  same  house,  began  giving  a  little  later,  but  with  the  same 
sense  of  devotion  to  the  institution.  It  was  a  frequent  act  of  Dr.  Eliot  to  hand 
to  the  treasurer  a  check  with  the  remark:  "Mr.  McKittrick  has  given  me 
$1,000." 

Wayman  Crow  had  at  least  one  experience  which  convinced  him  that 
college  education  does  not  spoil  a  young  man  for  business.  In  1857  he  em- 
ployed an  Illinois  youth,  from  Beloit  College,  as  office  boy.  In  eight  years  the 
young  man  won  his  way,  grade  by  grade,  to  a  junior  partnership  in  the  great 
house  of  Crow,  McCreery  &  Co.  He  was  David  Davis  Walker,  born  of  English 
and  Maryland  parents  on  a  farm  near  Bloomington,  named  for  David  Davis, 
the  friend  of  Lincoln  and  the  eminent  jurist  of  United  States  Supreme  Court 
fame,  whose  home  was  in  Bloomington.  With  Frank  Ely  and  others,  David 
Davis  Walker  added,  in  1880,  to  the  group  of  wholesale  houses  the  Ely  &  Walker 
Dry  Goods  company. 

From  the  so-called  border  states,  neither  north  nor  south,  came  some  of  the 
men  who  became  the  most  successful  merchants  in  St.  Louis.  The  Crows  were 
of  North  Irish  origin;  the  Waymans  were  an  English  family;  but  Wayman 
Crow  was  from  Kentucky,  the  son  of  a  Virginia  father  and  a  Maryland  mother, 
his  name  combining  those  of  the  two  families.  He  was  the  youngest  of  twelve 
brothers  and  sisters.  His  education  was  begun  in  a  log  cabin.  When  he  was 
twelve  years  old  he  was  apprenticed  to  what  was  in  1820  "assorted  dry  goods, 
grocers  and  hardware,"  at  Hopkinsville.  He  slept  on  a  cot  in  the  store,  carried 
water  from  the  spring,  opened,  swept  and  closed.  For  his  services  he  received 


632  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

"victuals  and  clothes."  When  his  apprenticeship  ended  he  was  considered  by 
his  employers  to  be  worth  $300  a  year  to  them. 

With  his  Kentucky  experience,  Wayman  Crow,  having  for  a  partner  his' 
cousin,  Joshua  Tevis,  started  at  St.  Louis,  in  1835,  the  dry  goods  house  of 
Crow  &  Tevis.  Twelve  months  ago  this  house  had  been  in  continuous  existence 
three-fourths  of  a  century.  It  has  passed  successfully  through  six  national  panic 
periods.  In  1857  Mr.  Crow  borrowed  money  at  2.^/2  per  cent  a  month  and  pledged 
his  fortune  to  protect  the  firm's  obligations.  In  an  address  to  his  creditors  he 
wrote : 

To  us  our  commercial  honor  is  as  dear  as  our  lives;  to  preserve  it  we  are  prepared 
to  make  any  pecuniary  sacrifice  short  of  impairing  our  ability  to  pay  ultimately  every  dol- 
lar we  owe. 

Every  year  Wayman  Crow  postponed  departure  for  his  summer  home  in 
order  that  he  might  attend  the  closing  exercises  of  all  of  the  departments  of 
the  university.  As  he  came  out,  after  the  distribution  of  the  diplomas  and  the 
other  formalities,  he  would  say  to  Dean  Snow  or  to  some  other  member  of  the 
faculty : 

"Well,  professor,  another  baby  spanked." 

Regularly  the  trustees  of  the  pioneer  period  attended  the  commencement 
exercises.  They  could  be  depended  upon  for  the  lecture  courses.  Watching 
over  the  finances,  making  up  the  deficits  by  no  means  fulfilled  their  obligation 
or  satisfied  their  interest.  If  now  and  then,  one  slept  peacefully  through  a 
Fiske  lecture  on  American  history,  it  did  not  deter  him  from  attendance  at 
the  next. 

A  red  letter  day  in  the  calendar  of  Washington  University  has  been  the 
22d  of  February.  When  that  day  in  1871  came  around,  Hudson  E.  Bridge 
arose  at  a  meeting  of  the  board  and  announced  a  gift  from  himself  of  $130,000. 
This  was  one  of  several  complete  financial  surprises  which  have  come  in  the 
history  of  the  university.  Not  a  hint  had  Mr.  Bridge  given  of  his  intention. 
He  divided  the  gift — $100,000  to  endowment  and  $30,000  toward  the  polytechnic 
or  scientific  department  for  building  purposes. 

Hudson  E.  Bridge  left  his  New  Hampshire  home  with  $6  in  his  pocket. 
To  economize  he  walked  to  Troy.  There  he  worked  in  a  store  until  he  had 
saved  enough  to  take  him  to  Columbus.  His  early  career  in  St.  Louis  was  a 
curious  but  marvelously  successful  combination  of  venture  and  caution.  Mr. 
Bridge  pioneered  the  way  in  the  stove  manufacturing  business  by  bringing  the 
plates  from  the  Ohio  river  and  putting  them  together  in  a  little  foundry  attached 
to  the  store  with  which  he  was  connected.  Old  stove  dealers  in  St.  Louis  said 
the  experiment  was  foolish  and  tried  to  discourage  young  Bridge.  Foreman 
and  salesman  by  day  and  bookkeeper  by  night,  Mr.  Bridge  went  on  making 
stoves  until  he  had  proven  his  theory  to  be  profitable.  But  while  he  was  ven- 
turesome in  experiment  of  manufacturing,  he  would  never  borrow  capital  for 
his  growing  business. 

Some  of  these  early  friends  of  the  university  gave  in  large  amounts, 
evidently  after  careful  deliberation.  Others  carried  their  interest  in  the  uni- 
versity as  a  continuous  or  current  obligation.  There  was  George  Partridge, 
who  was  "always  giving."  He  was  a  sterling  business  man,  but  was  never 
classed  as  wealthy.  Keeping  in  close  touch  with  the  university's  needs,  Mr. 


RALPH  SELLEW 


CITY  UNIVERSITY  IN  1857 
Sixteenth  and    Pine   streets 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  633 

Partridge  would  come  around  just  at  the  time  when  Dr.  Eliot  felt  the  situation 
becoming  urgent  and  give  his  check.  These  timely  gifts  ran  as  high  as  $5,000. 
In  the  aggregate,  Mr.  Partridge  gave  about  $150,000  to  Washington  University. 
One  of  his  last  gifts  was  a  house  and  lot  on  Washington  avenue,  which  the 
university  still  owns. 

When  George  Partridge  came  to  St.  Louis,  about  1840,  he  formed  a 
company  in  the  wholesale  grocery  business.  One  of  the  stipulations  in  the 
articles  of  partnership  was  that  the  house  should  never  sell  any  alcoholic  liquor. 
Mr.  Partridge  had  built  up  a  larger  business  in  Boston,  starting  with  a  capital 
of  $13,  and  working  at  first  for  $50  a  year  and  board.  He  had  gone  through 
the  panic  of  1837  without  breaking,  but  he  had  discovered  that  a  wholesale 
grocer  in  Boston  at  that  time  must  sell  liquor  if  he  wanted  to  hold  his  own 
in  the  trade.  He  sold  out,  came  west,  and  kept  groceries  which  did  not  include 
"wet  goods." 

Looking  backward,  after  Washington  University  had  been  firmly  estab- 
lished, Dr.  Eliot  said: 

At  that  first  meeting,  when  the  seventeen  incorporates  were  called  together  in  a 
private  parlor,  they  had  not  a  dollar  in  hand;  there  was  little  or  no  wealth  among  them; 
their  conjoined  property  would  not  have  reached  half  a  million  in  value;  they  had  no 
social  or  religious  organization  to  back  them;  no  definite  plan  of  action;  no  reasonable 
assurance  of  success.  There  was  probably  not  an  individual  outside  of  their  own  number 
who  thought  they  would  succeed,  and  the  most  sanguine  among  themselves  were  only  half 
convinced.  But  beginning  with  a  grammar  school  on  a  small  scale,  they  worked  with  just 
enough  faith  to  keep  them  alive,  and  by  deserving  success  gradually  gained  it. 

"Mechanic  princes,"  Dr.  Eliot  once  called  a  class  of  self-made  St.  Louisans. 
When  he  looked  around  the  room  on  the  first  board  of  directors,  or  trustees, 
assembled  to  give  life  to  Washington  University,  he  saw  only  here  and  there 
one  who  had  received  educational  advantages.  The  most  of  them  had  been 
"poor  boys"  who  had  gone  from  a  few  months  in  the  log  school  house  to  learn 
trades,  to  sweep  out  stores.  Stephen  Ridgely,  whose  memory  is  preserved  in 
the  new  library  building  of  Washington  University,  taught  the  rest  of  the 
country  the  use  of  "spirit  gas."  This  was  a  preparation  made  from  alcohol 
by  Mr.  Ridgely.  It  was  used  in  lamps  with  tin  tubes  two  inches  high,  through 
which  ran  long  wicks.  This  St.  Louis  spirit  light  was  a  great  improvement  on 
the  lard  oil  which  was  used  in  lamps.  It  was  popular  until  kerosene  came  into 
use.  Profits  of  the  spirit  lamp  are  represented  to  the  amount  of  $60,000  in 
the  present  library  of  the  university. 

The  four  sons  of  George  Collier  united  in  a  gift  of  $25,000,  which  was 
made  an  endowment  bearing  their  father's  name.  In  token  of  their  esteem  for 
Professor  Waterhouse,  the  endowment  was  made  applicable  to  the  chair  of 
Greek  until  such  time  as  the  university  might  require  it  for  other  purposes. 
The  Colliers  chose  Washington's  birthday,  the  fifteenth  anniversary  of  the 
granting  of  the  charter,  as  the  date  to  make  their  gift. 

Individuality  entered  into  the  condition  governing  some  of  the  donations. 
Professor  Sylvester  Waterhouse,  who  filled  the  chair  of  Greek  for  many  years, 
by  strict  economy  and  careful  investment  acquired  considerable  means.  He, 
gave  $25,000  to  the  university  to  be  held  and  invested  until  it  had  increased 
to  $1,000,000,  when  it  would  become  available.  The  professor  carefully  esti- 
mated that  the  gift  would  be  multiplied  by  forty  if  principal  and  compound 


634  ST.    LOUIS,    THE   FOURTH    CITY 

interest  were  preserved  one  hundred  years.  The  Waterhouse  fund  is  now 
$34,000  and  growing. 

With  perhaps  two  exceptions,  the  financial  support  of  Washington  Uni- 
versity has  come  through  individuals  or  families  from  fortunes  accumulated  in 
St.  Louis.  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Hemenway  was  one  of  the  exceptions.  This  excel- 
lent Boston  lady  took  deep  interest  in  American  history.  She  founded  in  her 
city  the  famous  Old  South  lecture  course.  Desiring  to  extend  the  interest  in 
the  history  of  this  country,  Mrs.  Hemenway  gave  to  Washington  University 
$15,000  for  a  lecture  course,  stipulating  that  so  long  as  he  lived,  Professor  John 
Fiske  should  deliver  the  lectures.  During  twenty  years  Professor  Fiske  came 
to  St.  Louis  almost  annually  to  deliver  these  lectures.  To  found  the  Tileston 
professorship  of  political  economy  as  a  memorial  for  her  father,  Mrs.  Hem- 
enway gave  $25,000.  Nathaniel  Thayer,  the  Boston  philanthropist,  was  the 
other  non-resident  contributor,  giving  $25,000  in  1860.  In  recognition  of  this 
substantial  gift,  "The  Nathaniel  Thayer  Professorship  of  Mathematics  and 
Applied  Mechanics"  was  created  in  1870.  Professor  Calvin  M.  Woodward  held 
this  position  for  forty  years. 

Twenty-five  years  after  the  inauguration,  Dr.  Eliot,  speaking  of  the  finan- 
cial support  given  by  the  friends  of  the  university,  said: 

In  all  the  years  since  our  beginning,  an  annual  deficiency,  varying  from  $2,000  to 
$10,000,  has  been  made  up  by  gifts  for  that  purpose.  The  men  who  have  done  this  are  the 
true  founders  of  the  university,  although  their  names  have  been  scarcely  known. 

He  told  of  one  supporter  of  the  institution,  who,  not  having  the  principal 
to  give,  regularly  paid  7  per  cent  on  $10,000.  There  were  professional  men 
like  John  R.  Shepley,  who  gave  from  current  income  almost  as  regularly  as 
the  years  rolled  around.  Henry  Hitchcock  presided  over  the  law  school.  For  a 
long  period  he  turned  back  into  the  university  treasury  the  sum  allowed  him 
for  his  services.  And  in  addition  when  special  funds  were  to  be  raised,  he 
gave  generously.  In  1871  the  university  faced  a  crisis  before  which  even  Dr. 
Eliot  quailed.  He  said:  "There  seemed  to  be  a  gulf  of  difficulties  that  we 
could  not  pass.  But  from  unexpected  sources,  unsolicited,  there  came,  in  the 
three  months  that  followed,  gifts  amounting  in  all  to  $215,000." 

Two  generations  of  St.  Louisans  gave  Dr.  Eliot  the  credit  of  being  the 
most  useful  citizen  to  raise  money  for  the  public  good.  But  Dr.  Eliot's  ways 
were  not  those  of  direct  solicitation.  They  were  more  effective.  They  aroused 
interest.  They  inspired  the  first  step.  They  fostered  the  habit  of  giving. 

"Gentlemen,"  Dr.  Eliot  would  say  to  the  board  at  the  end  of  the  year, 
"I  am  sorry  to  tell  you  we  have  an  alarming  deficit.  I  don't  know  how  we  are 
to  meet  it,  but  I  trust  Providence  will  provide  some  way." 

Then  those  business  men  would  go  over  the  accounts  methodically,  arriving 
at  the  exact  financial  situation.,  One  after  another  of  them  would  write  a  check. 
The  university  would  enter  upon  another  year  out  of  debt. 

Late  in  his  career,  Dr.  Eliot  remarked  that  he  had  never  asked  any  one 
directly  for  money  in  behalf  of  Washington  University.  The  look  of  question- 
ing surprise  which  met  this  assertion  the  good  doctor  answered  with  a  trace  of 
a  smile  and  a  story  about  a  friend  who  held  that  it  was  sometimes  "necessary 
to  economize  truth."  The  doctor  said  he  thought  it  was  at  least  "very  handy 


JAMES   SMITH 


J.  C.   WAY 


ST.  LOUIS  HIGH  SCHOOL 
Olive  and  Fifteenth  streets,  in  1860 


THE   EDUCATIONAL   LIFE  635 

sometimes  to  economize  truth."  And  with  that  he  let  his  declaration  about  rais- 
ing money  for  the  university  rest. 

At  one  annual  meeting  of  the  board,  after  congratulations  on  the  fine 
progress  of  the  year,  the  doctor  concluded: 

And  yet,  to  prove  how  the  ghost  of  the  impecuniousness  will  not  ' '  down, ' '  the  treas- 
urer reports  the  usual  skeleton  in  the  closet,  a  deficiency  of  $5,000,  upon  which  the  usual 
unguent  of  charity  must  be  poured. 

When,  in  1883,  St.  Louisans  had  invested  over  $1,000,000  in  Wash- 
ington University,  with  seven  departments,  sixty-five  professors  and  1,200 
students,  Dr.  Eliot  put  to  the  supporters  the  question :  Will  it  pay  ? 

' '  I  believe  in  getting  money  'a  worth  for  every  dollar  we  spend, ' '  said  he,  ' '  whether 
for  ourselves  or  others.  No  man  is  justified  in  throwing  it  away  in  visionary  schemes 
of  philanthropy,  any  more  than  in  foolish  speculation  or  extravagant  living.  But  I  be- 
lieve that,  tried  by  the  strictest  test  of  wise  utilitarianism,  the  work  you  have  in  hand 
is  worth  its  full  cost  and  will  justify  every  sacrifice  to  be  made. ' ' 

And  then,  in  a  few  words,  the  prophetic  chancellor  pointed  out  what  the 
evolution  of  Washington  University  would  mean  to  St.  Louis  and  to  the  world : 

It  is  to  build  up  on  the  foundations  already  well  laid  a  university  which  will  be  to 
St.  Louis  and  the  western  valley  what  the  great  universities  of  Europe  and  America  have 
been  to  their  respective  surroundings;  to  make  our  city  the  center  of  educational  interests, 
as  it  must  be  that  of  manufacturers  and  commerce;  so  that  the  civilization  of  science  and 
art  and  polite  literature  may  keep  even  pace  with  the  growth  of  wealth.  Is  not  that  worth 
doing,  at  whatever  cost? 

It  is  to  establish  an  American  university  from  whose  walls  the  bitterness  of  party 
spirit  shall  forever  be  excluded,  but  in  which  love  of  country,  loyalty  and  that  allegiance 
to  law  which  alone  can  educate  men  to  perfect  liberty  shall  be  taught  as  sacred  duties; 
in  whose  instructions  the  narrowness  of  sectarianism  can  have  no  place,  but  the  principles 
of  Christian  morality  and  reverential  regard  for  truth  as  the  voice  of  God  shall  be  the 
axioms  held  above  all  dispute;  a  group  of  colleges  and  schools,  including  all  departments 
of  learning,  from  those  which  deal  with  pure  abstractions  and  the  most  subtle  scientific 
research,  to  the  most  practical  recognition  of  the  living  interests  of  daily  life  and  the  just 
rewards  of  industry;  providing  all  needful  facilities  for  the  highest  and  best  education  both 
of  men  and  women,  to  fit  them  for  the  best  work  they  are  naturally  capable  of  doing.  Can 
we  measure  or  rightly  estimate  the  value  of  such  an  institution  in  a  region  like  that  in  which 
we  live? 

The  generation  of  1911  does  not  realize  the  boldness  of  the  non-sectarian 
position  taken  by  the  founders  of  Washington  University.  In  that  period  state 
universities,  with  perhaps  a  single  exception,  were  little  known.  The  leading 
colleges  of  this  country  were  under  denominational  control  or  patronage.  This 
Washington  University  movement  was  viewed  as  dangerous  by  many  good 
people.  Public  sentiment  was  apprehensive  that  non-sectarianism  might  mean 
irreligion.  The  first  graduating  exercises  were  opened  with  prayer.  Dr.  Eliot 
pronounced  the  invocation.  The  newspapers  of  St.  Louis  estimated  that  action 
as  perhaps  the  feature  most  interesting  to  their  readers.  Dr.  Eliot  was  requested 
to  write  out  the  prayer  and  he  did  so.  The  prayer  was  printed  with  the  news- 
paper comment  that  it  expressed  "the  spirit  of  the  institution."  Dr.  Eliot  prayed 
thus: 

"May  the  principles  upon  which  this  university  was  founded  be  sacredly 
regarded  and  inviolably  kept.  From  these  walls  may  all  party  spirit  and  sectional 
strife  be  forever  banished  while  the  duties  of  patriotism  and  loyalty  are  faith- 
fully and  plainly  taught.  From  these  hallowed  precincts  may  all  disputes  of 


636  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

sectarian  zeal  be  kept  away,  while  the  authority  of  the  Divine  Master  is  daily 
acknowledged,  and  the  laws  of  Christian  morality  and  righteousness  (rectitude 
and  holiness)  are  held  supreme.  May  the  teachers  and  scholars  of  this  univer- 
sity thus  learn  to  walk  at  liberty,  by  keeping  Thy  precepts." 

Washington  University  is  the  gift  of  individuals  to  the  cause  of  educa- 
tion. In  the  more  than  fifty  years  of  its  life,  the  institution  has  received  nothing 
from  public  funds,  national,  state  or  municipal.  No  money  has  come  from  de- 
nominational sources.  The  givers  have  been  numerous.  There  have  been 
several  princely  contributions  to  buildings  and  endowments,  such  as  those  of 
Samuel  Cupples,  Adolphus  Busch,  Robert  S.  Brookings,  William  K.  Bixby,  the 
Liggett  family,  the  McMillan  family,  and  Mrs.  Graham.  But  the  university 
has  received  in  the  past  two  generations  from  several  hundred  St.  Louisans  do- 
nations aggregating  a  great  amount.  The  multitude  of  supporters  has  included 
every  creed  and  every  nationality  represented  in  the  city's  population.  The 
amounts  have  varied  with  the  abilities  of  the  contributors.  But  the  long  lists 
attest  a  good  will  toward  the  university,  a  civic  pride,  a  devotion  to  the  highest 
and  best  in  education. 


CHAPTER  XXV. 
THE  CULTURE  OF  ST.  LOUIS 

tuguste  Chouteau'*  Scientific  Theories — The  Story  of  the  Prehistoric  Footprints — Dr.  Sau- 
grain's  Laboratory — Sulphur  Springs,  Near  the  River  des  Peres — John  Bradbury's  Animal 
Stories — Varied  Vocations  of  Dr.  Shewe — Lilliput  on  the  Meramec — An  Exploration  for 
a  Lost  Race — Discovery  of  Coal  in  the  Illinois  Bluffs — Les  Mamelles,  Near  St.  Charles — 
Movement  to  Preserve  "the  Big  Mound" — Early  Mound  Theories  Disputed  by  Modern 
Science — The  Barkis  Club— Henry  Shaw's  Reminiscences — The  Eden  of  St.  Louis — 
Wyman's  Museum — Dr.  Engelmann's  Meteorological  Record — Adventurous  Career  of 
Adolph  Wislisenus — The  St.  Louis  Philosophic  Movement — William  T.  Harris,  Henry  C. 
Brockmeyer  and  Denton  J.  Snider — Foreign  Guests  and  St.  Louis  Hospitality— Jubilee  of 
Archbishop  Kenrick — Origin  of  Mercantile  Library — The  Public  Library — Houdon's 
Washington  in  Lafayette  Park — The  St.  Louis  Fair — Lottery  Privileges  and  a  Moral 
Uplift — When  Jenny  Lind  Came — Seventy  Tears  of  Musical  Interest — Old  Salt  Theater — 
Playhouses  Before  the  Civil  War — Sol  Smith's  Epitaph — Ben  DeBar — The  Reign  of  the 
Veiled  Prophet — A  Third  of  a  Century  of  Popular  Pageants. 

Shall  we  expect  others  to  think  well  of  a  city  of  which  we  do  not  think  well  ourselves, 
whose  history  we  are  willing  to  drop  from  themes  of  human  interest,  whose  institutions  for 
cultivation  and  improvement  we  are  unwilling  to  maintain? — George  E.  Leighton. 

The  boy  of  thirteen  who  felled  the  first  tree  on  the  site  of  St.  Louis  was  a 
student.  Cultivation  of  the  mind  began  with  the  founding.  Those  who  came 
afterwards  and  sought  to  solve  nature's  problems,  of  which  St.  Louis  had  many, 
discovered  that  Auguste  Chouteau  was  a  scientist.  Henry  M.  Brackenridge 
said:  "I  made  a  visit  to  the  elder  Chouteau,  a  venerable  looking  man,  with  a 
fine  intellectual  head,  and  was  introduced  to  one  of  the  largest  private  libraries 
I  had  seen,  Monsieur  Chouteau  offered  me  the  free  use  of  this  library,  of  which 
I  gladly  availed  myself.  Here  I  found  several  of  the  early  writers  of  travels 
and  descriptions  of  Louisiana  and  Illinois,  such  as  La  Houton,  Lafiteau,  Hen- 
nepin,  Charlevoix." 

The  Duke  of  Saxe,  one  of  the  earliest  of  the  European  travelers  to  visit  St. 
Louis,  was  much  impressed  with  Auguste  Chouteau's  theories: 

The  conversation  with  this  aged  man,  who  received  us  like  a  patriarch  surrounded 
by  his  descendants,  was  very  interesting.  He  was  of  the  opinion  that  the  people  from 
whom  the  Indian  antiquities  have  come  down  to  us,  either  by  pestilential  disease  or  by  an 
all-destroying  war,  must  have  been  blotted  from  the  earth.  He  believed  that  Behring's 
Straits  were  more  practicable  formerly  than  at  present — at  least  they  must  have  been 
Asiatic  hordes  that  came  to  America.  How,  otherwise,  asked  he,  could  the  elephants, 
since  there  have  been  none  ever  upon  this  continent,  have  reached  the  American  bottom, 
where  their  bones  are  now  found?  This  bottom  is  a  very  rich  body  of  land  running 
south  opposite  to  St.  Louis.  Mounds  and  fortifications  are  found  there.  Here  the  ele- 
phant bones  are  not  scattered  about,  but  found  lying  in  a  long  row  near  each  other,  as  if 
they  had  been  killed  in  a  battle  or  at  the  assault  of  some  fortification. 

Scientific  thought  in  St.  Louis,  according  to  the  traditions,  received  its  first 
stimulus  when  Laclede  and  Auguste  Chouteau  selected  the  site.  Flagg,  the 
newspaper  man  of  1836,  recorded  this  tradition: 

637 


638  ST.    LOUIS,   THE   FOURTH    CITY 

It  is  related  that  when  the  founder  of  the  city  first  planted  foot  upon  the  shore,  the 
imprint  of  a  human  foot,  naked  and  of  gigantic  dimensions,  was  found  enstamped  upon 
the  solid  limestone  rock  and  continued  in  regular  succession  as  if  of  a  man  advancing 
from  the  water's  edge  to  the  plateau  above.  By  more  superstitious  people  this  circum- 
stance would  have  been  deemed  an  omen,  and  as  such  commemorated  in  the  chronicles  of 
the  city. 

Mr.  Flagg  had  the  spirit  of  the  scientific  investigator.  He  made  a  study  of 
these  footprints  on  the  shore  of  St.  Louis  and  developed  his  theory. 

The  impressions  are,  to  all  appearances,  those  of  a  man  standing  in  an  erect  posture, 
with  the  left  foot  a  little  advanced  and  the  heels  drawn  in.  By  a  close  inspection  it  will 
be  perceived  that  these  are  not  the  impressions  of  feet  accustomed  to  the  European  shoe; 
the  toes  being  much  spread,  and  the  foot  flattened  in  the  manner  that  is  observed  in  per- 
sons unaccustomed  to  the  close  shoe.  The  probability,  therefore,  of  their  having  been  im- 
parted by  some  individual  of  a  race  of  men  who  were  strangers  to  the  art  of  tanning 
skins  and  at  a  period  much  anterior  to  that  to  which  any  traditions  of  the  present  race 
of  Indians  reaches,  derives  additional  weight  from  this  peculiar  shape  of  the  feet.  In 
other  respects  the  impressions  are  strikingly  natural,  exhibiting  the  muscular  marks  of 
the  foot  with  great  preciseness  and  faithfulness  to  nature.  The  rock  containing  these 
interesting  impressions  is  a  compact  limestone  of  a  grayish,  blue  color.  This  rock  is 
extensively  used  as  a  building  material  in  St.  Louis.  Foundations  of  dwellings  and  the 
military  works  erected  by  the  French  and  Spaniards  sixty  years  ago  are  still  as  solid  and 
unbroken  as  when  first  laid. 

Major  Long  and  his  party  of  scientists,  on  the  government  expedition  of 
1819-20,  devoted  attention  to  the  footprints.  As  early  as  that  time  the  slab  had 
been  quarried  out  and  was  considered  a  scientific  treasure: 

This  stone  wyas  taken  from  the  slope  of  the  immediate  bank  of  the  Mississippi  be- 
low the  range  of  the  periodical  floods.  To  us  there  seems  nothing  inexplicable  or  dif- 
ficult to  understand  in  its  appearance.  Nothing  is  more  probable  than  that  impressions  of 
human  feet  made  upon  that  thin  stratum  of  mud,  which  was  deposited  upon  the  shelvings 
of  the  rocks,  and  left  naked  by  the  retiring  of  the  waters,  may,  by  the  induration  of  the 
mud,  have  been  preserved,  and  at  length  have  acquired  the  appearance  of  an  impression 
made  immediately  upon  the  limestone.  This  supposition  will  be  somewhat  confirmed,  if 
we  examine  the  mud  and  slime  deposited  by  the  water  of  the  Mississippi,  which  will  be 
found  to  consist  of"  such  an  intimate  mixture  of  clay  and  lime,  as  under  favorable  circum- 
stances would  very  readily  become  indurated.  We  are  not  confident  that  the  impressions 
above  mentioned  have  originated  in  the  manner  here  supposed,  but  we  cannot  by  any 
means  adopt  the  opinions  of  some,  who  have  considered  them  contemporaneous  to  those 
casts  of  submarine  animals,  which  occupy  so  great  a  part  of  the  body  of  the  limestone. 
We  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that,  whatever  those  impressions  may  be,  if  they  were 
produced  as  they  appear  to  have  been,  by  the  agency  of  human  feet,  they  belong  to  a 
period  far  more  recent  than  that  of  the  deposition  of  the  limestone  on  whose  surface  they 
are  found. 

In  addition  to  impressions  of  the  human  foot,  there  were  upon  the  stone 
irregular  tracings  as  if  made  by  some  person  holding  a  stick.  The  local  theory 
was  that  these  marks  were  made  by  a  human  being  walking  on  a  limestone 
when  it  was  in  a  plastic  state.  The  stone  passed  into  the  possession  of  George 
Rapp,  founder  of  the  society  of  Harmonites.  Rapp  was  from  Wurtemberg. 
His  sect  believed  in  communism.  The  members  practiced  primitive  Christianity 
as  Rapp  conceived  it  to  have  been.  Harmony,  Pennsylvania,  and  New  Harmony, 
Indiana,  had  been  established.  Rapp  moved  about  making  converts.  The  "pre- 
historic footprints"  at  St.  Louis  appealed  to  his  imagination.  Later  generations 
of  scientists  gave  less  consideration  to  the  St.  Louis  footprints. 


THE   CULTURE   OF    ST.    LOUIS  639 

In  the  first  decade  of  the  century  the  leading  scientist  of  St.  Louis  was  Dr. 
Saugrain.  He  was  described  as  "a  cheerful,  sprightly  little  Frenchman,  four 
feet  six,  English  measure;  a  chemist,  natural  philosopher  and  physician."  The 
few  newspaper  and  literary  St.  Louisans  of  that  day  were  fond  of  Dr.  Sau- 
grain, and  visited  him.  One  of  them  left  this  description  of  the  first  laboratory 
in  St.  Louis: 

The  doctor  had  a  small  apartment  which  contained  his  chemical  apparatus,  and  I 
used  to  sit  by  him  as  often  as  I  could,  watching  the  curious  operations  of  his  blowpipe 
and  crucible.  I  loved  the  cheerful  little  man  and  he  became  very  fond  of  me  in  tarn. 
Many  of  my  countrymen  used  to  come  and  stare  at  his  doings,  which  they  were  half  in- 
clined to  think  had  too  near  a  resemblance  to  the  black  art.  The  doctor's  little  phos- 
phoric matches,  igniting  spontaneously  when  the  glass  tube  was  broken,  and  from  which 
he  derived  some  emolument,  were  thought  by  some  to  be  rather  beyond  mere  human  power. 
His  barometers  and  thermometers,  with  the  scale  neatly  painted  with  the  pen,  and  the 
frames  richly  carved,  were  objects  of  wonder,  and  some  of  them  are  probably  still  extant 
in  the  west.  But  what  most  astonished  some  of  our  visitors  was  a  large  peach  in  a  glass 
bottle,  the  neck  of  which  could  only  admit  a  common  cork;  this  was  accomplished  by  tying 
the  bottle  to  the  limb  of  a  tree,  with  the  peach  when  young  inserted  into  it.  His  swans,  which 
swarm  around  basins  of  water,  amused  me  more  than  any  of  the  wonders  exhibited  by  the 
wonderful  man. 

The  doctor  was  a  great  favorite  with  the  Americans  as  well  for  his  vivacity  and 
sweetness  of  temper  which  nothing  could  sour,  as  on  account  of  a  circumstance  which 
gave  him  high  claims  to  the  esteem  of  the  backwoodsmen.  He  had  shown  himself,  not- 
withstanding his  small  stature  and  great  good  nature,  a  very  hero  in  combat  with  the 
Indians.  He  had  descended  the  Ohio  in  company  with  two  French  philosophers  who 
were  believers  in  the  primitive  innocence  and  goodness  of  the  children  of  the  forest.  They 
could  not  be  persuaded  that  any  danger  was  to  be  apprehended  from  the  Indians;  as  they 
had  no  intention  to  injure  that  people,  they  supposed  of  course  that  no  harm  could  be 
meditated  on  their  part.  Dr.  Saugrain  was  not  altogether  so  well  convinced  of  their  good 
intentions,  and  accordingly  kept  his  pistols  loaded.  Near  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Sandy,  a 
canoe  with  a  party  of  warriors  approached  the  boat;  the  philosophers  invited  them  on 
board  by  signs,  when  they  came  too  willingly.  The  first  thing  they  did  on  entering  the 
boat  was  to  salute  the  two  philosophers  with  the  tomahawk;  and  they  would  have  treated 
the  doctor  in  the  same  way,  but  that  he  used  his  pistols  with  good  effect;  killed  two  of 
the  savages,  and  then  leaped  into  the  water,  diving  like  a  dipper  at  the  flash  of  the  guns 
of  the  others,  and  succeeded  in  swimming  to  shore  with  several  severe  wounds,  the  scars 
of  which  were  conspicuous. 

An  object  of  attention  by  the  early  scientists  of  St.  Louis  was  Sulphur 
Springs.  This  was  in  the  valley  of  the  River  des  Peres,  not  far  from  what  be- 
came Cheltenham.  When  John  Bradbury,  the  English  naturalist,  decided  to 
make  his  home  in  St.  Louis,  he  built  his  house  near  this  spring.  The  members 
of  Long's  expedition  found  Bradbury  living  there  in  1819.  They  included  men- 
tion of  the  water  in  their  report  to  the  government.  At  that  time  horses  and 
cattle  at  pasture  went  a  long  distance  to  drink  the  sulphur  water  in  preference 
to  any  other.  When  thirty  years  later  the  Missouri  Pacific  began  building  west- 
ward there  was  a  station  at  Sulphur  Springs.  A  wooden  hotel  was  built  and  a 
resort  was  maintained.  The  spring  boiled  up  in  the  channel  of  the  River  des 
Peres.  When  that  stream  became  an  open  sewer,  as  the  city  extended  west- 
ward, the  spring  was  polluted,  and  the  use  of  its  water  was  abandoned.  John 
Bradbury  made  expeditions  with  the  fur  traders  and  trappers.  He  brought 
back  to  St.  Louis  marvelous  stories  about  animals: 


640  ST.    LOUIS,   THE    FOURTH    CITY 

I  will  here  state  a  few  of  what  I  certainly  believe  to  be  facts;  some  I  know  to  be 
so,  and  of  others  I  have  seen  strong  presumptive  proofs.  The  opinion  of  the  hunters 
respecting  the  beaver  go  much  beyond  the  statements  of  any  author  whom  I  have  read. 
They  state  that  an  old  beaver  which  has  escaped  from  a  trap  can  scarcely  ever  afterwards 
be  caught,  as  traveling  in  situations  where  traps  are  usually  placed,  he  carries  a  stick  in 
his  mouth  with  which  he  probes  the  sides  of  the  river,  that  the  stick  may  be  caught  in 
the  trap  and  thus  save  himself.  They  say  also  of  this  animal  that  the  young  are  educated 
by  the  old  ones.  It  is  well  known  that  in  constructing  their  dams  the  first  step  the  beaver 
takes  is  to  cut  down  a  tree  that  shall  fall  across  the  stream  intended  to  be  dammed.  The 
hunters  in  the  early  part  of  our  voyage  informed  me  that  they  had  often  found  trees  near  the 
edge  of  a  creek  in  part  cut  through  and  abandoned;  and  always  observed  that  those  trees 
would  not  have  fallen  across  the  creek.  By  comparing  the  marks  left  on  these  trees  with 
others,  they  found  them  much  smaller.  They  not  only  concluded  they  were  made  by 
young  beavers,  but  that  the  old  ones,  perceiving  their  error,  had  caused  them  to  desist. 
They  promised  to  show  me  proofs  of  this,  and  during  our  voyage  I  saw  several,  and  in 
no  instance  would  the  trees  thus  abandoned  have  fallen  across  the  •  creek. 

I  myself  witnessed  an  instance  of  a  doe,  when  pursued,  although  not  many  seconds 
out  of  sight,  so  effectually  hide  her  fawn  that  we  could  not  find  it,  although  assisted  by 
a  dog.  I  mentioned  this  fact  to  the  hunters  who  assured  me  that  no  dog,  or  perhaps  any 
beast  of  prey,  can  follow  a  fawn  by  the  scent.  They  showed  me  in  a  full  grown  deer  a 
gland  and  a  tuft  of  red  hair  situated  a  little  above  the  hind  part  of  the  forefoot,  which 
had  a  very  strong  smell  of  musk.  This  tuft  they  call  the  scent,  and  believe  that  the  route 
of  the  animal  is  betrayed  by  the  effluvia  proceeding  from  it.  This  tuft  is  mercifully  with- 
held until  the  animal  has  acquired  strength.  What  a  benevolent  arrangement! 

Of  the  trappers  with  whom  he  traveled,  Bradbury  said:  "They  can  imi- 
tate the  cry  or  note  of  any  animal  found  in  the  American  wilds  so  exactly  as  to 
deceive  the  animals  themselves." 

An  eccentric  character  in  the  early  coterie  which  represented  the  culture 
of  St.  Louis  was  Dr.  Shewe,  as  Brackenridge  described  him: 

He  had  been  a  traveler  all  his  life,  having  begun  by  making  the  tour  of  Europe  as 
tutor  to  the  young  Count  Feltenstein;  and  was  in  Paris  during  the  first  scenes  of  the 
French  revolution.  He  used  to  show  a  mark  on  his  leg  occasioned  by  a  shot  at  the  taking 
of  the  Bastile.  He  related  many  anecdotes  of  the  great  Frederick  and  of  his  generals, 
which  he  had  picked  up  at  Berlin.  Mr.  Shewe  officiated  at  the  Dutch  church  as  a  preacher; 
whether  he  was  ever  ordained  I  know  not,  but  he  certainly  was  not  remarkable  for  hia 
piety.  I  knew  him  afterwards  as  a  mineralogist,  as  a  miniature  painter  and  as  a  keeper 
of  a  huckster  shop.  The  last  was  the  occupation  he  loved  best,  for  he  had  always  before 
him  the  two  objects  upon  which  his  affections  were  finally  concentrated — tobacco  and 
beer  He  used  to  express  philosophically  the  same  sentiment  Avhich  I  have  heard  from  Achilles 
Murat  in  jest,  that  whiskey  was  the  best  part  of  the  American  government. 

In  his  card  which  appeared  in  the  Gazette,  1810,  Dr.  Shewe  announced 
that  he  would  continue  to  give  lessons  in  French,  and  that  he  had  "a  quantity 
of  candles  molded  from  the  best  deer's  tallow  which  he  will  sell  cheap  for  cash." 
One  of  Dr.  Shewe's  students  in  French  was  Thomas  H.  Benton. 

Before  they  left  St.  Louis  to  go  up  the  Missouri  river  scientific  mem- 
bers of  the  Long  party  made  some  local  investigations.  Mr.  Say  and  Mr. 
Peale  went  down  the  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Meramec  and  up  that  stream 
about  fifteen  miles.  They  had  been  told  of  the  discovery  of  many  graves 
in  that  locality.  The  graves  were  said  to  contain  skeletons  of  a  diminutive 
race.  So  much  had  the  story  impressed  the  neighborhood,  that  a  town  which 
had  been  laid  out  bore  the  name  of  Lilliput.  In  one  of  the  graves  a  skull  without 
teeth  had  been  found.  This  had  been  made  the  basis  for  another  local  theory 


THE  BIG  MOUND  AT  BROADWAY  AND  MOUND  STREET 
From    a    Daguerreotype    taken    in    1850 


THE  REMOVAL  OF  THE  BIG  MOUND 
From  a  Daguerreotype  taken  before  the  Civil  war 


THE   CULTURE   OF    ST.    LOUIS  641 

that  these  prehistoric  residents  of  the  Meramec  had  jaws  like  a  turtle.  The 
scientists  found  that  the  graves  were  walled  in  neatly,  and  covered  with  flat 
stones.  They  opened  several  and  saw  that  the  bones  were  of  ordinary  size, 
seemingly  having  been  buried  after  the  flesh  had  been  separated  from  them, 
according  to  the  custom  of  certain  Indian  tribes.  The  skull  with  the  turtle-like 
jaw  was  that  of  an  old  man  who  had  lost  his  teeth.  The  scientists  satisfied 
themselves  that  there  was  nothing  extraordinary  in  the  contents  of  the  graves. 
As  the  narrative  ran,  they  "sold  their  skiff,  shouldered  their  guns,  bones  and 
spade,  and  bent  their  weary  steps  toward  St.  Louis,  distant  sixteen  miles, 
where  they  arrived  at  n  p.  m.,  having  had  ample  time,  by  the  way,  to  in- 
dulge in  sundry  reflections  on  that  quality  of  the  mind,  either  imbibed  in  the 
nursery  or  generated  by  evil  communications,  which  incites  to  the  love  of  the 
marvelous,  and,  by  hyperbole,  casts  the  veil  of  falsehood  over  the  charming 
features  of  simple  nature." 

Not  all  of  the  scientific  investigations  at  St.  Louis  turned  out  as  dis- 
couragingly  as  the  expedition  to  Lilliput.  John  Bradbury  was  well  satisfied 
with  a  trip  inspired  by  the  report  of  coal  discovered: 

In  the  year  1810  the  grass  on  the  prairie  of  the  American  bottom  in  the  Illinois 
territory  took  fire  and  kindled  the  dry  stump  of  a  tree,  about  five  miles  east  of  St.  Louis. 
This  stump  set  fire  to  a  fine  bed  of  coal  on  which  it  stood,  and  the  coal  continued  to  burn 
for  several  months,  until  the  bottom  fell  in  and  extinguished  it.  This  bed  breaks  out  at 
the  bottom  of  the  bluffs  of  the  Mississippi,  and  is  about  five  feet  in  thickness.  I  visited 
the  place,  and  by  examining  the  indications  found  the  same  vein  at  the  surface  several 
miles  distant. 

Brackenridge  also  reported  upon  this  chance  discovery  of  coal : 
On  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi,  in  the  bluffs  of  the  American  bottom,  a  tree  taking 
fire  some  years  ago,  communicated  it  by  one  of  its  roots  to  the  coal,  which  continued  to 
burn  until  the  fire  was  at  length  smothered  by  the  falling  in  of  a  large  mass  of  the  in- 
cumbent earth.  The  appearance  of  fire  is  still  visible  for  several  rods  around.  About 
two  miles  further  up  the  bluffs  a  fine  coal  bank  has  been  opened;  the  vein  as  thick  as  any 
of  those  near  Pittsburg. 

John  Bradbury  explored  the  caverns  in  the  vicinity  of  St.  Louis  and  told 
of  the  encouragement  they  offered  to  a  new  industry : 

The  abundance  of  nitre  generated  in  the  caves  of  this  country  is  a  circumstance  which 
ought  not  to  pass  unnoticed.  These  caves  are  always  in  the  limestone  rocks;  and  in 
those  which  produce  the  nitre  the  bottom  is  covered  with  earth  which  is  strongly  impreg- 
nated with  it  and  visible  in  needle-like  crystals.  In  order  to  obtain  the  nitre,  the  earth 
is  collected  and  lixiviated;  the  water  after  being  saturated  is  boiled  down  and  suffered  to 
stand  until  the  crystals  are  formed.  In  this  manner  it  is  no  uncommon  thing  for  three 
men  to  make  one  hundred  pounds  of  saltpetre  in  one  day.  In  the  spring  of  1810  James 
McDonald  and  his  two  sons  went  to  some  caves  on  the  Gasconade  river  to  make  saltpetre, 
and  in  a  few  weeks  returned  with  three  thousand  pounds  weight  to  St.  Louis. 

A  locality,  in  the  vicinity  of  St.  Louis,  which  was  visited  by  the  early 
scientific  explorers  and  which  charmed  all  of  them  was  across  the  Missouri 
river  and  along  the  west  bank  of  the  Mississippi.  Brackenridge,  in  a  news- 
paper letter,  described  the  place  graphically: 

The  tract  called  Les  Mamelles,  from  the  circumstance  of  several  mounds  bearing 
the  appearance  of  art  projecting  from  the  bluff  some  distance  into  the  plain  may  be  worth 
describing  as  a  specimen.  It  is  about  three  miles  from  St.  Charles;  I  visited  it  last  sum- 
mer. To  those  who  have  never  seen  any  of  these  prairies,  it  is  very  difficult  to  convey 


16- VOL.  II. 


642  ST.   LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

any  just  idea  of  them.  Perhaps  the  comparison  to  the  green  sea  is  the  best.  Ascending 
the  mounds  I  was  elevated  about  one  hundred  feet  above  the  plain;  I  had  a  view  of  an 
immense  plain  below,  and  a  distant  prospect  of  hills.  Every  sense  was  delighted  and 
every  faculty  awakened.  After  gazing  for  an  hour  I  still  experienced  an  unsatiated  de- 
light, in  contemplating  the  rich  and  magnificent  scene.  To  the  right  the  Missouri  is  con- 
cealed by  a  wood  of  no  great  width,  extending  to  the  Mississippi  the  distance  of  ten 
miles.  Before  me  I  could  mark  the  course  of  the  latter  river,  its  banks  without  even  a 
fringe  of  wood;  on  the  other  side  the  hills  of  Illinois,  faced  with  limestone  in  bold  masses 
of  various  hues  and  the  summits  crowned  with  trees;  pursuing  these  hills  to  the  north, 
we  see,  at  the  distance  of  twenty  miles,  where  the  Illinois  separates  them  in  his  course  to 
the  Mississippi.  To  the  left  we  behold  the  ocean  of  prairie  with  islets  at  intervals,  the 
whole  extent  perfectly  level,  covered  with  long  waving  grass,  and  at  every  moment  chang- 
ing color,  from  the  shadows  cast  by  the  passing  clouds.  In  some  places  there  stands  a 
solitary  tree  of  cottonwood  or  walnut,  of  enormous  size,  but  from  the  distance  diminished 
to  a  shrub.  A  hundred  thousand  acres  of  the  finest  land  are  under  the  eye  at  once,  and  yet 
on  all  this  space  there  is  but  one  little  cultivated  spot  to  be  seen.  The  eyes  at  last  satiated 
with  this  beautiful  scene,  the  mind  in  turn  expatiates  on  the  improvements  of  which  it  is 
susceptible,  and  creative  fancy  adorns  it  with  happy  dwellings  and  richly  cultivated  fields. 
The  situation  in  the  vicinity  of  these  great  rivers,  the  fertility  of  the  soil,  a  garden  spot, 
must  one  day  yield  nourishment  to  a  multitude  of  beings.  The  bluffs  are  abundantly  supplied 
with  the  purest  water;  those  rivulets  and  rills  which  at  present,  unable  to  reach  the  father 
of  waters,  lose  themselves  in  lakes  and  marshes,  will  be  guided  by  the  hand  of  man  into 
channels  fitted  for  their  reception,  and  for  his  pleasure  and  felicity. 

The  scientists  devoted  a  great  deal  of  time  to  the  Indian  mounds  of  St. 
Louis.  They  located  twenty-seven  along  a  line  leading  north  of  the  city  and 
on  what  they  called  the  second  bank  of  the  river.  Each  of  these  mounds  was 
measured  with  care.  Several  of  them  were  from  four  feet  to  five  feet  in 
height.  The  largest  was  thirty-four  feet  high.  Some  were  round ;  others  square 
or  oblong.  Some  were  arranged  to  form  a  partial  enclosure.  Several  were  in 
a  curve.  On  the  Illinois  side  of  the  river,  within  five  miles  from  the  river 
bank  opposite  St.  Louis,  the  scientists  found  seventy-five  of  these  mounds. 
Long's  expedition  reported  on  them: 

Tumuli  and  other  remains  of  the  labors  of  nations  of  Indians  that  inhabited  this 
region  many  ages  since  are  remarkably  numerous  about  St.  Louis.  Those  tumuli  imme- 
diately north  of  the  town,  and  within  a  short  distance  of  it,  are  twenty-seven  in  number, 
of  various  forms  and  magnitudes,  arranged  nearly  in  a  line  from  north  to  south.  The  common 
form  is  an  oblong  square,  and  they  all  stand  on  the  second  bank  of  the  river.  It  seems  prob- 
able that  these  piles  of  earth  were  raised  as  cemeteries,  or  they  may  have  supported  altars 
for  religious  ceremonies.  We  cannot  conceive  any  usful  purpose  to  which  they  can  have 
been  applicable  in  war,  unless  as  elevated  stations  from  which  to  observe  the  motions 
of  an  approaching  enemy;  but  for  this  purpose  a  single  mound  would  have  been  sufficient, 
and  the  place  chosen  would  probably  have  been  different.  We  opened  five  of  them,  but 
in  only  one  were  we  fortunate  in  finding  anything,  and  all  that  this  contained  was  a  solitary 
tooth  of  a  species  of  rat,  together  with  the  vertebrae  and  ribs  of  a  serpent  of  moderate 
size,  and  in  good  preservation.  But  whether  the  animal  had  been  buried  by  the  natives  or  had 
perished  there,  after  having  found  admittance  through  some  hole,  we  could  not  determine. 

Every  St.  Louisan  of  scientific  bent  liked  to  talk  about  the  mounds.  Every 
tourist  visited  them  and  wrote  of  them  as  being  the  greatest  of  natural  curios- 
ities. Edmund  Flagg  found  in  them  not  only  the  field  for  investigation  but  the 
opportunity  for  the  preservation  of  a  most  attractive  civic  feature.  He  wrote: 

They  stand  isolated,  or  distinct  from  each  other,  in  groups;  and  the  outline  is  gen- 
erally that  of  a  rectangular  pyramid,  truncated  nearly  one-half.  The  first  collection  orig- 
inally consisted  of  ten  tumuli  arranged  as  three  sides  of  a  square  area  of  about  four 


THE  CULTURE   OF   ST.   LOUIS  643 

acres,  and  the  open  flank  to  the  west  was  guarded  by  five  other  small  circular  earth- 
heaps,  isolated  and  forming  the  segment  of  a  circle  around  the  opening.  This  group  is 
now  almost  completely  destroyed  by  the  grading  of  streets  and  the  erection  of  edifices, 
and  the  eastern  border  may  alone  be  traced.  North  of  the  first  collection  of  tumuli  is  a 
second,  four  or  five  in  number,  and  forming  two  sides  of  a  square.  Among  these  is  one 
of  a  very  beautiful  form,  consisting  of  three  stages,  and  called  the  ' '  falling  garden. ' '  Its 
elevation  above  the  level  of  the  second  plateau  is  about  four  feet,  and  the  area  is  ample  for  a 
dwelling  or  yard.  From  the  second  it  descends  to  the  first  plateau  along  the  river  by 
three  regular  gradations,  the  first  with  a  descent  of  two  feet,  the  second  of  ten,  and 
the  lower  one  of  five,  each  stage  presenting  a  beautiful  site  for  a  house.  For  this  pur- 
pose, however,  they  can  never  be  appropriated,  as  one  of  the  principal  streets  of  the  city 
is  destined  to  pass  directly  through  the  spot,  the  grading  for  which  has  already  com- 
menced. The  third  group  of  mounds  is  situated  a  few  hundred  yards  above  the  second, 
and  consists  of  about  a  dozen  eminences.  A  series  extends  along  the  west  side  of  the 
street,  through  the  grounds  attached  to  a  classic  edifice  of  brick,  which  occupies  the  prin- 
cipal one;  while  opposite  rise  several  of  a  larger  size,  upon  one  of  which  is  situated  the 
residence  of  General  Ashley,  and  upon  another  the  reservoir  which  supplies  the  city  with 
water,  raised  from  the  Mississippi  by  a  steam  force  pump  upon  its  banks.  Both  are  beauti- 
ful spots  embowered  in  forest  trees;  and  the  former,  from  its  size  and  structure,  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  a  citadel  or  place  of  defense.  In  excavating  the  earth  of  this  mound, 
large  quantities  of  human  remains,  pottery,  half-burned  wood,  were  thrown  up,  furnish- 
ing conclusive  evidence,  were  any  requisite  further  than  regularity  of  outline  and  relative 
position,  of  the  artificial  origin  of  these  earth  heaps.  About  six  hundred  yards  above  this 
group,  and  linked  with  it  by  several  inconsiderable  mounds,  is  situated  one  completely 
isolated,  and  larger  than  any  yet  described.  It  is  upward  of  thirty  feet  in  height,  about 
one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  long,  and  upon  the  summit  five  feet  wide.  The  form  is  oblong, 
resembling  an  immense  grave;  and  a  broad  terrace  or  apron,  after  a  descent  of  a  few 
feet,  spreads  out  itself  on  the  side  looking  down  upon  the  river.  From  the  extensive  view 
of  the  surrounding  region  and  of  the  Mississippi,  commanded  by  the  site  of  this  mound,  as 
well  as  its  altitude,  it  is  supposed  to  have  been  intended  as  a  vidette  or  watch  tower  by 
its  builders. 

From  the  Big  Mound,  as  it  is  called,  a  cordon  of  tumuli  stretch  away  to  the  north- 
west for  several  miles  along  the  bluffs  parallel  with  the  river,  a  noble  view  of  which  they 
command.  They  are  most  of  them  ten  or  twelve  feet  high;  many  clothed  with  forest  trees, 
and  all  of  them  supposed  to  be  tombs.  In  removing  two  of  them  upon  the  grounds  of 
Colonel  O 'Fallen,  immense  quantities  of  bones  were  exhumed.  It  is  evident  from  these  monu- 
ments of  a  former  generation  that  the  natural  advantages  of  the  site  upon  which  St.  Louis 
now  stands  were  not  unappreciated  long  before  it  was  pressed  by  the  European  footsteps. 

It  is  a  circumstance  which  has  often  elicited  remark  from  those,  who  as  tourists  have 
visited  St.  Louis,  that  so  little  interest  should  be  manifested  by  its  citizens  for  those  mys- 
terious and  venerable  monuments  of  another  race  by  which  on  every  side  it  is  environed. 
When  we  consider  the  complete  absence  of  everything  in  the  character  of  a  public  square 
or  promenade  in  the  city,  one  would  suppose  that  individual  taste  and  municipal  authority 
would  not  have  failed  to  avail  themselves  of  the  moral  interest  attached  to  these  mounds 
and  the  beauty  of  their  site,  to  have  formed  in  their  vicinity  one  of  the  most  attractive  spots  in 
the  west.  These  ancient  tumuli  could,  at  no  considerable  expense,  have  been  enclosed  and 
ornamented  with  shrubbery,  and  walks,  and  flowers,  and  thus  preserved  for  coming  genera- 
tions. As  it  is,  they  are  passing  rapidly  away;  man  and  beast,  as  well  as  the  elements,  are 
busy  with  them,  and  in  a  few  years  they  will  have  disappeared.  The  practical  utility  of 
which  they  are  available  appears  the  only  circumstance  which  has  attracted  attention  to  them. 
One  has  already  become  a  public  reservoir,  and  measures  are  in  progress  for  applying  the 
larger  mound  to  a  similar  use,  the  first  being  insufficient  for  the  growth  of  the  city. 

Public  sentiment  in  favor  of  preservation  of  the  Big  Mound  became  active 
at  one  time.  The  movement  contemplated  the  transfer  of  title  to  the  city. 
There  were  several  owners.  It  was  proposed  to  have  transformed,  into  a 


644  ST.   LOUIS,    THE    FOURTH    CITY 

public  garden  or  park,  three  or  four  blocks  of  ground,  the  central  part  of  which 
would  be  the  Big  Mound.  Upon  the  Mound  was  to  be  constructed  a  pavilion. 
A  committee  of  public-spirited  citizens  undertook  to  secure  the  transfer  of  the 
land  to  the  city.  A.  B.  Chambers,  editor  of  the  Missouri  Republican,  was  one 
of  the  foremost  advocates  of  the  plan.  Mr.  Benoist  was  the  owner  of  a  con- 
siderable part  of  the  ground  desired.  The  committee  waited  upon  him  and 
presented  the  arguments  in  favor  of  the  Big  Mound  park.  Mr.  Benoist  de- 
clined to  transfer  his  part  to  the  city.  The  movement  was  abandoned. 

After  three  generations  of  scientists  had  made  much  in  the  way  of  specu- 
lation about  the  mounds  of  St.  Louis  and  vicinity,  there  came  geologists  who 
studied  the  soil  and  the  rocks  and  advanced  natural  theories  to  account  for 
most  of  these  landmarks.  Away  back,  in  the  ages  when  the  Mississippi  Valley 
was  being  formed,  there  was  drift  clay  and  loess,  these  later  scientists  said, 
covering  St.  Louis  and  the  valley  roundabout  so  that  the  surface  was  from 
fifty  to  sixty  feet  above  the  present  level.  Loess  is  almost  anything  ground 
up  tolerably  fine.  As  the  great  rivers  wore  out  their  channels  and  diminished 
in  volume  through  the  ages  they  left  many  elevations  in  and  around  St.  Louis 
"locally  known  as  'mounds,'  the  formation  of  which  has  generally  been  referred 
to  human  agency."  The  quotation  is  from  Worthen  of  the  Illinois  geological 
survey,  whose  theory  has  been  accepted  widely  by  latter  day  geologists.  Sup- 
port to  this  theory  is  given  in  a  thesis  by  Henri  Hus  upon  whom  Washington 
University  in  1908  conferred  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy.  Worthen 
said  further  of  these  mounds: 

These  elevations  vary  in  height  from  ten  to  sixty  feet  and  more  above  the  level  of 
the  surrounding  bottom,  and  when  carefully  examined  are  found  to  consist  of  drift  clay 
and  loess,  remaining  in  situ  just  as  they  appear  along  the  river  bluffs,  where  similar  mounda 
have  been  formed  in  the  same  way  by  the  removal  of  the  surrounding  strata  by  currents  of 
water.  We  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing  a  good  section  of  the  large  mound  in  the  upper 
part  of  the  city  of  St.  Louis  exposed  by  digging  into  the  upper  end  of  the  mound  for 
material  to  be  used  in  filling  adjacent  lots.  It  was  found  to  consist  of  about  fifteen  feet  of 
common  chocolate  brown  drift  clay,  the  base  of  which  was  overlaid  by  thirty  feet  or  more  of 
ash-colored  marly  sands  of  the  loess,  the  line  of  separation  between  the  two  deposits  remaining 
as  distinct  and  well  defined  as  they  usually  are  in  good  artificial  sections  of  the  railroad 
cuts  through  these  deposits. 

The  professor  concluded,  ruthlessly  disposing  of  the  theories  and  discus- 
sions of  the  generations  of  scientists  who  had  measured  and  dug  into  and 
described  these  prehistoric  landmarks : 

Hence,  we  infer  that  these  mounds  are  not  artificial  elevations  raised  by  the  aborig- 
inal inhabitants  of  the  country,  as  has  been  assumed  by  antiquarians  generally,  but  on  the 
contrary  they  are  simply  outliers  of  loess  and  drift,  that  have  remained  as  originally  de- 
posited, while  the  surrounding  contemporaneous  strata  were  swept  away  by  denuding 
forces.  They  are  not  found  to  occupy  any  fixed  relative  position  in  relation  to  each  other, 
or  to  have  any  regularity  of  size  or  elevation,  and  hence  antiquarians  appear  to  have 
inferred  that  they  were  raised  simply  to  serve  as  burial  places  for  the  dead.  But  the 
simple  fact  that  they  were  used  for  this  purpose  by  the  aborigines,  which  seems  to  be  the 
main  argument  relied  on  as  proof  of  their  artificial  origin,  seems  to  me  entirely  inadequate 
to  sustain  such  a  conclusion,  and  they  were  perhaps  only  selected  by  them  for  this  pur- 
pose on  account  of  their  elevated  position,  for  the  same  reason  that  they  selected  the  highest 
point  of  a  bluff  in  preference  to  any  lower  point,  to  serve  as  the  last  resting  place  for  the 
earthly  bodies  of  their  relatives  and  fri